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our (my) friends (countrymen, &c.). nota, -ae, [√gno+ ta], f., a mark, a sign. - Less exactly, a spot, a scar, a mark (of wounds). nothus, -1, [Gr. vótos], m., an illegitimate son, a bastard. Of animals, a mongrel, a cross-breed. notō, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†nota-], I. v. a., mark. Of the effect, mark down, inscribe. — Less exactly, mark, observe, notice. Notus, -i, [Gr. Nóτos], m., the South Wind. Less exactly, the wind. nōtus, -a, -um, p.p. of nosco. novālis, -e, [†novo- (reduced) + alis], adj., (new). — Fem., (sc. terra), fallow land (left to be renewed by lying).- Neut., fallow land, (less exactly) fields (cultivated).

novellus, -a, -um, [†novŏ- (reduced) + ellus, as if †novulo + lus], adj., young, tender, new. novem [unc. case-form petrified, cf. Gr. évvéa, Eng. nine], indecl. adj.,


noverca, -ae, [?, akin to novus],

f., a stepmother.

noviēns (-ies), [stem of novem, with unc. term.], num. adv., nine times.

novitās, -tātis, [†novo- (weakened) + tas], f., newness: regni (infancy).

novo, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†novŏ-], I. v. a., renew, make new, repair, refit, repeat.-Fig., change: fidem (break).

novus, -a, -um, [akin to Gr. véos],

adj., new, fresh, strange, young: ver (new,early); sol (new risen); soles (of early spring). — novissimus, -a, -um, superl., newest, latest, last, rear. nox, noctis, [perh. noc (cf. noceo) + tis (reduced), cf. Gr. vý§, Eng. night], f, night, darkness, the influence of night. Personified, Night.

noxa, -ae, [√/noc + ta (?)], f., (harm), a fault, guilt.

noxius, -a, -um, [†noxa-(reduced) +ius], adj., harmful, guilty. nūbēs, -is, [√nub- (cf. nubo) + es (and -is)], f., a cloud. Fig., a cloud, a swarm: facta nube (gathering like a cloud, of birds); belli (storm-cloud). Also, the region of clouds, the clouds, the heavens.

nubigena, -ae,[†nubi-(see nubes) -gena (gen+a, cf. Graiugena)], m., cloud-born, a centaur, a cloud-born monster.

nūbila, -ōrum, [†nubi- (see nubes) + la (n. plur. of lus)], n., prop. adj., the clouds, the region of clouds.

nūbilis, -e, [†nubŏ- (cf. pronuba, conubium) + lis], adj., marriageable.

nūdātus, -a, -um, p.p. of nudo. nūdo, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [†nudo-], I. v. a., strip, make bare, lay bare, bare, uncover. — nūdātus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., bared, stripped, naked, uncovered.

nūdus, -a, -um, [prob. for †nugdus, cf. Eng. naked], adj., naked, bare, uncovered, stripped, exposed, defenceless: aetheris axis (open); ensis (alone). Less exactly, in a single garment (without an outer garment), uncloaked. nullus, -a, -um, [ne-ullus], adj., no, none: non nullis oculis (without regard).. Masc. and fem., none, no one, nobody.- nonnullus, -a, -um, some, some one. num [pron. √na, acc., cf. tum, cum, dum], conj., interrog., whether (often not expressed in Eng., but indicated by the order, is any, does any, &c.). Regularly expecting the answer "no." Numa, -ae, [?], m., a Roman name.

Esp., Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to whom were attributed the religious institutions of the Romans; 2. Two Rutulians. Numānus, -1, [†Numa + nus], m., a Rutulian, with the surname Remulus.

nūmen, -inis, [\nu (lengthened, cf. nuo) + men], n., (a nod). Esp., the divine will, power (of the gods), authority, permission, purpose, consent, approval, decree, inspiration, presence (of a god), divine nature, divine interposition, oracle (declared purpose). — Also, divinity, divine essence, deity (with genitive of the god used concretely) Iunonis; Fauni; vestra (of the stars). — Also concretely, a divinity, a divine being: numina magna Deum (forms); media inter numina (images). numero, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [†numero-], I. v. a., count, reckon up,


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numerus, -1, [stem akin to vóμos (cf. numus) + rus], m., number, a number. - Esp., a large number, a number. Also, order, proportion: pares numeri (equal) dimensions); compositi numero in turmas (in equal numbers); stellis numeros fecit (places, by calculation); nec numero nec honore cremant (without distinction). — Also, musical measure, time, tune, the notes of the scale (pl.). Phrases: in numerum, in time, in order, in turn, in measure; sideris in numerum, to the place of a star; neque est numerus, it is impossible to count, there is no numbering. Numicus, -1, [?], m., a river of Latium, where Eneas was said to have disappeared. Numidae, -ārum, [Gr. voμás], m.

plur., the Numidians (a people of Northern Africa).

