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assembled Cortes exhibited all man in the frontier provinces towards ner of weakness. Their measures were France.) as violent and oppressive on the one “ All the efforts of the Spanish governside,as the king's had been on the other. ment were vigorously applied to the exAnd they had, in the midst of appa, tirpation of these armed opponents of rent rule, no foundation of real moral the constitution. Mina marched in blood authority with them. The chief speake through the fair fields of Catalonia up to ers were newspaper editors, smart mer the very seat of the Regency' in the chants, eager young lawyers—the body Seo de Urgel, whence he succeeded in of nobility had scarcely a single re expelling that self-constituted authority. presentative of any part of their feel- Torrijos, a young and sanguinary comings, and none at all of their deepest mander, had orders to clear Aragon of feelings; and it was the same as to the the 'factious.' Similar instructions had church. Flashy harangues within been given to Carlos Espinosa in Nathe Cortes, and in the clubs that soon varre; and it cannot be doubted that rivalled even the hall of the Cortes as

both these chieftains used the most sincentres of attraction for the gapers,

cere endeavours to obey them. Indeed, were reiterated from night to night, the orders which were sent generally tó without any one step of a composing, the provinces with respect to those who soothing, healing tendency being ta

were not active supporters of the existken. Naples and Piedmont meantime ing system, would seem to have ema

nated from a conclave of men little acfollowed the example of Spain to the

customed to the usages of civilized warletter ; above all, in regard to the military part of the new revolutionary fare. What, for instance, is to be said

to the commander who, after receiving system. Conspiracies were raised, or at least suspected, in France, and Spa- that their lives should be spared, selects

prisoners, upon the usual understanding nish influence was the cry of the a certain number, and orders them to be Tuilleries. Spain was in fact in a shot? Not only has this barbarous outstate of civil war—and Piedmont and rage upon humanity been perpetrated by Naples having abandoned, without a

the constitutional chieftains, but in more blow, what they had borrowed from than one instance they have taken out Spain, the eyes of all Europe were unarmed inhabitants from their houses, fixed upon that country from which and upon mere oral information that they they had caught their mania, and were of the factious, without a trial, where the general impression enter or a legal inquiry of any sort, they comtained of the national pride and ob- manded them to be put to death. It was stinacy, naturally led all men to ex no uncommon circumstance to read in pect, in case any attack should be the provincial papers that such a person made from without, a very different was shot in such a village at 'the request sort of resistance from what had been of the people;' that is to say, a mob exemplified among those whom Shake raised a clamour against an individual, speare had of old characterized as and without ascertaining whether he was

guilty or innocent, the authorities order“ The Bastards that inherit but the Fall

ed the sentence of the sovereign peoOf the last Monarchy."

ple’ to be executed. And these faets What actually found its way to us

were related without a single observaof the course of things within Spain, tion expressive of surprise or sympathy, was such as to throw a considerable as if they were in the common course of damp upon whatever splendid expec- justice. Cruelty is not stripped of its tations might have at first been enter

criminality by whatever party it is exertained. The constitutionalists had ef- cised; and it appears still more sanguifected their revolution (of 1820) with,

nary in its character, when it is adopted comparatively speaking, very little by that side which bears at least the legal bloodshed. They were now alarmed,

semblance of supremacy.” and fear appeared in its usual shape of Such was the state of Spain, and cruelty. Mr Quin entered Spain in Ferdinand was a prisoner, powerless, October 1822, with Whig feelings and and without even the shadow of power, an ardent leaning to the constitutional in his palace, at the moment when the party. He wrote as follows, within two French King first uttered the word MONTHS after he had crossed the Py war;" and the English Whigs callrenees. (He has been talking of the ed on the Government of England to royalist bands that had been figuring re-ccho it. But the English Govern

ment answered "No." Mr Canning's their kingdom occupied by the French. speech, in which he told the world why Bound by treaty to protect Portugal, how he had said peace, when the Whigs natural was it under such circumstances called on him to say war, will always to extend our assistance to Spain ! be remembered. It stands in the very Again, Spain was at that time, compafirst class of his exertions. True ratively speaking, an united nation. I manly-energetic-sarcastic-clear- do not mean to say that there were no commanding-convincing-unanswer.

