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whose depredations have been most measure which, even in time of injurious, have been built, and some universal peace, ought not to be of them partially equipped, in the neglected, I recommend to your United Siates. Although an effec- confideration à revision of the laws tual remedy may be attended with for organizing, arming, and discidifficulty, yet I have thought it my plining the militia, to render that duty to present the subject general- natural and safe defence of the ly to your consideration. It'a mode country efficacious. Although it can be devited by the wisdom of is very true that we ought not to Congress, to prevent the resources involve ourselves in the political of the United States from being system of Europe, but to keep ourconverted into the means of annoy- selves always distinct and separate ing our trade, a great evil will be from it if we can; yet to effect this prevented. With the same view separation, early, punctual, and conI think it proper to mention that tinual information of the current some of our citizens resident abroad, chain of events, and of the political have fitted out privateers, and o- projects in contemplation, is no less thers have voluntarily taken the necessary than if we were directly command, or entered on board of concerned in them. It is necessary, thein, and committed spoliations in order to the discovery of the efon the commerce of the United forts made to draw us into the vorStates. . Such unnatural and ini- tex, in season to make preparation quitous practices can be restrained against them. However we may only by levere punishments. consider ourselves, the maritime

But besides a protection of our and commercial powers of the world commerce on the feas, I think it will consider the United States of highly necessary to protect it at America as forming a weight in home, where it is collected in our that balance of power in Europe, most important ports. The dif- which never can be forgotten or tance of the United States from neglected. It would not only be Europe, and the well-known against our intereft, but it would be promptitude, ardour, and courage doing wrong to one half of Europe of the people in defence of their at least, if we fhould voluntarily country, happily diminish the pro- throw ourselves into either scale. bability of invasion : nevertheless, It is a natural policy for a nation to guard against sudden and preda- that studies to be neutral, to contory incursions, the situation of some fult with other nations engaged in of our principal sea-ports deinands the same studies and pursuits : at your confideration; and as our coun- the same time that measures might try is vulnerable in other interests be pursued with this view, our treabesides those of its commerce, you ties with Prussia and Sweden, one will seriously deliberate, whether of which is expired, might be rethe means of general defence ought newed. not to be increased, by an addition to the regular artillery and cavalry,

Gentlemen of the House of and by arrangements for forming a

Representatives, provisional army.

It is particularly your province to With the same view, and as a conlider the state of our public finances, and to adopt such measures surrendering themselves to the dia respecting them, as exigencies shall rećtion of foreign and domestic facbe found to require; the preserva- tions, in opposition to their own tion of public credit, the regular government, they will forfeit the extinguishment of the public debt, honourable station they have hiand a provision of funds to defray therto maintained. any extraordinary expences, will, For myself, having never been of course, call for your serious at- indifferent to what concerned the tention. Although the imposition interests of my country, devoted of new burdens cannot be in itself the best part of my life to obtain agreeable, yet there is no ground and support its independence, and to doubt that the American people constantly witnessed the patriotism, will expect from you such measures fidelity, and perseverance of my as their actual engagements, their fellow-citizens on the most trying present fecurity, and future interest occafions, it is not for me to helidemand.


tate, or abandon a cause in which Gentlemen of the Senate, and my heart has been so long enGentlemen of the House of


Convinced that the conduct of Representatives,

the government has been juft and The present situation of our coun- impartial to foreign nations; that try imposes an obligation on all the those internal regulations, which departments of government, to a- have been established by law for dopt an explicit and decided con- the preservation of peace, are in duct. In my situation an exposition their nature proper, and that they of the principles by which my ad- have been fairly executed, nothing ministration will be governed, ought will ever be done by me to impair not to be omitted.

the national engagements, to innoIt is impossible to conceal from vate upon principles which have ourselves, or the world, what has been so deliberately and uprightly been before observed, that endea- established, or to surrender in any vours have been employed to foster manner the rights of the govern and establish a division between the ment. To enable me to maintain government and people of the Uni- this declaration, I rely, under God, ted States. To investigate the causes with entire confidence on the firm which have encouraged this attempt and enlightened support of the nais not necessary; but to repel by de- tional legislature, and upon the cided and united councils, insinua- virtue and patriotism of my

fellow tions so derogatory to honour, and citizens. JOHN ADAMS aggressions so dangerous to the conftitution, union, and even independence of the nation, is an indispens- To the Address of this House to the Pres able duty.