Numitor, -ōris, [?], m.: 1. The grandfather of Romulus and Remus; 2. A Rutulian. nunc [num-ce (cf. hic)], adv., now. - Repeated, now... now, sometimes... again. nuncius, etc.; see nuntius. nunquam [nē-unquam],


never. - Less exactly, not at all, by no means (see hodie).

nuntia, -ae, [f. of nuntius], f., a messenger (female). nuntio, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [†nuntio-], I. v. a., report, announce, bring tidings. nuntius, -i (-ii), [prob. †novotventius (†vento + ius)], m., a messenger, a reporter. — In appos., as adj., bringing tidings, reporting. — Also, news, message, tidings, report. nuper [prob. novum-per, cf. parumper], adv., lately, just now, not long ago.

Nursae, -ārum, [?]; see Nersae, the approved spelling. Nursia (Nurt-), -ae, [?], f., a town of the Sabines (now Norcia). nurus, -ūs, [akin to Gr. vvós (for SNUSUS)], f., a daughter-in-law. nusquam [nē-usquam], adv., nowhere. Also equal Eng. never (with a different conception). nuto, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†nuto(cf. abnuo)], I. v. n., nod, totter, swing, wave.

nutrimentum, -i, [†nutri- (of nutrio) + mentum], n., food, nourishment.- Less exactly, fuel. nūtrio, -ivi (-i), -itum, -ire, [?, cf. nutrix], 4. v. a., nurse, nourish, suckle. Less exactly, bring up, rear. Pass. as dep., cultivate, raise. nutrior, see nutrio. nutrix, -icis, [unknown root (cf. nutrio) + trix], f., a nurse. nutus, -ūs, [†nu- (as root) + tus, cf. abnuo, numen], m., a nođ. Fig., will, an order, a command. nux, nucis, [?], f., a nut (of various kinds). Also, an almond


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nympha, -ae, [Gr. výμon], f., a nymph (a goddess of the sea or woods, more or less allied to the human race).- Less exactly, a muse (as the muses proper were of this general class).

Nysa, -ae, [Gr. Nura], f., a city of India, said to have been built by Bacchus in his expedition to India.


Ō, interj. (of all emotions), oh! O! - With acc., nom., or voc. Oaxēs, -is, [Gr. ˇOağıs], m., a river in Crete.

ob (obs), [akin to Gr. í], prep., towards (archaic).—near, around. -Fig. (cf. the provincial" all along of"), on account of, for, for the sake of, through.-In comp., to, towards, against, before, over, &c. obambulō, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [ob-ambulo], 1. v. n., walk about, roam about.

obdūcŏ, -dūxi, -dūctum, -dūcere, [ob-duco], 3. v. a., draw over, spread over. — - With change of point of view, overspread, cover, overgrow, choke. — obdūctus, -a, -um, p.p., overspread, surrounding;-hidden, covered. obdūctus, -a, -um,p.p. of obduco. obeõ, -ivi (-ii), -itum, -ire, [obeo], irr. v. a., go to, go over, go around, visit: pugnas (engage in); terras maria (wash, encompass); omnia visu (view,survey); mortem (suffer, meet). — Also, surround, encircle, cover. obēsus, -a, -um, [ob-esus], adj., fat, swollen.

ōbex, -icis, [ob-Viac (as stem)], m. or f., a bar, an obstacle, a barrier.

obfero and compounds of ob with f, see offero.


