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WHEN I peruse that tranquil countenance,

When I behold you lying in the deep, Calm torpor of your customary trance,

And smiling in your sleep;

When I compare the lives that men endure,

The hard hours treading on each others' heels, With yours, an easy, drowsy sinecure,

Unbroken, save for meals;

Stirred to the limits of mine injured pride

By your outrageous otium cum dig.,
O Hog, if I could only reach you, “I'd

Larn ye to be a " pig!

O Hog, O fat, insufferable Hog,

The very barn-door hen must ply a leg Or go unvictualled; even the household dog

Has to sit up and beg.

Judged by your smug complacency, you seem

To think yourself a strangely favoured beast, But is there not a shadow on the dream,

A spectre at the feast?

You never move. For your voracious need

Mysterious broths are brought you from afar; Strange messes coax you if you're off your feed

(Not that you ever are !);

The great trough yawns beneath your very snout;

You eat, you sleep, upon the selfsame spot; People object to see you move about,

They'd rather you did not.

O Hog, so unsuspecting and so fat,

Do you suppose that these attentions spring From Man's great kindness? If you swallow that,

You'd swallow anything.

Oft have I noticed, hovering round the sty

Where you, unknowing, snore in Morpheus' arms, A gross, red man, who, with an owner's eye,

Approves your bulging charms.

Darkly he prods you with his oaken staff

Like this-I'm sorry—and remains awhile Gloating; and laughs a grim, carnivorous laugh,

While you sleep on, and smile.

O Hog, so fat, so green, did you awake

To the ferocious menace of those eyes, You would sleep less, methinks, but you would take A deal more exercise.



The troubles in Macedonia but their courageous

efforts have dragged on so long that were in vain against the, far the general public in England more numerous and better aphas almost lost sight of the pointed Turkish battalions. main issues which gave rise to There was about equal slaughter them, and only vaguely appre- on both sides, but while the ciates the internal causes which loss of a few hundreds scarcely have rendered a solution so diffi- affected the strength of the cult and so slow. The agitation Turks, it seriously crippled the was first planned in Bulgaria. small bands of the insurgents. Its avowed object was to force The struggle was hopelessly the European Powers to inter- unequal. The peasants, alvene in favour of the Christians though they took small part in Macedonia, in the hope that in the fighting, found their such an intervention would position seriously compromised lead to the annexation of with their rulers, and fled in Macedonia to Bulgaria, just as crowds from their homes, Eastern Roumelia had already crossing the frontier into Bulbeen annexed in 1886. To this garia for safety. Their lot was end, armed bands were formed a hard one. The excitement in Bulgaria, who crossed the caused in Bulgaria by the frontier to induce the peasants influx of these homeless and in Macedonia to rise in revolt. helpless refugees was great, and Arms and ammunition had for a time there was a danger been ingeniously procured by that the little Principality the capture of an American would have forced upon it a lady - missionary and the en- war with Turkey, which might cashment of

of have imperilled its own exist£12,000 for her release. The ence. Wiser counsels, however, Christian peasants who sym- prevailed, and when the Euro

, pathised with Bulgaria wel- pean Powers decided to intercomed the insurgent bands, vene diplomatically to improve but took little part in the the lot of the Macedonian fighting which the invasion Christians, the Bulgarian provoked. They were, how- Government judiciously left ever, sufficiently terrorised to the complicated situation in be led, in some cases willingly, the hands of the Powers. Such in others forcibly, to contribute is the position to-day. A few to the treasury of the Bulgarian bands of Bulgarian insurgents insurgents. Bravely the Bul- still exist, and from time to garian bands, in scattered time continue to make raids groups of a few hundreds each, into Macedonia, but the Governfought the Turkish soldiers, ment of the Principality, as a




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Government, does not encour- The space at our disposal age them, and there is no longer does not permit of referring to any danger of an armed conflict all the ten chapters, each by between Bulgaria and Turkey. å separate writer, which form

Meantime, it has gradually the volume referred to, but we become evident that the an- shall endeavour to cull, from nexation Macedonia to the most important amongst Bulgaria is at present un- them, the points of interest attainable, for the simple which are brought out.

