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and adultry Martial (VI. 31) hints the reason why Charidemus shuts his eyes to his wife's indiscretions with the medical attendant,

"Uxorem, Charideme, tuam scis ipse sinisque

A medico futui; vis sine febre mori."

Herodes, stole a cup while attending a patient whom he supposes will no longer require it, (IX. 96)

"Clinicus Herodes trullam subduxerat ægro

Deprensus, dixit, 'Stulte, quid ergo bibis'"?

Cosmetics and other "beautifying" washes were being constantly made up, prepared, and invented by medical men-dyes, depilatories, scents, and essences. Martial gives the names of some physicians who evidently were renowned as specialists. Cascellius extracts the aching tooth, Hyginus burns away the superfluous hair which may irritate the eye, Eros effaces the tristia stigmata which has branded the forehead of the slave now free, while Hermes is equal to Polidarius in his treatment of ruptures.

Hydropathy numbered many celebrated physicians in its ranks who were opposed to the treatment followed by the school which ordered wine to be given, the latter being known, as we are told by Marquardt under the name of οἰνοδόται. To the former school belonged Musa, the physician who cured Augustus by the cold bath treatment, and who was the first physician raised by the gift of the gold ring (jus annuli) to the rank of knight, being exempted from all taxation, and receiving, as we are told by Suetonius, the honour of a statue erected by public subscription, near to that of Esculapius. (Medico Antonio Musa cujus opera ex ancipiti morbo convaluerat sta

tuam ære collato juxta signum Esculapii statuerunt.)

Tacitus mentions several cases where the court physician attained to dignities and honours. Fees were evidently pretty considerable,especially when the physician had attained to reputation. Galen received a fee of 400 pieces of gold for curing the wife of Boethus (£435). The court physician appointed by Claudius showed by his books that he was making an income of 600,000 sestertii, and that by accepting the post offered to him, the value of which was less than half that sum (250,000 S.), he was proving both his love and loyalty to the Emperor. Many more instances might be quoted of large sums, but the above are sufficient, though we need scarcely add that several among the minor practitioners found it pretty hard work to make both ends meet, and, as we have shown from the extracts quoted from Martial, returned to their former occupations, or began some entirely new trade.

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The most amusing and natural part of Galen's work, and that which even at the present time may be taken as a satire on many persons, members not only of the professions, but those also in enjoyment of private fortunes, is to be found in his directions as to the behaviour of medical men when attending the sick-room. Our author advises physicians to pay frequent or few visits according to the wish of the patient, many persons objecting to repeated visits. Physicians often, by speaking loud, and treading heavily, awake the sick person from what may be a refreshing sleep, and thus a feeling of dislike is produced. The attitude adopted must be one of care, neither obtrusive nor servile, as, according to Hippocrates, the cure depended on three things, the patient, the disease, and the physician. Quintus, a countryman of Galen, once smelt so strongly of

wine that a sick man asked him to keep at a distance from the bed, upon which Quintus reminded him coarsely that he himself often endured much worse smells in the sick-room. The patient must not be thwarted when compliance is likely to be productive of no evil consequences. Hippocrates points out that the skill of the doctor is often sufficient in itself to produce the necessary respect, and therefore he must be careful of his diagnoses, astonishing those about by the correctness of his assertions or predictions. Galen boasts that he had repeatedly cured persons living at a distance by simply listening to a detailed account of their symptoms, by feeling the pulses suddenly of those whom he suspected of tampering with themselves by taking quack medicines, by finding out the cause to be a case of "being in love," the pulse beating more rapidly as the "loved one" entered the room; and of many other cures which he had performed, but which we cannot enter into here, though such of our readers whom the subject may interest will find much pleasant reading and information in the edition published at Leipzig, and forming one of the series known as the "Medicorum Græcorum opera que extant, cura C. G. Kuhn, 26 vols., 8, Leipz. 1821-33;" as well as in the "Histories" of Friedlaender, Mommsen, Marquardt, and many of the articles in Smith's Dictionaries of Antiquities and Biography.

Much may be found in the works of Aristaus the Cappadocian, valuable even at the present time; but the remedies would be difficult to procure, and even then persons might object to take down such boluses as the following remedy for elephas: "of the shavings of an elephant's tooth one dram with wine to the amount of two cyathi. But likewise the flesh of vipers formed into pastils are taken at

a draught (kai aïde es ἀρτίσκους πεπλασμέναι πίνονται.) From their heads and tail we must cut off to the extent of four fingers' breadth, and boil the remainder to the separation of the back-bones; and having formed the flesh into pastils they are to be cooled in the shade; and these are to be given in a draught in like manner as the squill."

In like manner, when speaking of theriac, we find the expression κal or διὰ τῶν θηρίων φάρμακον, showing that the compounds we have alluded to above as given by Galen in no wise exaggerated; speaking of epilepsy, theriac is again recommended as one of the compound medicines; and our author relates having seen persons holding a cup below the wound of a man recently slaughtered and drinking a draught of the blood. This being certainly a more severe and terrifying remedy than that mentioned by Pliny as being the formula adopted by Cato as a cure for sprains: "Haut, haut ista pista vista," an expression which would not even be censured at Exeter Hall.

The celebrated accusation made by Juvenal in his 6th Satire against the fashionable women of his day, though evidently levelled against a female practitioner

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"Natorum mihi jus trium roganti
Musarum pretium dedit mearum
Solus qui poterat. Valebis uxor
Non debet domini perire munus."

