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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
HAROLD L. ICKES, Secretary
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
IRA N. GABRIELSON, Director
FISHERY MARKET NEWS
A REVIEW OF CONDITIONS AND TRENDS OF THE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES
A. W. Anderson, Editor
C. R. Lucas, Associate Editor
W. H. Dumont - MARKET NEWS
R. A. Kahn
Applications for FISHERY MARKET NEWS, which is mailed free to members of the fishery industry and allied interests, should be addressed
to the Director, Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Department of the Interior, Washington 25, D. C.
In 1941, "Manila," abaca fiber, became a Japanese prisoner. Sisal immediately came into prominence as a substitute for Manila, but competition for shipping space and risks involved in crossing the Caribbean and South Atlantic made it necessary to look for more accessible sources of this and other hard fibers.
Hemp grown in Italy and Hungary, where abundant supplies have been obtained, is now serving the Axis. The extended fighting in Russia has greatly lessened the production of the fine hemp grown there. Jute from India has been partially cut off by action in the Orient, but recent victories in that area have resulted in a steadier supply. Flax from France and Belgium, abundant export centers still is imprisoned. Shipping space and geography have thus had a great effect on our fiber supplies. Because of their importance to the military and to essential production, these fibers were early and wisely placed under the control of the War Production Board. 1/
More Manila hemp," which does not grow near Manila and is not hemp, has been used for marine cordage during the past 100 years than all other fibers combined. When the Philippines were invaded, the loss of this material was indeed serious, but the serviceability of the substitutes and blends over the last two years and tb progress being made in new developments inspire confidence for the future,
Marine cordage, which is the classification used by fisheries, must meet the most exacting requirements. It must be not only tough, durable, and reliable, but must also be able to withstand the effects of constant salt-water immersion. It is the purpose of this article to explain briefly the origin and known characteristics of some of the fibers which now are commercially used or which give promise of successful application in the fisheries. In general, there are two types of natural long fibers from which cordage is produced.
1. Hard or leaf fibers: These are hard and stiff and grow lengthwise through the pulpy tissues of the long leaves and the outer bark of the stems of plants found almost exclusively in the tropics. This group is used principally for cordage and coarse twine and is typified by abaca (Manila), sisal, and henequen.
2. Soft or bast fibers: These are soft and flexible, extending through the inner bark of the stems and main stalks of plants, and are used in finer twine, thread, and yarn. commercial production of soft fibers is confined to the Temperate Zone; hemp and flax grow in the cooler regions, jute and ramie in the warmer areas. Cotton is also included in this group although these short fibers are really seed hairs.
Hemp and flas were the earliest known fibers to be utilized, originating about 3000 B.C., * Technologist, stationed at Boston, Mass. 1/General Preference Order M-84, as amended October 27, 1943, War Production Board. 2/ Much of the information used here is from Fiber Production in the Western Hemisphere, by Lyster H.
Dewey, Miscellaneous Publication No. 518, V. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. c., 1943.
the furnishing of electricity, gas, light, heat, power or water otherwise than by a public utility.
Revised Maximum Price Regulation No. 165 (Services) becomes effective August 1, 1944, except for Alaska where it goes into effect September 1, 1944.
WFA NET WEIGHTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS FOR FISHERY PRODUCTS SUMMARIZED
The fishery commodities listed in Sections A and B of the War Food Administration's booklets on Conversion Factors and Weights and Measures for Agricultural Commodities and Their Products are included in the following tabulations, Section A, Conversion Factors, is composed primarily of factors used to convert food supplies and requirements into the units used in making allocations. These were developed by the Statistics Division of Requirements and Allocations Control from various sources throughout the WFA, particularly the commodity branches of FDA. Section B, Net Content Weights of Specified Containers, was developed by the Transportation and Warehousing Branch and represents the packaging and net weights of commodities as approved by the commodity branch responsible for their procurement.
Table 1--Relations Between Various Specification Weightse/
Factors for converting to
Dressed Edible Specification
weight:b/ weight weight weight
.70 .50 Dressed weight
.714 Edible weight .......
1.00 Trozen fish, domestic production and imports, fresh and frozen: Round weight ...
.70 .50 Reported weight
.588 Dressed weight
.714 Edible weight
1.00 Packaged Round weight
.35 Packaged weight
.41 Edible weight
1.00 Packaged, including fresh shucked oysters, clams, scallops, mussels, etc. : Reported weight
1.00 CURED FISH, ALL TYPESA/: Round weight
.50 Reported weight (cured weight)
.75 Edible weight
1.00 al Factors are for specified groups and are not applicable to individual species.