fident, in Antwer to his Sheeeh, tuhich It must not be permitted to be

was little more than an Echo of it, tke doubted whether the people of the

following Anfeuer was returned. United States will support the go- I RECEIVE with great fatisvernment established by their vor faction your candid approbation luntary confent, and appointed by .of the convention of Congress, and their free choice; or whether, by thank you for your assurance that


the interesting subjects recommend. Mellage received by the House of Reed to your confideration shall re- foresentatives from the President, on the ceive every attention which their 12th of June, 1797. importance demands; and that your

Gentlemen of the Senate, and co-operation may be expected in those measures which may appear

Gentlemen of the House of necessary for our security or peace.

Representatives, The declaration of the Represen

I HAVE received information tatives of this nation of their fatisfrom the commissioners appointed faction at my promotion to the first on the part of the United States, office in the government, and of pursuant to the third article of our their confidence in my sincere en- treaty with Spain, that the running deavours to discharge the various and marking of the boundary line duties of it with advantage to our between the colonies of East and common country, have excited


West Florida, and the territory of most grateful sensibility.

the United States, have been des I pray you, Gentlemen, to be. layed by the officers of his Catholieve, and to communicate such as- lic Majesty, and that they have desurances to qur constituents, that clared their intention to maintain no event which we can foresee to his jurisdiction, and to suspend the be attainable by any exertions in withdrawing of his troops from the discharge of my duties, can af. military poits they occupy within ford me so much cordial satisfac- the territory of the United States, tion as to conduci a negotiation until the two governments shall with the French Republic, to a re-, by negotiation have settled the moval of prejudice, a correction of meaning of the second article referrors, a dissipation of outrages, an pecting the withdrawing of the accommodation of all differences, troops, garrisons, or settlements and a restoration of harmony and of either party, in the territory of affection, to the mutual fatisfaction the other; that is, whether when of both nations. And whenever the Spanish garrisons withdraw, the legitimate organs of intercourse they are to leave the works standshall be restored, and the real sen- ing, or to demolish them; and, untiments of the two governments - til by an additional article to the can be candidly communicated to treaty, the real property of the ineach other, although strongly im- habitants fall be secured, and likepressed with the necessity of collect- wise until the Spanish officers are ing ourselves into a manly posture sure the Indians will be pacific. of defence, I nevertheless entertain The two first questions, if to be an encouraging confidence that a determined by negotiation, might mutual spirit of conciliation, a dif- be made subjects of discussion for position to compensate injuries, years; and as no limitation of time and accommodate each other in all can be prescribed to the other (a our relations and connections, will certainty in the opinion of the produce an agreement to a treaty Spanish officers that the Indians consistent with the rights, duties, will be pacific) it will be impoffiand honour of both nations. ble to suffer it to remain an obsta

(Signed) JOHN ADANS. cle to the fulfilment of the treaty United States, June 3, 1797.

on the part of Spain.



To remove the first difficulty, I titles in claims of land, whether have determined to leave it to the of individuals or companies, or to discretion of the officers of his claims of jurisdiction of any indiviCatholic Majelty, when they with dual state. draw his troops from the forts with

JOHN ADAMS. in the territory of the United States, either to leave the works standing,

United States, June 12, 1797. or to demolish them; and to remove the second, I shall cause an Message from the President of the United assurance to be published, and to be

States to Congress. particularly communicated to the

Gentlemen of the Senate, and minister of his Catholic Majesty, Gentlemen of the House of and to the Governor of Louisiana,

Representatives, that the settlers or occupants of the lands in question, shall not be dif

