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vicissim [acc. adv., same root as|vīginti [†dvi (of duo) + unc. form, vicis], adv., alternately, in turn. victima, -ae, f., a victim. victor, -ōris, [ √vic (of vinco) + tor], m., a victor, a conqueror. As adj., victorious, triumphant. vietōria, -ae, [†victoria], f., victory, triumph, success. victricia, see victrix. victrix, -icis, [√vie (in vinco) +trix], f., a conqueror (female). -Also, as adj. in f. and n., victorious, conquering, of victory; also, successful.

cf. triginta], indecl. adj., twenty. vigor, ōris, [√vig (in vigeo) + or], m., activity, vigor, strength, force.

vilis, -e, [?], adj., cheap, poor. | villa, -ae, [?], f., a farm-house. villōsus, -a, -um, [tvillŏ- (re

victus, -a, -um, p.p. of vinco. vietus, -ūs, [root of vivo (wh, see) +tus], m., a living, a sustenance, support (of life), food: facilis victu gens (gaining an easy subsistence).

viděn', see video and ne. videó, vidi, visum, videre,[†vido(cf. providus)], 2. v. a. and n., see (with the eye or mind).—Pass., be seen, seem, appear; -esp., seem best, seem good, be determined. Also, see (experience), live to see, meet.-videns, -ēntis, p., seeing, awake, with the eyes open. - See also visum.

viduātus, -a, -um, p.p. of viduo. viduo, -āvi, -ätum, -äre, [†viduo

(of viduus)], 1. v. a., deprive, rob, strip.-viduātus, -a, -um, pp. as adj., destitute, free from. vigeō, no perf., no sup., -ere, [†vi

go- (cf. vigil)], 2. v. n., thrive, flourish, be in vigor, be powerful, gain strength.

vigil, -ilis, [†vigŏ- (wh. vigeo) + lis], adj., wakeful, awake, watchful, sleepless, unsleeping. — Fig., also of things. As subst., a watchman, a sentinel, a guard: vigilum excubiae (posts of sentinels). vigilantia, -ae, [†vigilant +ia], f., watchfulness.

vigilō, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†vigil-], I. v. n. and a., be awake, wake, ke up, watch. - With acc., look ", watch for.

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duced)+osus], adj., shaggy, hairy. villus, -1, [?, cf. vellus], m., a coarse hair, hair (of animals), a fleece (plur.), wool (coarse). vimen, -inis, [√vi (in vieo) + men], n., a twig (flexible), osier. - Also, a shoot.

vimineus, -a, -um,[†vimin+eus], adj., of wicker, plaited, woven. vincio, vinxi, vinctum, vincire, [prob, akin to vinco through adj.stem], 4. v. a., bind, tie up. Esp. of garlands, twine, encircle. Fig., of wine, tie, hamper: lin


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vinclum, see vinculum. vinco, vici, victum, vincere, [vic, of unc. kin.], 3. v. a. and n. Of battle, conquer, defeat, subdue. Also, of rivalry, surpass, outvie, conquer, excel, gain one's point, beat, prevail; -so: ea vincam verbis (master); fata (outlive). Also, of things, overcome, outlast, prevail against, wear out, rise above. - With cogn. acc.: hoc vincite (gain this victory).—victus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., conquered, broken, shattered. vinctus, -a, -um, p.p. of vincio. vinculum, -1, [as if †vincò- (akin to vincio) +lum], n., a bond, a fetter, a band, a shoc-lacing, a strap, a thong. Fig., a bond, an obligation, a binding force, a tie (esp. of marriage).

vindemia, -ae,[†vino-†demia (lost stem akin to demo, cf. praemium)], f., a vintage. — Also, concretely (as in Eng.), the vintage, crop of grapes, grapes.

vindicō, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [†vindic- (of unc. orig.)], I. v. a., set free, release.

vīnētum, -ī, [†vinŏ- (reduced) + | vireo, no perf., no sup., virēre,

etum, cf. dumetum], n., a vineyard. vineus, -a, -um, [†vinŏ- (reduced) +eus], adj., of vines.—Fem. (some noun omitted), a vineyard. vinitor, -ōris, [†vino + tor, cf. viator], m., a vine-dresser, a vinepruner.

vinum, -ī, [poss. borrowed, cf. olvos,

but cf. vitis and vieo], n., wine. viola, -ae, [†viŏ- (akin to lov)+la], f., a violet (probably several kinds of flowers more or less like our violets).

violābilis, -e, [†violā- (of violo)

+ bilis], adj., to be violated. violārium, -i (-iî), [†viola+arium (n. of -arius)], n., a bed of violets, a violet-bed.