differences of opinion; I do not mean to able ; these are its characteristics. Well deny that some few among the higher

classes had been corrupted by the gold might England point to the mawkish romantic rhodomontades of Chateau

of France: but still the great bulk of the briand, on the one hand, and to the people were united in one cause; their cold, obstinate drivellings of the Spa- abdication; and though absent and a

loyalty to their sovereign had survived his nish penmen on the other—and be prisoner, the name of Ferdinand VIL proud.

was the rallying point of the nation, “ The voice of the honourable member But let the House look at the situation for Westminster is still for war; and he in which England would be placed should does me the honour to tempt me to take she, at the present moment, march her the same course, by reminding me of a armies to the aid of Spain. As against passage in my political life to which I France alone, her task might not be more shall ever look back with pride and satis difficult than before; but is it only with faction. I allude to that period when the France that she would now have to conbold spirit of Spain burst forth indignant tend ? England could not strike in the against the oppression of Buonaparte. cause of Spain against the invading foe Then unworthily filling the same office alone. Fighting in Spanish ranks, should which I have the honour to hold at the we not have to point our bayonets against present moment, I discharged the glorious Spanish bosoms?—But this is not the duty (if a portion of glory may attach to whole of the difference between the prethe humble instrument of a glorious sent moment and the year 1808. In cause)—of recognizing without delay the 1808, we had a large army prepared for rights of the Spanish nation, and of at foreign service ; a whole war establishonce adopting that gallant people into ment ready appointed ; and the simple the closest amity with England. It was question was, in what quarter we could indeed a stirring, a kindling occasion ; best apply its force against the common and no man who has a heart in his bo- ' enemy of England, of Spain, of Portugal, som, can think even now of the noble en. -of Europe. This country had no hopes thusiasm, the animated exertions, the un of peace ; our abstinence from the Spadaunted courage, the unconquerable per nish war could in no way have acceleraseverance of the Spanish nation, in a ted the return of that blessing; and the cause apparently so desperate, finally so Peninsula presented, plainly and obvitriumphant,--without feeling his blood ously, the theatre of exertion in which glow and his pulses quicken with tumul we could contend with most advantage. tuous throbs of admiration. But I must Compare then, I say, that period with remind the honourable gentleman of three the present, in which none of the inducecircumstances calculated to qualify a lit- ments, or incitements, which I have detle the feelings of enthusiasm, and to sug- scribed as belonging to the opportunity gest lessons of caution ;-I must remind of 1808, can be found, him first of the state of this country, “ But is the absence of inducement secondly of that of Spain-at that period, and incitement all? Is there no positive as compared with the present:-and discouragement in the recollections of thirdly of the manner in which the enter that time, to check too hasty a concurprize in belialf of Spain was viewed by rence in the warlike views of the honourcertain parties in this country. We are able member for Westminster ? When now at peace. In 1808 we were als England, in 1808, under all the circumready at war-we were at war with Buo stances which I have enumerated, did naparte, the invader of Spain. In 1808 not hesitate to throw upon the banks of we were, as now, the allies of Portugal, the Tagus, and to płunge into all the difbound by treaty to defend her from ag ficulties of the Peninsular war, an army gression ;-but Portugal was at that destined to emerge in triumph through time not only menaced by the power of the Pyrenees, was that course hailed France, but overrun by it; her royal fa- with sympathy and exultation by all parmily was actually driven into exile, and ties in the state ? Were there no warn

irige against danger ? No chastisements culators themselves —But in truth, sir, for extravagance ? No doubts-no com it revives at a most inconvenient opporplaints-10 charges of rashness and im- tunity. It would be as ill-advised to folpolicy ?-I have heard of persons, sir,- low a chivalrous impulse now, as it would persons of high authority too—who, in in 1808 have been inexcusable to disobey the very midst of the general exaltation it. Under the circumstances of 1808, Í of spirit throughout this country, decla- would again act as I then acted. But red, that, in order to warrant England though inapplicable to the period to which in embarking in a military co-operation it was applied, I confess I think the cauwith Spain, something more was neces tion which I have just quoted does apply sary than to shew that the Spanish cause with considerable force to the present was just.' • It was not enough,' said moment." these enlightened monitors, . it was not

