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ON ECCLESIASTICAL VESTURES.
THE rubric of the English ritual which immediately precedes the office for morning prayer, contains the following words relative to the ornaments of the church and ministers : “ And here it is to be noted, that such ornaments of the church, and of the ministers thereof, at all times of their ministration, shall be retained, and be in use, as were in this church of England, by authority of parliament, in the second year of the reign of king Edward the Sixth.” This refers to the Act of Uniformity, passed in that year, authorizing the “ Book of Common Prayer,” &c. And that book contains the following directions relative to the subject; which, for the sake of clearness, I shall compare with the version of Alessea, who translated the English ritual into Latin immediately after it was published in 1549. RITUAL OF 1549.
ALESSE'S VERSION. | And whensoever the bi- Episcopus in celebratione shop shall celebrate the holy cænæ, et administratione sacommunion in the church, or cramentorum, induat lineam execute any other public min- aut albam, et cappam vel caistration, he shall have upon sulam, et habeat baculum pahim, beside his rochette, a storalem. P. 455. surpless or albe, and a cope
a Inter Buceri Scripta Anglicana, p. 379, &c. Basil, 1577.
or vestmente, and also his
pastoral staffe in his hande, or else borne or holden by his chaplain.
Upon the day and at the Die destinato ad celebratiotime appointed for the min- nem cænæ Domini, sacerdos istration of the holy commu
indutus alba, casula, vel cappa, nion, the priest that shall exe- astabit altari ; et in locis ubi cute the holy ministry shall sunt plures sacerdotes et diaput upon him the vesture ap- coni, tot ex his juvabunt pastopointed for that ministration ; rem quot opus haberint, induti that is to say, a white albe, vestibus destinatis ad eorum plain, with a vestment or cope. ministerium, hoc est albis et And when there be many
tunicis. P. 422. priests or deacons, then so many shall be ready to help the priest in the ministration as shall be requisite; and shall have upon them likewise the vestures appointed for their ministry, that is to say, albes, with tunicles.
Upon Wednesdays and Diebus Mercurii et Veneris, Fridays, the English Litany litania Anglica cantatur, vel shall be said or sung in all dicatur omnibus locis, sicut a places, after such form as is serenissimo rege est præscripappointed by the king's majes- tum. Cum autem non adsunt ty's Injunctions. And though communicantes, tamen diebus there be none to communicate dictis, post litaniam sacerdos with the priest, yet these days indutus alba aut linea, cum (after the Litany ended) the
cappa, recitabit ea, quæ in priest shall put upon him a cæna Domini recitari solent, plain albe or surpless, with a usque dum perveniat ad offercope, and say all things at the torium. P. 431. altar, (appointed to be said at the celebration of the Lord's supper,) until after the offertory. In the saying or singing
In matutinis et vesperis, bapof matins and evensong, bap- tismo, sepultura, etc. in paro
tizing and burying, the minis- chialibus ecclesiis, minister inter, in parish churches and duat vestem lineam. chapels annexed to the same, thedralibus et collegiis, archishall use a surpless : and in diaconi, diaconi, doctores, præall cathedral churches and col. positi, magistri, possunt uti orleges, the archdeacons, deans, namentis suorum graduum et provosts, masters, and preben- dignitatum. Sed in omnibus daries and fellows being gradu- aliis locis, liberum erit miniates, may use in the quire, be- stris, uti et non uti linea veste. sides their surplesses, such hoods as pertaineth to their several degrees, which they have taken in any university within this realm. But in all other places, every minister shall be at liberty to use any surpless or not.
The vestures, &c. mentioned in the preceding passages, are the vestment, cope, tunicle, albe, rochette, hood, surplice, and pastoral staff; which, with the scarf or stole, and the chimere, used by the church, though not mentioned in the preceding quotations, I shall briefly notice b.
The vestment or chasible, called in the western churches casula, planeta, pænula, amphibalum, &c., and in the eastern φαινόλιον or φενάλιον, has been used by the ministers of the Christian church from a period of remote antiquity. Gregory of Tours
b The authors from whom I have chiefly compiled the following pages are, Bona, Rerum Liturgicarum lib. i. cap. 24; Gerberti Vetus Liturgia Ale
mannica, tom. i. disquisit. iii. cap. 3; Goar, Rituale Græcum; Du Cange's Glossary; Ferrarius de Re Vestiaria.
c Goar, Rituale Græc. p. 112.
speaks of the casula of Nicetius, bishop of Lyons, about A. D. 5600; Isidore Hispalensis mentions its use in Spaine; and Sulpicius Severus alludes to the “ amphibalum” or vestment of Martin, bishop of Tours, A. D. 380', a word which is used by a subsequent Gallican writer as a name for the casulas. In the patriarchate of Constantinople and the east, the phenolion has been used from time immemorial; and the monophysites of Antioch and Alexandria have retained the use of it since their separation from the catholic church A. D. 451. The former call it “ faino;" the latter, “ albornozh.” We have very ancient pictures representing this vesture. The sacramentary of Gregory the Great, written in Gaul in the time of Charlemagne, and published by Menardi; a manuscript of the works of Gregory Nazianzen, written in the east about the year 860, and copied by Ducangej; and a mosaic in the church of Ravenna in Italy, as old as the time of the emperor Justinian A. D. 540k; enable us to describe the ancient form of this vesture. It was a garment extending from the neck nearly to the feet, closed all the way round, with only one aperture, through which the head passed. When the Liturgy or other offices were to be performed, this vesture was lifted up at the sides, while the front and back still re
Gregorius Turonensis, Vi. h Renaudot, Liturgiar. Oritæ Patrum, cap. 8.
ental. tom. i. p. 179; tom. ii. e Isidorus, lib.xix. Originum, p. 55. cap. 24.
i Menard, Sacramentar. Gref Sulpitius, dialog. ii. de Vita gorii, p. and 364. S. Martini, n. 1 and 2.
i Du Cange, Historia Byg “ Casula quam amphiba- zantina, lib. iii. p. 125. lum vocant.” Germanus de k Ferrarius de Re Vestiaria, Missa, Martene, Thesaurus An- p. 108. Paris, 1654. ecdotorum, tom. v. p. 99.
mained pendent. We find innumerable monuments of this dress in the east and west ; and in England almost all the figures or statues of bishops now extant, represent the casula raised at the sides. At the end of this Appendix the reader will find engraved illustrations of the ecclesiastical dresses. Figures I. and II. represent bishops arrayed in the vestment or chasible, (marked with the number 2,) according to the ancient form as used by the fathers and bishops during the most primitive ages. The Greeks still retain the ancient form of the vestment. The Latins in process of time divided this garment at each side for the sake of convenience. Originally the casula was worn, not only by bishops and presbyters, but by all the inferior clergy; but in the course of ages it became peculiar to presbyters and bishops. The casula varied in its materials and decoration with the means of those who gave it. Sometimes it was made of wool or hair; sometimes of linen, silk, velvet, or cloth of gold. It was adorned at pleasure with needlework, gold, silver, and jewels. It admitted various colours, as white, black, green, yellow, purple, blue. Most anciently, however, it was always white, which was the favourite colour in primitive times, as denoting internal purity; and to this day no other colour is used by the Egyptian churches, nor in the patriarchate of Constantinople. The vestment is appointed by the English ritual to be worn by bishops in celebrating the eucharist, and in all other public ministrations; in which, however, they may use a cope instead of it. The vestment is also appointed to be used by priests in celebrating the eucharist, but on no other occasion. The rubrics containing directions for the use of the vestment