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After a cataclysm which has destroyed in battle seven and a half million men and set civilization back at least a life time the world ought to be interested in the scientific study of human relatons Sociology was young what time the World War was in
ating, but it is a satisfaction to recall her unregarded ce was ever lifted in protest against the dance toward the ass. Nowhere in Europe was she so contemned as in Germany, where her few champions in the Universities were utterly browbeaten by the arrogant professors of Staatswissenschaften.
Sociologists follow the methods of Science but they are by no means content to seek Knowledge for her own sake. They are
adamed to avow an over-mastering purpose and that is to better human relations. They confess that they are studying how to lessen the confusion, strife and mutual destruction among men and to promote harmony and team work. A quaint idea - but after watching civilized humanity tear at its vitals for four and a quarter years one wonders if there may not be something in it!
The sociologists have been taken in by none of the evil doctrines which have brought the world to its present desperate right. On the other hand, they listen with patience to those who really have at heart the amelioration of man's lot, but they accert no panacea. They do not pin their hopes of social progress to putting "God" in the Constitution, Sabbath protection, protion, collective bargaining, single tax on land values, syndicalm, public ownership, or guild socialism. Knowing that humanity must advance along many roads they keep their program
This book I am offering has been a slow growth. Seventeen ars have elapsed since I laid out the chapter scheme and began tecting material for it. It contains a system of sociology, i.e., "e parts are fitted to one another and taken together they are inte led to cover the field; but I do not put it forward as the sysWhile it is that organization of knowledge about society hh helps me the most, no doubt other equally valid systems are
possible. True systems will, of course, not contradict one another, but they may differ in perspective. Sociologists equally sound may differ as to which truths deserve the foreground and which should be relegated to the background. A system is a way of making some aspect of reality intelligible, and we differ as to how to present social reality so as to make it intelligible for the most people. In time sociology will discover, as the older sciences have done, the best perspective for exhibiting its results. Then the systems of sociologists will come into closer agreement.
This book aims to light up the major problems of society at the stage of development which has been reached in about a third of the human race. It is, of course, a pleasure to understand human relations just as it is a pleasure to understand the motions of the planets even though we cannot influence them. But this book is furthermore intended to help people arrive at wise decisions as to social policies. The will of enlightened man is so bent on directing, or, at least, influencing, the course of society, moreover the possibilities of social amelioration are so tempting, that the chief object in explaining society is to help people determine the best thing to do.
While the emotions supply much of the driving force behind social betterment, and while moral indignation and moral enthusiasm are among the more powerful beneficent emotions, I have given as little characterization as possible to the conduct or conditions I describe. I have sought to explain rather than to praise or blame; so that in my description of the most sinister and detestable social phenomena I preserve an objectivity which I hope the reader will not mistake for indifference.
I wish to acknowledge my debt to Miss Sidney Horsley (now Mrs. Clin Ingraham) for valuable aid in gathering materials for this volume.
Madison, Wisconsin, April, 1920.
EDWARD ALSWORTH ROSs.
Sensational lowering of the death rate, 30. How
fast population can grow, 31. Malthus's discov-
ery, 31. Origin of man's excess of fecundity, 32.
Malthus at par again, 33. The fall in the birth
rate, 33. Its causes, 34. Social control of fecun-
dity, 35. National control of immigration inevita-
IV THE ORIGINAL SOCIAL FORCES.
Misconceptions, 41. Human instincts the original
social forces, 42. Repression or gratification? 43.
Social manifestations of the fighting instinct, 44.
The gregarious instinct, 45. The parental instinct,
46. Curiosity, 47. The instinct of self-expres-
sion, 47. Bootless repression, 47. How modern
Roots of the economic interest, 51. Fluctuations
in the value of wealth, 52. What makes wealth
appreciate, 53. Or depreciate, 54. Roots of the
religious interest, 54. Ups and downs of religion
55. Roots of the political interest, 55. Its fluc
tuations, 56. Roots of the intellectual interest, 56
Race or social history? 59. Differences in race
psyche, 60. The "Celtic" temperament, 62. Ra
cial differences in brain power, 63. Luck and his
tory, 64. Policies which affect race balance, 64
Dangers in the recognition of race inequality, 66
VII THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT
Climate and human energy, 67. Climate and poli
tics, 68. Religion and environment, 69. Sex re
lations and environment, 70. Nature and govern
ment, 71. Is the power of environment growing
Dispersal and social differentiation of man, 78
Assimilation by the physical environment, 80. By
occupation and mode of life, 81. By common ele
ments of culture, 82. The coming social synthesi
By multiplication, 86. By congregation, 88. By
conjugation, 89. Alliance, 90. Conquest, 90. So
cial results of conquest, 92. Kinds of societies, 93