ōbiciō (obii-), -ieci, -iectum, -icere, [ob-iacio], 3. v. a., throw against, throw to, expose, throw in the way of, offer: clipeos ad tela (oppose, present); equites sese (array themselves in opposition); portas (shut against one).- Fig., expose, offer to the sight, throw out against, throw at (of taunts, &c.) : rabiem canibus (inspire).- obiectus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., thrown in the way, lying in the way, opposing.

obiecto, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [obiacto, cf. obicio], 1. v. a., throw

against. - Fig., expose, risk, sacrifice (in war).

obiectus, -a, -um, p.p. of obicio. obiectus, -ūs, [ob-iactus, cf. obicio], m., a throwing in the way: laterum (opposition, obstacle, of an island).

obitus, -a, -um, p.p. of obeo. obitus, -ūs, [ob-itus (cf. obeo)],

m., a going down, setting, death (cf. obire mortem), dissolution. oblātus, -a, -um, p.p. of offero. oblimo, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [oblimo], 1. v. a., clog (orig. with mud), stop.

obliquo, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [obliquŏ-], I. v. a., turn obliquely; sinus in ventum (brace, swing). obliquus (-cus), -a, -um, [obtliquus (cf. limus and Gr. λéxpios)], adj., sidewise, slantwise, slanting, sidelong, oblique: in obliquum (across, transversely); obliqua invidia (with eyes askance).

oblitus, -a, -um, p.p. of oblivis

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against, lean against, lean on, struggle, strive. obnixus, -a, -um, p.p. of obnitor. obnoxius, -a, -um, [ob-noxius, guilty towards], adj., guilty. From ancient mode of administering justice, bound to, subject to, exposed to. obnūbo, -nupsi, nuptum, -nūbere, [ob-nubo, in its orig. sense, veil], 3. v. a., veil, cover. oborior, -ortus, -oriri, [ob-orior], 4. v. dep., rise against, rise over.

obortus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., rising, flowing (of tears), blinding.

obortus, -a, -um, p.p. of oborior. obruð, -rui, -rutum, -ruere, [obruo], 3. v. a., overwhelm, bury. obrutus, -a, -um, p.p. of obruo. obscēnus, -a, -um, [prob. obs- (see ob) †caeno- (decl. as adj.)], adj., filthy, foul. Less exactly, unsightly, ugly, hideous, horrible.Esp., ill-omened, ill-boding. obscūro, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [tobscuro-], I. v. a., darken, obscure. obscūrus, -a, -um, [ob-†scurus (cf. scutum), covered over, shut in], adj., dark, dim, gloomy, dusky. -Transferred, obscured, unknown, little known, in the dark, unseen: fama (doubtful, dimmed); haud obscura signa (no uncertain signs); obscuris vera involvens (dark hints); sub obscurum noctis (under the darkness of night). obsero, -sēvi, -situm, -serere, [ob-sero], 3. v. a., plant over. — obsitus, -a, -um, p.p., covered, beset, overgrown: aevo (heavy with, full of years).

observātus, -a, -um, p.p. of ob


observo, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [ob

servo], I. v. a., watch, mark, observe, notice, trace. — Esp., honor :


obsessus, -a, -um, p.p. of obsideo. obsideo, -sēdi, sessum, -sidēre,

[ob-sedeo], 2. v. a., blockade, boset, guard, besiege, occupy.—ob-,

sessus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., blocked up, beset, choked. obsidio, -ōnis, [tobsidio- (reduced)+0], f., a blockade, a siege. obsido, no perf., no sup., -sidere, [ob-sido], 3. v. a., beset, occupy. obsitus, -a, -um, p.p. of obsero. obstipĕsco (-stupēsco), -stipuï, no sup., -stipēscere,[ob-sti(stu)pesco], 3. v. n., be amazed, be struck with astonishment, be stunned, be dazed, be struck dumb, stand amazed, be thunderstruck, be paralyzed.

obsto, -stiti, -stātum, -stāre, [ob-sto], 1. v. n., stand in the way of, hinder, withstand, stay, retard: obstitit quibus Ilium (be obnoxious). — Also, congeal (of blood).

obstruo, -struxi, -structum, -struere, [ob-struo], 3. v. a.,

block up, choke, obstruct, seal (of the ears).

obstupesco, see obstipesco. obsum, -fui, -esse, [ob-sum], irr. v. n., be opposed (cf. prosum), injure, harm.

obtectus, -a, -um, p.p. of obtego. obtego, -texi, -tectum, -tegere,

[ob-tego], 3. v. a., cover over, cover, obscure.