violentia, -ae, [†violent + ia], f.,

violence, fury, ferocity. violentus, -a, -um, [?, perh. akin to vis, perh. to violo], adj., violent, ferocious, boisterous, rapid. violō, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [?, poss. | akin to vis (cf. violentus), poss. to viola (cf. μiaívw, and see below)], I. v. a., do violence to, outrage (lit.), injure, mar, ravage. Also, profane, sully, stain (fig.), violate, outrage (fig.).—Also, stain (imitating alvw, but perh. orig. sense).

vipera, -ae, [†vivŏ- (or stem akin) -para (akin to pario), cf. puerpera], f., a viper, a snake. vipereus, -a, -um, [†vipera- (reduced) + eus], adj., of snakes, snaky; -venomous, poisonous. vir, viri, [?, cf. Sk. viras, hero], m., a hero, a man (opposed to woman), a husband. Also, of animals, the male, the leader, the lord. virāgō, -inis, [†vir (as if virā-, cf. imago) + go], f., a masculine woman, a virago: Iuturna (the "Amazon" Juturna). Virbius, -1, [?], m., a name of Hippolytus. Also of his son, an ally of Turnus. virectum, see viretum.

[†viro- (cf. viridis)], 2. v. n., be green, flourish, grow, put forth leaves. virēsco, no perf., no sup., virēscere, [virē- (of vireo) + sco], 3. v. n., grow green, be green. virētum (-ectum), -i, [n. p.p. of vireo], n., a grassy spot, a green thicket.

virga, -ae,[?, perh. √/vir (in vireo), perh. virg (cf. Sk. vrj)], f., a shoot, a twig, a sapling, a rod, a wand.

virgātus, -a, -um, [†virga + tus, cf. auratus], adj., striped. virgeus, -a, -um, [†virga- (reduced) + eus], adj., of twigs, of shoots, osier.

virgineus, -a, -um,[†virgin+eus], adj., of a maiden, maiden, maidenly.

virginitās, -ātis, [†virgin- (as if virgini-) + tas], f., maidenhood, virginity, chastity.

virgo, -inis, [stem akin to virga

+o, cf. propago], f., a maiden, a maid, a virgin. - Esp., the Virgin, Astrea, or Justice, who lived on the earth in the golden age, but fled to heaven in the more corrupt ages.

virgultum, -i,[†virgula-(reduced)
tum (cf. salictum)], n., a
viridāns, -āntis, [p. of virido, fr.
tviridi-], adj., green.

viridis, -e, [†viro- (wh. vireo) +
dus (weakened)], adj., green :
Aegyptus (clad in verdure, flow-
ery, blooming); litus (grassy);
antrum (mossy); umbra (leafy).
-Fig., green, fresh, vigorous.
virilis, -e, [†virŏ- (of vir) + ilis],
adj., manly, masculine, heroic,

virōsus, -a, -um, [†virŏ-(reduced) +osus], adj., odorous, fetid. virtūs, -ūtis, [†viro- (reduced) + tus], f., manliness, manhood, brav ery, heroism, courage, virtue, excellence. More concretely, a virtue,

life, vital.

viteus, -a, -um, [†viti- (reduced) +eus], adj., of the vine: pocula (of wine).

a good quality mea virtus (con- | vītālis, -e, [†vita + lis], adj., of sciousness of virtue); socium virtus omnis (valiant souls). virus, -1, [unc. root, cf. Sk. vishas, lós, perh. akin to viola], n., poison, venom: lentum distillat ab inguine (an excretion). vis, vis, [?, cf. is], f. sing., power, strength, might, virtue, effectiveness. Also, force, violence.-Plur., strength (usually active, cf. robur), power, force, energy, might, ability, vigor, powers, forces: vim viribus exit (escapes violence by main force); vires occultae (a secret virtue). — Also, a multitude, a quantity.

viscum, -i, [?, poss. akin to virus, from its slimy, sticky nature], n.,


viscus, -eris, (generally plur.), [?], n., the flesh (or soft parts inside the skin), the inwards, the body (as opposed to the skin and bones).