THE whole of the intelligence turbed in their possessions by the which has for some time been re. troops of the United States, but, ceived from abroad, the correspondon the contrary, that they shall be ence between this government protected in all their lawful claims; and the ministers of the belligerent and to prevent or remove every powers residing here, and the addoubt on this point, it merits the vices from the officers of the United confideration of Congress, whe- States, civil and military, upon the ther it will not be expedient im- frontiers, all conspire to sew, in a mediately to pass a law, giving very strong light, the critical fitupositive assurance to thofe inhabit. ation of our country. That Con. ants, who by fair and regular gress might be enabled to form a grants, or by occupancy, have ob- more perfect judgment of it, and tained legal titles, or equitable of the measures necessary to be taclaims to lands in that country, ken, I have directed the proper ofprior to the final ratification of the ficers to prepare such collections treaty between the United States of extracts from the public corres. and Spain on the 25th of April, pondence, as might afford the clear1796.

eft information. The reports made This country is rendered pecu- to me from the secretary of state, liarly valuable by its inhabitants, and the secretary at war, with a col. who are represented to amount to lection of documents from each of nearly four thousand, generally them, are now communicated to well affected, and much attached to both houses of Congress. I have the United States, and zealous for desired that the message, reports, the establishment of a government and documents, may be considered under their authority.

as confidential, merely that the I therefore recommend to your members of both houses of Conconsideration, the expediency of gress may be apprised of their concreating a government in the dif- tents before they should be made trict of the Natches, similar to that public. As soon as the Houses established for the territory north. İhall have heard them, I shall sub. west of the river Ohio, but with mit to their discretion the publicacertain modifications, relative to tion of the whole, or any such parts


of them as they shall judge necef- fatisfactory explanation respeding sary or expedient for the public it, your committee fent for the origood.

ginal letter, which accompanies this JOHN ADAMS. report. United States, July 3, 1797.

Two senators, now present in the

senate, have declared to the comReport of the Committee of the Senate Pro mittee, that they are well acquaintthe Senate

, on the 6th of July, 1797) Blount, and have no doubt that this to whom was referred a Letter * * from W. Blount, Esq. one of the Senators

letter was written by hiin. Your

committee have examined many from the State of Tennessee.

letters from Mr. Blount to the se. THAT Mr. Blount having de- cretary of war, a number of which clined an acknowledgment or denial are herewith submitted, as well as of the letter imputed to him, and the letter addressed by Mr. Blount having failed to appear to give any to Mr. Cocke, his colleague in the

senate, * The following is a copy of the Letter. Dear Carey,

Col. King's Iron-works, April 21 I wished to have seen you before I returned to Philadelphia ; but I am obliged to return to the feffion of Congress, which commences on the 15th of May.

Among other things that I wilhed to have seen you about, was the business of Captain Chisholm, mentioned to the British minister, last winter, at Philadelphia.

I believe, but I am not quite sure, that the plan then talked of will be attempted shis fall; and if it is attempted, it will be in a much larger way than then talked of: and if the Indians act their part, I have no doubt but it will succeed. A man of consequence has gone to England about the business; and, if he makes arrangements as he expects, I shall myself have a hand in the business, and probably shall be at the head of the business on the part of the British.

You are, however, to understand, that it is not yet quite certain that the plan will be attempted ; yet you will do well to keep things in a train for action in cale it should be attempted ; and to do so will require all your management. I say, will require all your management, because you must take care, in whatever you say to Rogers, or any body else, not to let the plan he discovered by Hawkins, Dinsmoor, Dyers, or any other person in the intereft of the United States or Spain.

If I attempt this plan, I fall endeavour to have you and all my Indian country and Indian friends with me; but you are now in good business I hope, and you are not to risk the loss of it by saying any thing that will hurt you, until you again hear from me. Where Caprain Chisholm is I do not know, I left him in Philadelphia in March, and he frequently visited the minister, and spoke upon the subject; but I believe he will go into the Creek nation, by way of South Carolina or Georgia. He gave out that he was going to England, but I did not believe him. Among other things tha: you may lifely do, will be to keep up my consequence with Watts, and the Creeks and Cherokces generally; and you must by no means say any thing in favour of Hawkins ; but, as often as you can with safety to yourfelf, you may teach the Creeks to believe that he is no better than he should be. Any power or consequence he gets will be against our plan.

Perhaps Rogers, who has no office to lose, is the best man to give out talks against Hawkins. Read the letter to Rogers, and, if you think it best to send it to him, pusa wafer in it, and forward it w him by a safe hand; or, perhaps, you had


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