From "The Oath," to be found in the works of Hippocrates, published by the Sydenham Society, edited by Dr. Francis Adams, we make a few extracts having reference to this subject: "I swear by Apollo the physician, and Esculapius and Health and All-Heal (Hygeia and Panacea) and all the gods and goddesses that, according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this oath and this stipulation-to reckon him who taught me this art equally dear as my parents, to share my substance with him, and relieve his necessities if required; to look upon his offspring on the same footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this art if they wish to learn it, without fee or stipulation; and that by precept, lecture, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge of this art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to disciples bound by stipulation and oath according to the law of medicine, but to none others. I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel, and in like manner I will not give to a woman a pessary to procure abortion.

With purity and holiness I will pass my life and practise my art. I will not cut persons labouring under the stone, but will leave this to be done by men who are practitioners of this work. Into whatever houses I enter I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption, and, further,

from the seduction of females or males, of freemen or slaves. Whatever, in connection with my professional practice or not in connection with it, I see or hear in the life of men, which ought not to be spoken of abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret. While I continue to keep this oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art respected by all men, in all times! But should I trespass and violate this oath, may the reverse be my lot!"


Aristotle, the editor informs us, did not display the same humanity as Hippocrates, as he abortion in some cases, and it is much to be feared that this crime was of frequent occurrence, together with that abomination known in the nineteenth century as "baby farming." That medical men would do well to observe the latter part of "the oath" relating to gossip, is a fact apparent to all. How many practitioners of the present day call on patients simply to spread a scandal or evil report from house to house, pocketing as a reward the fee paid to them for the few minutes' enjoyment. This love of gossip was indeed prevalent in Rome, many are the allusions made to it. "At fuit fama ins. Quotusquisque istam effugere potest in tam maledicâ civitate? says Cicero; an expression used by Hieronymus five hundred years later. Juvenal tells us that the fair sex was ever anxious to get the latest information, while Martial sneers at the bellus homo Cotilus, who passes a great part of the day among the chairs of the ladies, whispering into some one's ear, knowing everything, who loves who, therefore present at all suppertables :


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"Qui scit, quam quis amet, qui per convivia currit."

The following description of a not uncommon malady, taken from Paulus Egineta, may amuse some of our readers; the section being headed "On love-sick persons." "It will not be out of place here to join love to the affections of the brain, since it consists of certain cares. For care is a passion of the soul occasioned by the reason's being in a state of laborious emotion. The following symptoms attend lovers; their eyes are hollow and do not shed tears, but appear as if overflowing with gladness, their eyelids move rapidly; and even when none of the other parts of the body are affected, these parts are always so affected in lovers. There is no pulse peculiar to lovers, as some have supposed, but it is the same as that of persons labouring under care. When they call to recollection the beloved object, either from seeing or hearing, and more especially if this occurs suddenly, then the pulse undergoes a change from the disorder of the soul, and therefore it does not preserve its natural equability or order." These being the symptoms, we find among the remedies the following: "Rhases, with unusual brevity, merely recommends, in general terms, repeated enjoyment, fasting, walking, and frequent intoxication." The latter we may suppose to be on the similia similibus theory.

Archeology, which has in the last few years been greatly developed in its many branches, gives us some knowledge of the medicaments found useful in ophthalmic cases. In the work by Mr. King, to which we have alluded, we find mention made of some of the stamps bearing inscriptions referring to these medicines. M. Ulpius Heracles was the inventor of the stratioticum, the diarrhodon (rosesalve) for impetus, or inflammation of the eyes; of cycnaricum, an

ointment for the same disease C. Cap. Sabiniani. Diapsoricum ad Calig-the latter (caligines) being dimness of sight produced by overwork, or by the glare of the burning Italian sun. A stamp found at Gloucester reads thus Q. IV.L MYRANI. MELINVM. AD. CLARITATEM - this being a honey-wash useful in clearing the sight. M. Tochon d'Anneci, in his brochure, gives several curious names of remedies, and the learned German writer, Grotefend gives, many more details in his "Stempel der röm. Augenärzte."

From the above account it may be seen how, in many instances, the characters of the medical men of ancient Rome correspond almost exactly with those of our own physicians; how the small differences between the contraria contrariis curantur and the similia similibus were looked upon as of the same vital importance as they are even now, how the Sangrado school maintained its opinions, and how in many cases the patients suffered when a necessary theory was to be proved. Martial and Juvenal have handed down to us many hits against the vices of their day, levelling accusations against the "fast" set in Rome, which almost appear to reflect some of the immorality and vice yet prevalent in the nineteenth century. But taking such works of the early medical profession as have come down to us, we find contained in their pages much to be taken to heart. As to the writings of the satirists, those of Juvenal must be read with interest, as being from the pen of a fearless author who did not dread to expose, even at the risk of losing his life, the terrible sins which he saw taking place around him; who did not fear to hold up to scorn Domitian, the blackest of all tyrants.

Of Martial we can but speak

with feelings bordering on contempt. His lash might, indeed, have been turned on himself, as belonging to a class of sycophants who did much by their toadyism to encourage the very faults which he himself held up to scorn. But severe as those writers are, the fact that they scarcely ever hold up members of the medical profession to censure may be taken as a sign that the physicians in Rome did not spare their time or energies when

called upon to oppose some dread disease, but as a class kept themselves as free from scandal as do most of the members of the profession at the present time. Taking, therefore, the various notices and works that have come down to us, we can but look back with admiration on those who devoted themselves to the healing art, leaving behind them names enrolled in golden letters among the great workers of the world.

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