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cf. maritimus, intimus], adj., bordering upon, neighboring. Masc., a neighbor (esp. in plur.). fio, see facio.

firmātus, -a, -um; see firmo. firmo, -āvi, atum, -are, [†firmŏ-], 1. v. a., make strong, strengthen, fortify: vires(foster); vestigia (steady); firmata aetas (as adj., mature age).— Fig., confirm, ratify, reassure. firmus, -a, -um, [√fir (form of DHAR, hold) + mus], adj., steady, firm, solid, strong, lasting: durissima vina (best keeping).Fig., stout, strong, abiding, resolute: pectus; foedus (good, valid). fiscella, ac, [†fisculo- (reduced, cf. fiscus) +lus (2d dim)], f., a


fiscina, -ae, [†fisco- (stem of fiscus) + na (f. of -nus)], f., a basket. fissilis, -e,[†fissõ + lis], adj., cleaveable, split.

fissus, -a, -um; see findo. fistula, -ae, [?], f., a pipe. — Less exactly, the pipe (of several reeds joined), a shepherd's-pipe. fixus, -a, -um, p.p. of figo. flabrum, -1, [fla (in flo) + brum], n., a blast, a breeze. flagellum, -1, [†flagro- (reduced, cf. ager) +lum (n. of lus)], n., a whip, a scourge, a lash.-Less exactly, a thong (cf. amentum). Poetically, a switch, a shoot (of a vine).

flāgito, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†flagito-(p.p. of flago, cf. flagrum, flagro)], 1. v. a., (insist hotly),


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flagrāns, p. of flagro. flagrō, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†flagro, stem of flagrum (flag + rum, n. of rus)], 1. v. n., burn, blaze, glow, sparkle, shine. Fig. (cf. ferveo), glow, be active, be vehement.-flagrāns, -antis, p. as adj., blazing, shining, bright, ardent, glowing, raging: genas (burning, with blushes); voltus (heaming).

| flāmen, -inis, [†fla + men], n., a blast, a gale, a breeze. flamma, -ae, [√flag (cf. préyw) +ma], f., a flame, a fire. - Poetically, a fiery brand, a flaming torch, a blazing pyre, a burning altar, a blaze (in the heaven), fire (of vengeance), fire or flame (of flashing eyes,) fire (of Jove, the lightning). Fig. (cf. ardeo, flagro), fire (of love, or passion), love, passion, desire, heat, fury. flammans, p. of flammo. flammātus, -a, -um, p.p. of flam

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flāvēns, -ēntis, p. of flaveo. flaveo, no perf., no sup., -ēre,

[†flavo-], 2. v. n., be yellow.flāvēns, entis, p. as adj., yel low, golden, auburn: prima lanugine (blooming). flavesco, no perf., no sup., -ēscere, [†flave- (stem of flaveo) + sco], 3. v. n., grow yellow, whiten. Flavinius -a, -um, [†Flavino(reduced) + ius], adj., Flavinian (of a city or region of Etruria, otherwise unknown): arva. flavus, -a, -um, [?], adj., yellow, golden, golden-haired, yellowish gray, pale green: oliva. flecto, flexi, flexum, flectere, [unc. root+to], 3. v. a., bend, turn, plait: crates. Less exactly, turn, guide: viam velis; iuvencos (drive); iuga habenis; habenas. With reflexive (some


times without, cf. verto), turn, incline. Fig., bend, influence, persuade: precando fata (turn); flectitur violentia (is appeased); illum purpura regum (move, affect).-flexus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., curved, twining, flexible, bent. fleo, flēvi, flētum, flere, [perh. akin to fluo], 2. v. n. and a., Less exactly, weep, shed tears. With acc. (cf. mourn, lament. doleo), weep for, mourn, lament, bewail: Anchisen; me discedere (my departure). flētus, -a, -um, p.p. of fleo. flētus, -tūs, (†flē- (as root) + tus, cf. fleo], m., a weeping, a wail, a flood of tears.

flexilis, -e, [†flexŏ + lis], adj., flex-
ible, bending.

flexus, -a, -um, p.p. of flecto.
flexus, -ūs, [flec+tus], m., a
winding, bending.
flictus, -tūs, [√flig+tus], m., a
dashing, clashing of weapons.
flōrēņs, p. of floreo.