And again; enough that the attack of France upon “ It is perfectly true, as has been arthe Spanish nation was unprincipled, per- gued by more than one honourable Memfidious, and cruel-that the resistance of ber in this debate, that there is a contest Spain was dictated by every principle, going on in the world, between the spirit and sanctioned by every motive, honour of unlimited monarchy, and the spirit of able to human nature that it made every unlimited democracy. Between these two English heart burn with a holy zeal to spirits, it may be said, that strife is either lend its assistance against the oppressor. openly in action, or covertly at work, There were other considerations of a less throughout the greater portion of Europe. brilliant and enthusiastic, but not less ne. It is true, as has also been argued, that cessary and commanding nature, which in no former period in history, is there so should have preceded the determination close a resemblance to the present, as in of putting to hazard the most valuable that of the Reformation. So far my hointerests of the country. It is not with nourable and learned friendt and the honations as with individuals. Those he- nourable Baronetwere justified in holdroic virtues which shed a lustre upon in- ing up Queen Elizabeth's reign as an dividual men, must, in their application example for our study. The honourable to the conduct of nations, be chastened Member for Westminster, too, has obby reflections of a more cautious and cal served, that in imitation of Queen Elizaculating cast. That generous magnani- beth's policy, the proper place for this mity and high-minded disinterestedness, country, in the present state of the world, proud distinctions of national virtue, is at the head of free nations struggling (and happy were the people whom they against arbitrary power. Sir, undoubtedcharacterize,) which, when exercised at ly there is, as I have admitted, a general the risk of every personal interest, in the resemblance between the two periods ; prospect of every danger, and at the sa- forasmuch as in both we see a conflict of crifice even of life itself, justly immorta- opinions; and in both, a bond of union lize the hero, cannot and ought not to be growing out of those opinions, which esconsidered justifiable motives of political tablishes between parts and classes of action;-because nations cannot afford different nations a stricter communion to be chivalrous and romantic.'His- than belongs to communion of country. tory is philosophy teaching by example; It is true, -it is, I own I think, a formiand the words of the wise are treasured dable truth,—that in this respect the two for ages that are to come.

periods do resemble each other. But “* The age of chivalry,' said Mr Burke, though there is this general similarity, is gone; and an age of economists and there is one circumstance which mainly calculators has succeeded! That an age distinguishes the present time from the of economists and calculators is come, reign of Elizabeth, and which, though by we have indeed every night's experience. no means unimportant in itself, has beenBut what would be the surprise, and at overlooked by all those to whose arguthe same time the gratification, of the ments I am now referring. Elizabeth was mighty spirit of Burke, at finding his herself amongst the revolters against the splendid lamentation so happily dispro- authority of the Church of Rome; but ved !-at seeing that chivalrous spirit, we are not amongst those who are enthe total extinction of which he deplo- gaged in a struggle against the spirit of red, revive, quá minimé reris,--on the unlimited monarchy. We have fought very benches of the economists and cal- that fight. We have taken our station.

* Earl Grey's speech of 1808.

+ Sir J. Mackintosh.

#Sir F. Burdett.