that the Christian The first and introductory population of Macedonia is chapter is by Mr James Bryce, divided in its sympathies, and M.P. He treats chiefly of the that an influential portion is decay of the Turkish Empire, as fiercely inimical to the Bul- and describes the extinction garians as either party is to of Ottoman rule as “plainly the Turks. Hence we find inevitable," but, he adds, Greek insurgent bands fighting “it may be delayed for some on Macedonian soil, and even decades, conceivably even till Macedonian villagers with near the end of the present Greek sympathies attacking century.” In this the majorthose with Bulgarian sym- ity of Englishmen will say, pathies, and vice versa. The il prêche aux convertis. The conviction is thus brought inlet of light must home to even the most ardent sarily dispel darkness. The supporters of the Bulgarian schoolmaster is the vanquisher cause that, at present, all that of autocracies. What will not can be done is to improve the mend must end. In answering lot of the Macedonian Christ- the postulate which Mr Bryce ians as subjects of Turkey. puts, “What ought the soluThat is the task which con- tion to be ?” he indicates two fronts, and is being attempted possible solutions of the Eastern by, the six European Powers problems. One is the absorpwho signed the Treaty of Berlin tion of the existing nationalities in 1878.

into the great dominions and The publication of a volume great nations which border entitled “The Balkan Question, upon Turkey. The other is edited by Luigi Villari(Murray), the growth of these nationalicomes very apropos at the pres- ties, or some of them, into ent time. It forms a useful nations and states. The first compendium, by various com- seems to Mr Bryce the easiest, petent writers first, of all but of the second he remarksthat concerns the emancipation of the Christian races which

“One may venture to say that had the misfortune to fall a

humanity has more to expect from

the development of new civilised prey to the retrograde Moham- nations out of ancient yet still medan autocracy, and, second, vigorous races than from the subof the actual position of what mersion of these races under a flood has

the got to be called

of Russianising or Germanising influMacedonian question.

ences, emanating from any one of the three great empires.”


This is undoubtedly true. act of the Concert of Europe, The easiest road is not always and not the gift of Russia the best. The goal to be alone. reached is the highest develop- After describing the irreconment of national vitality, and cilable antagonism between the that cannot be attained by the Bulgarian and Greek Christians easy pathway leading to ab- in Macedonia, Mr Bourchier sorption into a foreign Power. summarizes the prospects as Better far for a race which has follows :faith in its destiny to struggle

“Unhappily the Balkan States are on a little longer to secure the not yet ripe for an amicable arrangenational freedom which it longs ment, and their discords seem likely for, than to bow slavishly its

as heretofore to offer a new lease of neck to another foreign yoke.

life to Turkey, and to serve the selfish The chapter contributed by purposes of their great neighbours.” Mr Bourchier (* The Times' The fifth chapter, by Mr Luigi correspondent) is a lucid and Villari, is a very valuable coninteresting exposé of the various tribution to the Macedonian steps by which Greece, Rou- question. In the first sentence mania, Servia, and Bulgaria ob- of that chapter we readtained their independence. In

“Had the population of Macedonia his remarks upon the setting been homogeneous, the problem would aside of the Treaty of San have been settled long ago, but the Stefano, while admitting that mixture of races has ever been a there can be no doubt Russia marked characteristic of the Balkan had in view, by that treaty, the peninsula, and of no part of it more making of Bulgaria a Russian dependency, Mr Bourchier ex

And further onpresses the opinion that the “This confusion of tongues and Bulgarians, “by their dogged creeds makes the problem of Matenacity of character," would cedonian reform or autonomy more

difficult than it was in the case of have speedily

speedily emancipated Greece, Crete, Bulgaria, or Servia.” themselves from Russian influence. We regret that we The various races which form cannot share his views on this the population of Macedonia subject. Ask a Pole or a Finn are succinctly described. Mr what have been their experi- Villari estimates it as 700,000 ences. The fact is that the Mohammedans, and 1,300,000 throwing off the dominion of to 1,500,000 Christians. The a great military Power by a Christianshe divides into small Power is

a wellnigh four communities - Greeks, hopeless task.


e congrat- Bulgarians, Serbs, and Ruulate the Bulgarians that their mans or Kutzo-Vlachs. To the dogged tenacity of character Greek community he attributes was not put to so severe an 300,000 souls, and to the Kutzoordeal. Happily, by the re- Vlachs 100,000 souls. No markable political foresight of figures are given for the Serb Lord Beaconsfield the independ- and Bulgarian communities, ence of Bulgaria became the but it is implied that to

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