flōreō, -rui, no sup., -rēre, [†flos
(for floseo)], 2. v. n., blossom, be
in bloom. Fig., flourish, be in
prime, be prosperous.
abound (with the accessory notion
of vigor or brilliancy): Itala ter-
ra viris (be strong in); studiis
oti (be busy with).- Poetically,
shine, be bright: aere catervae
(glitter); limina sertis (bloom).
- florēns, entis, p. as adj.,
blooming, flourishing, blossoming.
-um, [†flos+eus],
flōreus, -a,
adj., flowery, blooming.
flōrus, -a, -um;

for flavus.

floreus, read
En. xii. 605.
flōs, flōris, [√flo + as, cf. Cr. pλów,
Eng. bloom], m., a flower, a blos-
som.-Fig., the bloom, the prime,
the flower (choicest part or time):
primaevo flore (in the first bloom
of youth); flos virum. - Poeti-
cally, the down (of early youth, cf.
preceding example).

fluctuo, -āvi, -ātum, -äre, [†fluc-
tu-], 1. v. n., toss, ebb and flow. —

Fig., ebb and flow, waver, fluctu-
ate aestu curarum (be tossed by,
changing the point of view); aere
tellus (gleams with waves of shin-
ing bronze); ira intus (seethe);
amor irarum aestu (alternate
with a tide).

fluges) + tus], m., a wave, a tide.
fluctus, -us, [√flu(g) (cf. con-

- Less exactly, the sea, water.— Fig. (as in Eng.), a wave (of passion, &c.), a tide, a flood: irarum. fluēns, -entis, p. of fluo. fluentum, -i, [†fluent- (cf. fluo)

+um (or in its original form, cf. argentum)], n., a stream, a river. fluidus, -a, -um, [†fluŏ- (cf. circumfluus) + dus], adj., flowing, liquid.


fluitō, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [†fluită-
(stem of supposed or real p.p.
, flow.
fluo, cf. agito)], I. v. n.,
Less exactly, float, drift.
flūmen, -inis, [flu (lengthened,
cf. numen, perh. with stem for
root, cf. fluito) + men], n., a
river, a stream, water (of a river).
- Less exactly, of the river-god,
of tears (flood), of sweat, of blood.
fluo, fluxi, fluxum, fluere,[ √flug
(flu with parasitic g, cf. fruor)],
3. v. n., flov, run: auro (of gold
in rivers, flow with golden sand).
-Transferred, of the source, flow
with, drip, run with: ora tabo;
vites Baccho (stream with).
Less exactly, of things not fluid,
flow, float, stream, glide, pour:
olli ad regia (flock); vestis ad
pedes. Poetically, fall loosely,
fall lifeless, droop, fail.-flu-
ēns, entis, p. as adj., flowing,
loose, unrestrained, luxuriant:
vites; coma (dishevelled).
fluxus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj.,
loose, failing: res (feeble power).
fluvialis, -e, [†fluvio- (reduced) -
alis], adj., of a river.

fluvius, -ï (-ii), [†fluŏ- (cf. flui-
dus)+ ius], m., a river, a stream.
- Less exactly, water (for irriga-

fluxus, -a, -um, p.p. of fluo. focus, -1, [perh. akin to foveo], m., a hearth, a fireplace, a chimney, a brazier (small hearth for fire).- Fig., the hearth (as an emblem of home), the fireside, the household hearth. Poetically, a pyre, a funeral pile, an altar (the brazier often being set on a tripod and used as an altar. See A. & G. Virg., Fig. 90).


fōdi, fossum, fodere, [vfod, of unc. connection], 3. v.a., dig, prick, pierce calcaribus armos; humum. Also (as in Eng.), of the result, dig (make by digging): cubilia talpae; sub terra larem. foecundo, see fec-. foecundus, see fec-.

foedātus, -a, -um, p.p. of foedo. foede [abl. of foedus], adv., foully, horribly, cruelly. Also (cf. foedus), basely, shamefully. foedo, -āvi, -ātum, -are,[†foedŏ-], I. v. a., make hideous, befoul, disfigure, lacerate, spoil: unguibus ora; pectora pugnis; latebras ferro (desecrate, prob. with reference to the sanctity of the object attacked); ferro volucres (cut in pieces). Fig., pollute, defile. foedus, -a, -um, [?], adj., foul, filthy. Of moral qualities, foul, horrible, dreadful, base, vile. foedissime miserable coward); tempestas; ministeria. foedus, -eris, [√fid (in fides, strengthened) +us], n. Of nations or kings, a treaty, a compact, an alliance, a truce. - Less exactly, of individuals, a bargain, an agreement, a contract, a pledge (mutual), a compact (esp. of marriage). Also, a bond (ordained by a superior), a condition, terms: tyranni (conditions imposed by); certo foedere (by fixed laws); aequo foedere amantes (on equal terms). foemina, see fem-, the proper spelling.

foemineus, -a, -um; see fem-, foenile, see fen-. the proper spelling. foetūra, see fet-. foetus, -tūs; see fet-. foetus, -a, -um; see fet-. folium, -i (-ii), [cf. Gr. øúλλov], n., follis, -is, [?], m., a bag. a leaf (of a tree or of paper), foliage. - a pair

of bellows, bellows. fōmes, -itis, [perh. akin to foveo, fons, fontis, [unc. root + tis (reunc. form], m., dry fuel. duced)], m., a spring, a fountain.