We have long ago assumed a character any contest into which we may be herediffering altogether from that of those after forced against our will." around us. It may have been the duty and the interest of Queen Elizabeth to Mr Cavning would not have injured make common cause with,--to put her his cause, if he had spoken out a little self at the head of those who supported more fully even than he did. He the Reformation ; but can it be either might have said, what nobody can feel our interest or our duty to ally ourselves more deeply than he must do, that the with Revolution ?-Let us be ready to liberty in which England has been, afford refuge to the sufferers of either and is happy, is not the same liberty extreme party; but it is not surely our for which the Spanish Constitutionalpolicy to become the associate of either.

ists and the Italian Carbonari have Our situation now is rather what that of been doing everything but fighting. Elizabeth would have been, if the Church

That it is not the same thing with the of England had been in her time already

French Revolution liberty, of which completely established in uncontested supremacy—acknowledged as a legitimate been the fond, though not the valiant

the leaders of all these parties have settlement, unassailed and unassailable

adorers. But he was to speak not as by Papal power. Does my honourable and learned friend believe that the policy

a man, but as a minister; and he cerof Elizabeth would in that case have been tainly did say enough to vindicate most the same?

effectually the conduct of the govern“ Now our complex constitution is es

ment he represented, throughout the tablished with so happy a mixture of its long and intricate train of“ sayings and elements,—its tempered monarchy and do ogs” that preceded the declaration its regulated freedom-that we have no

of war on the part of Louis XVIII. thing to fear from foreign despotism, By our proud and determined adhe nothing at home but from capricious rence to our NEUTRALITY, we preventchange. We have nothing to fear,-un- ed any of the other allied princes from Jess, distasteful of the blessings which we taking part in the French war against have earned, and of the calm which we Spain. The papers laid before Parliaenjoy, we let loose again, with rash hand, ment prove, both that those allies were the elements of our constitution, and set very willing to come forward, and that them once more to fight against each we, we alone, checked them. We thus other. In this enviable situation, what prevented the opening of a war of that have we in common with the struggles sort, in which England must sooner or which are going on in other countries, later have joined. We secured to Spain for the attainment of objects of which we that she should at least have but one have been long in undisputed possession? adversary to contend with ; and this an We look down upon those struggles from adversary of a very different sort from the point to which we have happily at some she might otherwise have had. tained, not with the cruel delight which We did all for Spain that we could do, is described by the poet, as arising from short of rushing into a war in which it the contemplation of agitations in which

was by no means clear that the Spathe spectator is not exposed to share, but

NISH NATIon was about to enter as with an anxious desire to mitigate, to en

And has not the result lighten, to reconcile, to save-by our example in all cases, by our exertions where wise, we should indeed have been wor

shewn, that, if we had acted other. we can usefully interpose. “Our station, then, is essentially nez. nings, and Wilsons for Wellingtons?

thy of having Cam Hobhouses for Cantral-neutral not only between contending nations, but between conflicting prin

We presume it may be taken for ciples. The object of the Government granted, as a general rule, that when a has been to preserve that station ; and nation, or even a part of a nation, is se for the purpose of preserving it, to main- riously engaged in the pursuit of liberty, tain peace. By remaining at peace our. ' or of any other good thing, that nation, selves, we best secure Portugal; by re- or part of a nation, must, as the world maining at peace, we take the best chance is constituted, rely chiefly upon itself. of circumscribing the range, and shorten. There is, in all the history of mankind, ing the duration, of the war, which we no instance whatever of one nation becould not prevent from breaking out be- ing obliged to another for its domestic tween France and Spain. By remaining freedom. Nor is there any example at peace, we shall best enable ourselves whatever of any considerable portion to take an effectual and decisive part in of any nation achieving any signal im

A NATION.

7. In York Place, London, the Lady of Joseph bella, youngest daughter of the late Major Wm. Hume, Esq. M. P. of a daughter.

Wilson, of Polmally. - At Oatfield, East Lothian, Mrs Alex. Bum, - James Begbie, M. D. to Eliza, second daughof a daughter.

ter of the late Robert Speare, Esq. of Millbank, 9. At Crook, near Stirling, Mrs Micking, of Cheshire, twin sons.

13. At Auchindinny, Mr James Ritchie, sta12. At Portsmouth, the Lady of Major-General tioner, Edinburgh, to Janet, eldest daughter of Sir James Lyon, K.C. B. of a daughter.