obtendo, -tendi, -tentum, -ten

dere, [ob-tendo], 3. v. a., spread before, outspread, shed: obtenta nox (spreading). obtentus, -a, -um, p.p. of ob


obtentus, -ūs, [ob-tentus, cf. ob

tendo], m., a spreading out. Concretely, a canopy: frondis. obtestor, -ātus, -ārī, [ob-testor], I. v. dep., entreat (by some sacred object called to witness), beseech, adjure.

obtexõ, -texui, no sup., -texere, [ob-texo], 3. v. a., weave over. — With change of point of view, overspread.

obtorqueō, -torsi, -tortum, -torquere, ob-torqueo], 2. v. a.,


obtortus, -a, -um, p.p. of obtor- |


obtruncă, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [obtrunco], I. v. a., cut down, butcher, slay.

obtuli, see offero.

obtundo, -tudī, -tūsum, -tundere, [ob-tundo], 3. v. a., dull (orig. by beating), blunt. - obtūsus, -a, -um, p.p., dulled, blunted, dull, dim, less vigorous. Fig., obtuse, unfeeling. obtusus, -a, -um, p.p. of obtundo. obtūtus, -ūs, [ob-tutus, cf. obtueor], m., a gaze, a fixed stare. obumbro, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [obumbro], I. v. a., overshadow. obuncus, -a, -um, [ob-uncus], adj., hooked, curved. obūstus, -a, -um [ob-ustus (see uro)], adj., burnt around, hardened in the fire.

obversus, -a, -um, p.p. of obverto.

obverto, -verti, -versum, -vertere, [ob-verto], 3. v. a., turn towards, turn. - obversus, -a, -um, p.p., in opposition, facing, standing in front, firm (as unflinching), resolute: huc obversus et huc (turning this way and that).

obvius, -a, -um, [ob-†via (decl. as adj.), cf. obviam], adj., in the way, opposed, exposed, in front, before, to meet.

occasus, -ūs, [ob-casus, cf. occido], m., a fall, ruin.- -Esp., the setting (of a heavenly body): solis (sunset). Also (cf. last division),

sunset, the west. occido, -cidi, -cāsum, -cidere, [ob-cado], 3. v. n., fall, perish, be slain, disappear, be lost, be undone Esp., set.

occido, -cidi, -cīsum, -cidere, [ob-caedo], 3. v. a., slay, kill. occisus, -a, -um, p.p. of occido. occubo, no perf., no sup., -āre, [ob-cubo], 1. v. n., lie (dead or buried): occubat umbris (has fallen a prey).

occulo, -cului, -cultum, -culere, [?, cf. clam], 3. v. a., bury, cover, hide, conceal.-occultus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., concealed, secret, hid den: sapor (slight, scarcely distinguishable).

occulte [abl. of occultus], adv., secretly, privately. occulto, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [tocculto-, cf. occulo], 1. v. a., hide, conceal.

occultus, -a, -um, p.p. of occulo. occumbo, -cubui, -cubitum, -cumbere, [ob-cumbo], 3. v. n., fall, die, be slain: morti (fall a prey).

occupo, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [toc

cup-, cf. faucup- (ob-cap as stem)], I. v. a., take in advance (as against somebody else), seize, take possession of, assail, strike, fill: manicis (bind). — Fig., overspread, fill, seize.

occurro, -curri, -cursum, -currere, [ob-curro], I. v. n., run to meet, rush to, rush in, come in the way, meet: medius (come in to interrupt). Fig., appear, meet one's

eyes. occurso, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [obcurso, cf. occurro], I. v. n., rush in the way, fall in the way of,


Oceanītis, -idis, [Gr. patronymic], f., daughter of Ocean. oceanus, -1, [Gr. Keavós], m., the ocean. Personified, Ocean, conceived by the ancients as the universal parent.

ōcior, -us, [†ocu- (cf. Gr. ¿Kús) + ior, compar. of lost positive], adj., swifter. Neut. as adv., more swiftly, quicker. — Also, quickly, forthwith, at once.

Ocnus, -1, [Gr. 'Okvos], m., the founder of Mantua.

ocrea, -ae, [tocri- (cf. ocris,

Ocriculum) + ea, f. of -eus], f., a legging, a greave (usually plur.). octo [akin to Gr. OKTú, Eng. eight]. indecl., num. adj., eight.

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