Less exactly, water, pure water: Avernus (lake); irriguus (stream).

+for, fātus, fārī, [√fa, akin to pnuí], 1. v. dep., speak, say, tell, relate, foretell, predict. — fandus, -a, -um, ger. p., to be spoken. — Neut., right (opp. to nefandum).

fando, ger., by report: fandi doctissima (in speech); mollia foras [acc. plur. of †fora-, akin to fatu( pleasing to say). See fatum. foris], adv., (to the doors), out of forceps, -cipis, [†for- (stem akin doors, forth, out. to fornax)+ceps (cap as stem, cf. princeps)], m. and f., tongs, fore, see sum. pincers. forem, see sum. foris, -is, [√for (akin to úpa, Eng. door) + is], f., a door. Plur., doors, a door (double), the folds (of a door).- Less exactly, entrance, opening, door (of a hive, &c.). forma, -ae, [√for (I. E. DHAR, in firmus?) + ma], f., form, figure, shape, appearance: aratri ; rerum. - - Esp., fine form (cf. facies), beauty: forma insignis. Concretely, a form, figure, vision, apparition. Fig., species, form, formica, -ae, [unc. stem in i+ ca kind, nature: scelerum. formidātus, -a, -um, p.p. of for(f. of cus)], f., an ant. mido.


formido, -dinis, [tformido- (unc. stem, cf. formidõ, perh. akin to formus?) o (cf. cupido)], f., fear (generally violent), dread, terror, alarm nigra (awful gloom); formidine capti (seized with a panic).- Concretely, an alarm? (a line of feathers to frighten game).-Personified, Ter


formido, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†for

mido- (cf. cupēs, cupido, and
formido], I. v. a., dread.
formo, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†for-
ma-], I. v. a., form, fashion, build:
classem. Less exactly, of living
beings, train.

formōsus (old, formōnsus), -a,
-um, [†forma- (reduced) +osus],
adj., beautiful, lovely (usually of
Poetically, of
human beings).
things: annus; pedum; pecus

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fornax, -ācis, [†forno- (reduced),
akin to formus, + ax], f., a fur-
nace (for melting metal), a forge.
Poetically (cf. Aetna and ca-
mina), of the supposed workshop
of Vulcan in Etna.
fornix, -icis, [akin to fornax],
-Less exactly, of a
m., an arch. -
fors, fortis, (abl. forte), [ ✓fer +
tis (reduced)], f., chance, hazard,
fortune. Nom. (sc. est or sit,
there is a chance), equal to an adv.,
perhaps, may be, possibly. — Abl.
forte, by chance, as it happened:
ne forte (lest one should happen
to); si forte (if by any chance);
quae forte paratae (happened to
be, &c.): forte fuit (there chanced
to be); forte sua (by pure chance,
with perhaps a reminiscence of the
etymological meaning, cf. fero).
forsan [fors an, a chance whether,
cf. fors and forsitan], adv., per-
haps, it may be.

forsitan [fors sit an, it may be a

chance whether, cf. fors], adv., perhaps, possibly, mayhap. fortasse [?, forte in unc. combina

tion, perh. sis (sivis)?], adv.,
perhaps, possibly, it may be.
forte, see fors.

fortis, -e, [for forctis, forc (root
akin to for in forma) + tis],
adj., strong, sturdy, hardy, vigor-
ous, stalwart. Of mental quali-
ties, valiant, brave, steadfast, un-
daunted: Achates (a standing epi-
thet, weakened almost to worthy);
corda; pectus. Of things, in
both senses above, stout, sturdy,
brave, valiant facta; rami
humeri; fortia surgunt (hardy,

fortuna, -ae, [lost stem +fortu- (cf.
fors) na (cf. Vacuna, Por-
tunus)], f., fortune, chance, haz-
ard, destiny, fate: siqua super
fortuna laborum est (necessity
of toil). Esp. in good sense,
good fortune, success, opportunity,
chance: si modo sequatur; for-
tuna fuit (glory); populi (in-
terest); sortitus fortunam ocu-
lis; quae dabatur (chance of
success); quaecumque...fidesque
(fortune and hope).