Mr George Laing, paper manufacturer there. - At Cargen, the Lady of William Stothert, *13. Lieut.-Colonel Colquhoun,

to Magdalene, Esq. of a daughter.

fourth daughter of John Stein, Esq. of Kennet14. At Belmont, the Lady of Mathew Fortescue, pans. Esq. of a daughter.

17. Henry Bellenden Ker, Esq. of Lincoln's 15. Lady Dunbar of Boath, of a son.

Inn, London, to Elizabeth Ann, eldest daughter of 16. At Greenbank, near Glasgow, Mrs W. D. Edward Clarke, Esq. of Cheshunt, Herts. Blair, of a daughter.

19. At Staple Grove near Taunton, Major Mrs Clarke of Comrie, of a daughter. Stepney Cowell, of the Coldstream Guards, to

Mrs William Young, Great King Street, of Euphemia Jemima, eldest daughter of General a daughter.

John Murray, and sister to Major-General Murray, At Wheatfield House, the Lady of Mark Lieutenant-Governor of Demerara. Sprot, Esq. of Garnkirk, of a daughter, still-born. 24. At Glasgow, Matthew Fleming, Esq. mer

16. At Greenock, the Lady of Lieut-Colonel chant, to Jane, eldest daughter of the late Robert Douglas, 79th Regiment, of a son.

Strang, Esq. 18. At Blackheath, the Lady of Captain P. H. - At Kinnaber, near Montrose, William Smart, Bridges, R. N. ot a daughter.

Esq. of Cononsyth, to William, daughter to R - At Shrubhill, Leith Walk, the Lady of John

Gibson, Esq; Mansfield, Esq. of a daughter.

- At Millfield, by Leven, Mr Henry Balfour, 20. At Hillhousefield, Mrs James Borthwick, of Durie, to Agnes, eldest daughter of Mr Robert a daughter.

Bisset, Millfield. - Mrs Tod, 46, Charlotte Square, of a daugh 25. At Glasgow, Henry Houldsworth, jun. Esg. ter.

to Helen, only daughter of the late James Hamil25. At Larchgrove, near Edinburgh, Mrs Dr ton, Esq. of Glasgow. Morison, of a son, being her fifteenth child.

- At Dolphingston, Mr Samuel Johnston, BarLately. In Castle Street, the Lady of Colonel bauchlaw, to Christiana Mary, daughter of Mr O'Connel, 73d Regiment, of a daughter.

James Cunningham.

- At Edinburgh, Mr David Robertson, merMARRIAGES.

chant, Grangemouth, to Euphernia, daughter of Jan. 21. At Googry, East Indies, Joseph Wool John Charles, Esq. Sciennes Street. ley, Esq. assistant-surgeon 2d battalion Gth Regi. 27. At the Manse of Methlick, James Nicol, Esq. ment, to Mary, eldest daughter of Lieut.-Colonel advocate in Aberdeen, to Barbara, only daughter W. G. Maxwell, commanding that battalion. of the late Rev. George Allan, minister of New

Feb. 8. At Bengal, Thomas Reid Davidson, Esq. hills. of the Civil Service, to Helen Eliza, eldest daugh 29. At Rankillor Street, Edinburgh, Mr John ter of Lieut.-Colonel J. Paton, Commissary-Ge C. Tweedie, merchant, Leith, to Helen, only neral in Bengal.

daughter of Alexander Cunningham, Esq. June 5. At Bombay, Donald Smith Young, Esq. - At Edinburgh, on Saturday, Sir Abraham of the Hon. East India Company's Medical Ser Elton, Bart. of Cleveden Court, Somerset, to vice, Madras Establishment, to Mary, second Mary, eldest daughter of the late William Stewart, daughter of Campbell Mackintosh, Esq. of Dal Esq. of Castle Stewart, and niece of Kenneth, migavie, Inverness-shire.

Earl of Seaforth.
July 14. (0. S.) At St Petersburgh, Colin
Campbell Sawers, Esq. merchant, St Petersburgh,

DEATHS. to Miss Marjory Forman, of that city.