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Esp., the viscera (the lungs, liver, &c., used for divination), the entrails. Less exactly and fig., as in Eng., bowels (of a mountain), the vitals (of one's country). visō, visi, visum, visere, [old desiderative for vividso, from vid (in video), reduplicated with -so, (akin to Gr. fut. ending)], 3. v. a., go to see, visit. Less exactly, examine, see.

visum, -1, [n. p.p. of video], n., a sight, a spectacle, a portent, a prodigy.


visus, -a, -um, p.p. of video. visus, -ūs, [√vid (of video) + tus], m., the sight (power or act of seeing, cf. visum), vision, the gaze, a look. Also, a sight, an Also, appearance, aspect. Abl. as supine of video, wh. see. vita, -ae, [root or stem of vivo + ta], f., life (existence, also the con ditions of life, nature), life (the vital principle), the breath of life, the vital spark; - hence, the soul, the shade, a spirit.— Also, a mode of life, life (course, history of life).

vitiōsus, -a, -um, [†vitiŏ- (re-
duced) + osus], adj., faulty, blem-
ished, unsound: ilex (decaying).
vitis, -is, [√vi (of vieo) + tis],
f., a vine (esp. of the grape).
-Less exactly, grapes.
vitisator, -ōris, [†viti-sator], m.,
a vine-planter.

vitium, -i (-ii), n., a flaw, a blem-
ish, a defect. Also, an injurious
principle (of the earth or air):
terrae; aeris(effect).—vitiō, abl.,
by the fault of, through the influ-
ence of, caused by.

vīto, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [?], 1.v. a., avoid, shun.

vitreus, -a, -um, [†vitro (re

duced) + eus], adj., glassy, seagreen (the color of glass). vitta, -ae, [akin to vieo], f., a fillet, a band. Esp. as worn in sacred observances, and by suppliants, wound around sacred objects, and hung on the hands or on the olive-branches carried as signs of supplication.

vitula, -ae, [?, f. of vitulus], f., a

vitulus, -i, [?, akin to traλos, perh.
to vetus, as yearling, cf. TOS],
m., a bullock.
vivax, -ācis, [stem of vivo (re-

duced) + ax, cf. capax], adj.,
long-lived, enduring.

vividus, -a, -um, [†vivŏ (of vi

vus)+ dus], adj., lively, vigorous, active. Also, fig. in same senses. vivo, vixi, victum, vivere, [ √✅/viv (orig. form unc., but with a g, cf. quick, and Sk. √jiv), cf. Bíos], 3. v. n., live, be alive, pass one's life. Also, subsist, live (on anything). Also, of things, live, remain, grow, keep alive: vitium tegendo (thrive); sub pectore vulnus; stuppa (as being on fire).- Esp. in imperat., may you

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live, farewell, I wish you well, adieu.

vivus, -a, -um, [√/viv (in vivo) +us, cf. quick], adj., alive, living: vivus per ora feretur (undying); SO : vultus (living, made like life). — Also, of plants, living, growing. Also, of things as partaking of the life of nature, living,natural, flowing, perennial, solid (of rock): sulphura (native). As subst., the living, living creatures. Phrase: ad vivum, to the quick. vix [?], adv., with difficulty, hardly, scarcely. Also, of time, hardly,

just, no sooner (with a new incident immediately following). vocātus, -a, -um, p.p. of voco. vocatus, -ūs, [†voca- (of voco) + tus], m., a call, a demand, a request, an invocation, a prayer. vociferor, -ātus, -ārī, [lost †vocifero- fr. †voc, of vox (as if voci-) -fer], 1. v. dep., cry out, shout, cry, exclaim. With the words in direct discourse.

voco, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†vocă(vocus, cf. aequivocus)], I. v. a. and n., call (in every shade of invitation and command), call to, call for, pray for, call upon, invoke, pray to, invite, summon, call together, rally, call by name, speak of, proclaim, direct: ad poenam (bring to justice); in artes (of trees, try to turn, demand of them); me ad fata (ask to share); pugnas (proclaim); cornix pluviam (as if the bird had power to bring it); ventis vocatis (having invoked the winds, but also of Mercury, summon); concilium (convene). — Also, of things more or less personified, call, summon, challenge, rival, bid to go, direct, demand, await: Zephyri; Cithaeron; ipsa res (bid); lux ultima (summon); aurae vela (invite); cursus vela (direct); cursum ventus (guide). -Esp., call (by name), name.

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volaema, -ae, [tvola- (palm of the hand)], f., name of a large kind of pears. volatilis, -e, (†volato- (p.p. of volo) + lis], adj., flying, winged. - Poetically, of missiles. Volcēns, -entis, [?], m., a Latin. volēma, see volaema, the better authenticated reading.

volitō, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [as if ivolito- (supposed p.p. of volo), cf. domito], I. v. n., flit about, fly to and fro, flit, fly abroad, fly.

Less exactly, rush to and fro: milite Volsci (scour the fields); victor volitare per ora (y). — Of things, float, whirl, fly: turbo (spin). -volitāns, -äntis, p. as subst., an insect. volņus, see vulnus. volo, volui, no sup., velle, [√/vol, akin to Bouλouai and Sk. vr], irr. v. a. (with obj. implied), wish, will, be willing, consent, allow, choose, design: hunc laetum diem esse velis (graciously make). -Also, (wish for one's self), intend, purpose, have in view, mean.