In bad

sense, fortune, fate, ill luck: mea me victam docere dolere. Half personified, fortune: aspirat labori; fidem novavit. Fully personified, Fortune.

fortūnātus, -a, -um, p.p. of fortuno.

make fortunate, fortūno, -āvī, -ātum, -āre, [†fortuna-], I. v. a., bless.-fortūnātus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., fortunate, blest, favored (by fortune), happy.

Foruli, -ōrum, [prob. dim. of forus], m. plur., a Sabine town of Samnium.


forum, -1, [akin to forus, foris], n., (an open passage ?), a marketplace. Esp., the Forum (orig. market-place at Rome, place of assembly for the people, and of all public business).—Fig., an assembly (of the people), the people (as a political body).

forus, -1, [akin to forum, foris].

m., a gangway (in a ship, not apparently from one deck to another, as with us, but open spaces in the ship not occupied by the rowers, cf. forum): laxat foros (hold, "standing-room"?); implesse flammis (decks).- Poetically, cells (of a beehive).

fossa, -ae, [√fod + ta, f. of p.p. of fodio, perh. with omitted noun un], f., a ditch (for defence or farming), a dyke, a trench. fossor, oris, [√fod + tor], m., a


fōtus, -a, -um, p.p. of foveo. fovea, -ae, [akin to foveo (?),

perh. orig, a cellar to keep things from cold, cf. the treatment of potatoes], f., a pit. foveo, fövi, fötum,fovere,[†fovŏ(akin to favus, favilla)], 2. v. a., keep warm, brood: progeniem.

- Transferred (perh. derived from brooding of fowls), embrace, fondle, caress, nurse: colla (support); germanam amplexa sinu; hiemem inter se (spend in dalliance). Fig., cherish, foster, promote: Romanos; bella; hoc regnum gentibus esse (cherish the purpose, helping it on); famam.

Also, cling to, love: humum; castra (cf. "hug the fire"). As medical term, foment (cf. fomentum), bathe, treat (medically), apply (anything to): ora (rinse); fovens circum; volnus lymphā.

fractus, -a, -um, p.p. of frango. fraenum, see frenum, the better spelling.

fraeni, see frenum.

fraeno, see freno.

fragilis, -e, [+frago- (cf. navifragus)+ lis], adj., brittle, fragile, frail, delicate. Also (cf. fragor), crackling (of a sound like breaking). fragmen, -inis, [√frag + men], n., a fragment, a broken piece. fragmentum, -i, [√frag+ mentum], n., a fragment, a broken piece.

fragor, -ōris, [√frag + or], m., a breaking. Of a sound like breaking, a crash, a dashing, a rattling, an uproar, a din, a sound of mourning (fr. the beating of the breast, cf. plango), applause (by clapping of hands), a cracking, a report.

fragōsus, -a, -um, [†fragŏ- (reduced, cf. navifragus) + osus], adj., crashing (cf. fragor), rearing, noisy.

frāgrāns, p. of frāgrõ. frāgro, -āvi, no sup., -āre, [†fragro- (unc. root +rus), cf. fragum)], 1. v. n., smell sweet.— frāgrāns, -āntis, p. as adj., fragrant, sweet smelling. frāgum, -1, [unc. root (cf. fragro) +um], n., a strawberry. frango, frēgi, fractum, frangere, [frag], 3. v. a., break, break up, break off, shatter, crush, pulverize, crunch. Esp. of ships, wreck. Fig., break down, crush, wear out, baffle. fractus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., broken, shattered, shivered, crushed: cacumina; vires; opes; unda (breaking); res; voces.

frater, -tris, [cf. ppárnp, clansman, Eng. brother, fra (akin to fer?)+ter (cf. pater), m., a brother.

fraternus, -a, -um, [†frater- (not syncopated) + nus], adj., of a brother, a brother's, fraternal. Less exactly, of a mate: fraterna morte (of a bullock). fraudo, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [tfraud-], 1. v. a., defraud, deprive of

fraus, fraudis, [akin to frustum, frustra], f., loss, discomfiture, mischief, damage: quis deus in fraudem egit (ruin). Also, deceit, wiles, a stratagem, deception, a trick, treachery, wicked ness innexa clienti; caeli sereni; fraudi accomoda vallis (ambush); loci et noctis (treacherous advantage).

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