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been used from the most primitive ages by the Christian clergy. It is spoken of by the first council of Braga, A. D. 563; by Isidore Hispalensis, A.D. 600; the council of Laodicea in Phrygia, A.D. 360; Severianus Gabalitanus, in the time of Chrysostom; and many others': and it has been continu
V ally used by all the churches of the west and east, and by the monophysites of Antioch and Alexandria. The stole, always called úpáplov by the Greeks, was a long scarf, which was fastened on one shoulder of the deacon's albe, and hung down before and behind. The priest had it over both shoulders, and the two ends of it hung down in front. The eastern churches call the stole of the priests emit paxńcov. Thus simply were the dresses of deacons and priests distinguished from each other in primitive times. Fig. VI, No. 3, represents the stole as worn by deacons over the left shoulder; Fig. VII, No. 1, represents it as used by priests.
The origin of the pall, which has been generally worn by the western metropolitans, is disputed; but whoever considers the ancient figures of it which are found in manuscripts, and in the mosaic of the church of Ravenna, constructed about A.D. 540, (see Fig. I. No. 1. and Fig. II. No. 1.) will see that it was originally only a stole wound round the neck, with the ends hanging down behind and before. In the east the pall is called omophorion, (wodópov,) and has been used, at least, since the time of Chrysostom, who was charged with accusing three dea
v Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. i. c. 24. §. 6. Gavanti p. 147. Bingham's Antiquities, b. xiii.
c. 8. $. 2. Gerberti Liturg. Aleman. tom. i. p. 240.
cons of taking his omophorion w. It is worn by all the eastern bishops, above the phenolion or vestment, during the eucharist; and, as used by them, resembles the ancient pall much more nearly than that worn by western metropolitans.
THE ROCHETTE AND CHIMERE.
The rochette is spoken of in the old Ordo Romanus, under the title of linea; and has, no doubt, been very anciently used by bishops in the western church. During the middle ages it was their ordinary garment in public. The word rochette is not however of any great antiquity, and perhaps cannot be traced further back than the thirteenth century. The chief difference between this garment and the surplice formerly was, that its sleeves were narrower than those of the latter; for we do not perceive, in any of the ancient pictures of English bishops, those very wide and full lawn sleeves which are now used.
Dr. Hody says, that in the reign of Henry the Eighth our bishops wore a scarlet garment under the rochette; and that in the time of Edward the Sixth they wore a scarlet chimere, like the doctors' dress at Oxford, over the rochette; which, in the time of queen Elizabeth, was changed for the black satin chimere used at present. History of Convocations, p. 141.
The chimere seems to resemble the garment used
w See Photii Bibliotheca, p. 55. Paris, 1611.
x Gavanti Thesaurus, tom. i. p. 142.
by bishops during the middle ages, and called mantelletum ; which was a sort of cope, with apertures for the arms to pass through. (See Du Cange's Glossary.) The name of chimere is probably derived from the Italian rimarra, which is described as “ vesta talare de' sacerdoti et de' chierici.” Ortografia Enciclopedica Italiana, Venezia, 1826. Fig. VIII. represents a bishop dressed in a chimere, No. 2; and rochette, No. 3.
THE PASTORAL STAFF.
The pastoral staff, called baculus pastoralis, cambutta, &c. was spoken of in the fourth council of Toledo, held near 1200 years ago, as being used by bishops. In the western church it was frequently given to bishops at their ordination. Fig. III, No. 4, represents a pastoral staff of an ancient form, such as is depicted on the curious font in the cathedral of Winchester, and in a manuscript of the Barberini library, copied by Gerbert, Liturg. Aleman. Tabula VIII, No. 2. p. 251. In later times it was curved into the form of a shepherd's crook. The eastern bishops use a pastoral staff of another form, which may be seen in Goar's Greek Ritual, p. 115. For additional information on this subject, see Bona, Rerum Liturgicarum lib. i. cap. xxiv. §. 15, and Gerbertus de Liturgia Alemannica, tom. I. p. 256, 257.
It is by no means improbable that the surplice was, in very ancient times, not different from the albe. In fact, it only varies from that garment, even now, in having wider sleeves. The inferior clergy were accustomed to wear the albe at divine service, as we find by the council of Narbonne, A. D. 589, which forbid them to take it off, until the liturgy was ended. Probably in after-ages it was thought advisable to make a distinction between the dresses which the superior and the inferior orders of clergy wore at the liturgy; and then a difference was made in the sleeves. And from about the twelfth century the name of surplice was introduced. In Latin, it was superpelliceum, or cotta ; see Bona, Rerum Liturg. lib. i. cap. 24. . 20. Fig. III. No. 2. Fig. IV. No. 3. represent surplices.
During the middle ages, bishops very frequently wore the surplice with a cope, and above the rochette, as is represented in Fig. III.
THE HOOD, AND SQUARE CAP. The hood, in Latin caputium, almucium, amicia, &c. is perhaps as ancient a garment as any of which I have spoken, and was formerly not intended merely for distinction and ornament, but for use. It was generally fastened to the back of the cope, casula, or other vesture, and in case of rain or cold was drawn over the head. It was formerly used by the laity as well as the clergy, and by the monastic orders. In universities, the hoods of graduates were made to signify their degrees by varying the colours and materials. In cathedral and collegiate churches, the hoods of the canons and prebendaries were frequently lined with fur or wool, and always worn in the choir. The term almutium, or amice, was par
ticularly applied to these last. See Du Cange, Glossary, Paris 1733, vocibus Capucium and Almucium. Du Cange supposes that the square cap was formerly that part of the amice which covered the head, but afterwards separated from the remainder. See his Glossary, voce Amicia. If this conjecture be right, the square caps used in the universities, and by the clergy, derive their origin from the customs of the canons regular during the middle ages. All our clergy are permitted to wear the hood at the daily service, and on other proper occasions.