Dec. 8. 1822. At Canton, Captain Thomas San. Oct. 17. At Kingsburgh, Isle of Skye, the Rev. ders, of the Orwell, Indiaman. Roderick M‘Leod, minister of Brackadale, to Feb. 11, 1823. At Chunar, Bengal, Lieut. George Miss Ann M‘Donald ; and on Nov. 2d, George Gordon, of the 21st Regiment, N. I. and Fort Gun, Esq. to Miss Margaret M‘Donald, both Adjutant at Chunar. daughters of D. M‘Donald, Esq. of Skeabost. Mar. 20. At Fort Marlborough, Bencoolen, the

23. At Sheriff Mill, near Elgin, Alex. Suther lady of Lieut.-Colonel M Innes, of the Hon. East and, Esq. Rose Valley, to Ann, daughter of John India Company's service. Innes, Esq.

April 21. At Choadiinghow, East Indies, Lieut, 27. At Denbie, Thomas Dickson, Esq. of Lon John Hadaway, 24th Native Infantry, Bengal, don, to Mary, second daughter of Lieut.-Colonel surveyor of Government lands in Rochileund, Carruthers of Denbie.

and eldest son of the late Patrick Hadaway, Esq. 30. At Wandsworth, Archibald Montgomery Aug. 50. At St Thomas's in the East, Jamaica, Maxwell, Captain in the Royal Artillery, to Mary, Mrs Monro of Novar. third daughter of John Falconer Atlec, Esq. of Oct. 3. At Rasay House, the same day with her West Hill House, Wandsworth.

brother, James M'Leod of Rasay, Mrs Martin of Nov. 1. James Webster, Esq. of Balmuir, For Attadale. farshire, and of West Ham, Essex, to Miss Eliza 4. At Xerez de la Frontera, in Spain, James beth Ramsay, of Mark Lane.

Gordon, Esq. senior partner of the old established 3. At Bush House, Fisherrow, Lieut. Patrick house of Gordon & Co. of said city. Kerr, Royal Navy, to Helen, daughter of Mr 11. At Auchtermuchty, Mr James Bowes, surRobert Mitchell, wood-merchant.

geon, aged 74. 4. In Castle Street, Lieut. Henry Steele, of the 16. At his residence, in the Royal Arsenal, Royal Navy, to Margaret, third daughter of the Woolwich, Lieut.-General Baily Willington, Cololate Captain John Stenhouse, of the 20th Regi. nel Commandant of the 2d Battalion of the Royal ment of Foot.

Regiment of Artillery. - At Haddington, Mr James Gibson, to Mary 19. At Perth, Mrs Hosack, wife of Dr Hosack, Ann, youngest daughter of the late Robert Somer physician there, late surgeon to his Majesty's forces. ville, Esq. surgeon there.

20. At Edinburgh, David Rutherford, youngest 6. At Barossa Place, Perth, Mr William Wilson, son of the Rev. James Rutherford, minister of bookseller, Edinburgh, to Margaret, eldest daugh Hownam. ter of the late John White, Esq.

24. At Musselburgh, Mrs William Charles, jun. 10. At Mary-le-bone Church, London, Walter 25. At Elie, Fifeshire, Dr John Croley, late Stevenson Davidson, Esq. of Inchmarlo, Kin

surgeon to the Canadian North-West Company, cardineshire, to Anne, only daughter of Gilbert - At Lynlish, near Granton, Lieut. Colonel Śir Mathison, Esq.

Maxwell Grant, K.C.B. late of the 420 Highland- At Stirling, John Telford, Esq. cashier of

eru. the Stirling Bank, to Jane, eldest daughter of 26. At Gremston Lodge, Yorkshire, Mrs Hag. Thomas Wright, Esq. of Glenny, late Provost of gerston, jun. of Ellingham. Stirling.

- At Muttonhole, Mr Robert Renton, farmer 12. At Polmally Glen, Urquhart, Inverness-shire, there. Sir Charles Chambers, one of the Judges of the 27. At Rink, Mr Thomas Arras, farmer, CraigSupreme Court of Judicature at Bombay, to Isa crook.

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