With acc. and inf., claim, will have it that. - volēns, -entis, p. as adj., propitious, gracious, willing, cheerful, glad.

volỗ, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [?], I. v. n., fly, fly about, flit.- Less exactly and fig., fly (as in Eng.), whirl along, skim, rush, speed, dart, be hurled, be flung, wave, shoot (of stars), roll up (of smoke, &c.). — volāns, -antis, p. as subst., flying creatures, winged creatures, birds. Volscēns, see Volcens. Volscus, -a, -um, [?], adj., of the

Volsci (a people of Latium, between the Pomptine marshes and Campania, who waged a stubborn warfare against the Romans, but were finally conquered about B.C. 325), Volscian. - Plur. as subst., the Volsci (the people themselves), the Volscians. volubilis, -e, [†volvi- (of volvo) + bilis], adj., whirling.

volucer (-cris), -cris, -cre, [†volo(cf. velivolus) + cris, cf. fludicro-], adj., flying, winged.— Less exactly, flying, rapid, fleet, winged (fig.).—Also, fleeting: Somnus. -Fem. (rarely m.) as subs., a winged creature, a bird. volumen, -inis, [†volvi- (of volvo) + men], n., a roll, a coil, a fold, a band (wound around). Less exactly, a joint (the folding of the legs). voluntas, -ätis, [†volent- (earlier volont-, of volens)+tas], f., wish, will, desire, pleasure (desire). voluptās, -ātis,[†volupi-(reduced, cf. volup) + tas], f., pleasure, delight, enjoyment, joy.-Concretely, as in Eng., of the source of delight. Volusus, -i, [?], m., a Rutulian. volūtābrum, -i, [†volutā- (of voluto) + brum], n., a wallow, a slough. volūtō, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [†voluto- (cf. volvo)], I. v. a. and n., roll. Less exactly, roll back, send | echoing, make echo, echo, make resound.- Esp. with reflexive (or without) and in pass., roll, writhe.

- Fig., revolve, turn over, ponder, meditate.


volūtus, -a, -um, p.p. of volvo. volvo, volvi, volūtum, volvere, [volv, cf. ¿xów], 3. v. a. and n. Act., roll. Pass. (as middle), be rolled, roll: volvitur Euryalus leto (writhe); — and fig., turn over, revolve (in the mind), ponder: sub pectore sortem. of the eyes, turn, roll. — Also, in pass., rarely act., of regular revolution, revolve, run round, roll round: volvitur annus (roll round); volvenda dies; volvuntur sidera (are gliding on); casus (run the round of); vices (turn on, roll on); saecula (of an oak, live the round of).—Generally with motion onwards, roll on, roll down; - pass., also, pour, glide, wind: volvimur undis (are tossed); volvunt ad litora fluctus

(of the winds); lacrimae volvuntur inanes(pour down, are shed); incendia aestus (the fire rolling brings the heat, &c.); lapis volutus (whirling); sic volvere Parcas (turn the wheel of destiny); rotam volvere per annos (run the round); - esp., unroll (of a scroll): arcana; monimenta (unroll, study). — Also, roll up, roll forth, pour forth, send forth, send rolling up;-pass. as mid.: ignis ad fastigia volvitur; saxa (of Etna); sub naribus ignem equus (breathe forth); volvitur ater odor tectis (pour through, from the fire). Also, roll over, throw headlong, send whirling, throw rolling, precipitate, go whirling (pass.). Also, intrans., roll, revolve.

vōmis (võmer), -eris, [?], m., a ploughshare.

vomo, -ui, -itum, -ere, [

[√vom, akin to uéw, Sk. vam], 3. v. a. and n., vomit, vomit forth, belch forth, throw up, send forth, emit.

vorāgo, -inis, [†vorā- (of voro)

+go, prob. through intermediate stem, cf. imago], f., an abyss, a whirlpool, a vortex, a yawning chasm.

voro, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†vorò(cf. omnivorus), akin to Biẞpúσкw, Sk. Vgar], 1. v. a., devour. - Fig., of the sea, swallow up, engulf.

vortex, see vertex. vōsmet, see tu. võtum, see voveo. võtus, -a, -um, p.p. of voveo. voveo, võvi, võtum, vovēre, [?], I. v. a., vow, devote, dedicate.võtus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., vowed (promised in a vow), votive.Neut. as subst., a vow, a prayer (usually accompanied by a vow).

Also, a votive offering (the thing vowed). vōx, võcis, [√voc (in voco, etc.) as stem (akin to eros and Sk.

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