Weight of fish as removed from water.
and the U. S. Tariff Commission, a Rough approximations.
Commodity Clams Oysters
Table 2--Net Content Weight Per Gallon of Specified Shellfish
Lbs. per gal. Commodity
Shrimp, fresh cooked
Lbs. per gal.
Table 3-- Miscellaneous Factors 1 pound of dry-salted cod, haddock, hake, pollock, or cusk is equivalent to the following: 1.75 pounds green-salted
1.33 pounds pickled, filleted 1.50 pounds semi-dried
85 pounds inboneless" and "absolutely boneless"
Table 4--Factors for Obtaining Retail Weightsa/fron Weights at wbuh Allocations are Made
6/1.00 Shellfish, fresh and frozen
1.00 Cured fish
Cured weight Factors used for evaluating nutrients, Factor for obtaining edible weight from dressed weight is .50. Factor for obtaining dressed weight from round weight is .70.
Net Content Weights of Specified containers--Special Commodities Branch (Cont.)
Size and/or type
Net weight Commodity
in pounds 1
2 Fish, Cured Dry Salt, Pickléd and Smoked
128 Cusk, Dry Salt
112 Codfish, Dry Salt
100 Haddock, Dry Salt
112 Hake, Dry Salt
224 Shark, Fillets, Dry Salt
112 Half cask
224 Cask Tierce
300 Alewives, Salted Pickled
250 Alewives, Smoked ...
18 Blue Runners, Salted
300 Boni to Fillets, Salted Pickled
430 , Cod Fillets, Pickled, Skin on: Large
260 Codfish, Boneless, Salted
30 Haddies, Smoked Finnan
50 Herring, Brined Split
225 Herring, Smoked Bloater
18 Mullet, Pickled
300 Pilchards, Salted
125 Salmon, Pickled
200 MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS Feeding Oil
412.5 54-gal, drum
405 Fish Meal ..
100 VITAMIN PRODUCTS Fish Liver Oil (Vitamin A Conc.
Indicate in U.S.P. millions of units Fish Liver Oil (vitamin A and D)
Indicate in U.S.P. millions of units, broken down as to "A" and "D", 7.5 lbs. to 7.7 lbs. per gallon depending on potency.
Fish Oil (Fats and Oils Branch)
Net Content Weights of Specified Containers--Special Commodities Branch
Size and/or type Per canPer case Commodity
in lbs, 1
48/4's or 3072113
6 18 487*'s or 3072113
19.5 48/i's or 401x206
36 Standard and Fancy
21 48/i's or 401x206 13
39 48's or 211,109
10.5 Clams, Canned
21 48/1's picnic
31.5 Flaked Fish, Canned
24/1's or 300x407
21 48/1's or 300x407
15 45 48/i's or 300x407 14 48/1-16.
16 Ground Fish, Canned: Garfish
48/1's or 300x407 Manbaden
14 42 Trash (Spots, Whiting, Trouts)
48/1's or 300x409 15 45 Menbaden
6/10's' or 603x407 104 39 Herring, Canned: Round or Oval Dans
24/1's or 300-407 14
21 24/1's or 300x407 15 22.5 24/95's
18 27 48/1's or 300x407 14 42 48/1's or 300,407
45 Canned Kippered
37 9.75 12/12-oz.
9 Meckerel Canned (East or West Coast)
24/1's or 300
2 24/1's or 300
15 22.5 24/1's or 300
24 48/1's or 300
14 42 48/i's or 300
15 45 48/1's or 300
16 Miscellaneous Canned Fish: Cod Fish Cakes
7.5 Salt Mackerel Fillets
48/1's or 300x407 15 45 Squid
48/1's or 300x407 15 45 Oysters ..
105 31.5 Pilchards, Canned
31.25 96/£'s buffet or oblong 48/1's tall or 300 15 45 48/1's oval
15 45 Salmon, Canned (Alaska): Columbia River and Puget Sound
48A-1b. flat or oval
11,25 96/4-1b. flat or ovel
22.5 Puget Sound
48/1-1b. flat or oval
22.5 Columbia River
4872-1b. flat or oval
24 Continental U. S.
48/i's tall or oval
48 Alaska ..
48/1's tall or flat 16 Continental U. S.
15 Sardines, Canned
30 48/7's oblong
8 24 247300x407
15 22.5 48/1's oval
15 45 Sardines, Canned (Fillets)
24 Shrimp, Canned - Wet Pack
21 Shrimp, Canned Dry Pack
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