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while nominally free; be is still in bondage; for freedom must also be the prerogative of the white, as well as of the black man, and the white man must likewise be left free to form his most intimate social relations; and be is not, and never has been disposed, in this country, to unite himself with a caste, marked by so broad a distinction as exists between the two races. The testimony on these two points of those who have had abundant advantages for observation, has been uniform and conclusive. For the colored man himself, then for his children, Liberia is an open city of refuge. He there may become a freeman not only in name, but a freeman in deed and in truth.
" Liberia has strong claims upon Christian aid and sympathy. Its present and prospective commercial advantages to our country, will far counterbalance the amount appropriated by private benevolence in planting and aiding the colony and the Republic. Its independence ought to be acknowl. edged by the United States. This, according to the opinion of President Roberts, would not imply the necessity of diplomatic correspondence, while the moral and political effects would be beneficial to both parties. England, by early acknowledging the independence of Liberia, and cultivating a good understanding with its Government and people, has greatly subserved ber own commercial interest, while responding to the call of British philanthropy.”
The volume to which we refer, contains many interesting facts in the cruise of the Perry on the African coast, and exhibits the just and earnest activity of her commander against the slave trade, and his interest in whatever appeared to promote success in the colonization and civilization of the Afri
About this time, the Yorktown, Commander Bell, captured the American bark Pons, with 896 slaves on board, which were subsequently landed at Monrovia. The Perry proceeded repeatedly far down the coast, seized and sent home the American slave sbip Martha, subsequently condemned; ascertained much in regard to the slave trade; conferred with British naval officers in regard to the best method for its prevention, and vindicated with all Christian courtesy the rights of the American flag, and the determination of our country that it should not cover with impunity the most odious traffic.
We copy here a few sentences from this work, indicating the just views cherished towards Africa by Admiral Foote:
“Strange and frightful maladies have been engendered by the cruelties perpetrated within the bold of a slaver. If any disease affecting the human constitution were bronght there, we may be sure that it would be nursed into mortal vigor in these receptacles of filth, corruption, and despair. Crews have been known to die by the fruit of their own crime, and leave ships almost helpless. They have carried the scourge with them. The coast fever of Africa, bad enough where it has its birth, came in these vessels, and
[From the Friend, copied from a London paper.]
CAPACITY OF THE NEGRO RACE. It is really marvellous how, at this juncture, the old allegations which have beən made against the mental equality of the negro with the white race, so rife during the struggle for emancipation, and which would think had been completely disproved, are revived, to justify the keeping of that race in bondage, just as if, were the allegations correct, they could possibly afford any pretext for subverting and keeping it in subjection. Were such a doctrine once admitted, in extenuation of slaveholding, wbere, we venture to ask, would be the limitation ? It may be as well, under these circumstances, to reproduce some very recent evidence bearing on the question we have referred to. To the Editor of the (London) Daily News:
Bida NOPE, CENTRAL AFRICA, Jan. 14, 1862. SIR : Having been cut off from all commurication with the outer world for nearly two years, I only lately received the Daily News and other periodicals for the latter months of 1859, and 1860; and this must account for the late appearance of the present letter. In an account of an American meeting where the subject of slavery was introduced, one of the speakers asserted, as an aryument in its favor, that the intellect of Africans is inferior to that of white races. The name " African" is of wide application, and includes many races, but as regards one among them to which this term is frequently confined-viz: the negro-having now lived among them for nearly five years, and had constant daily opportunities of observation, I have no hesitation in contradicting the statensent. The intellect of the negro races is uncultivated, and untried to any great extent, but I feel certain that when duly developed it will be found in no respect inferior. It certainly bas its peculiarifies, as that of every race has, as may be seen on comparing a Russian with a Dane, a German with a Spaniard, or, in our own islands, on contemplating the reflecting, progressive Anglo-Saxon with the impulsive, unthinking Celt.
Could the American speaker see the the king of the country from which I am now writing, I believe he would change his opinion. Could he see the amount of business he daily gets through, the manner in which he rules his kingdom, how he manages the various races of his subjects, his ideas of justice, bis acquaintance with every detail, he would be cou, pelled to acknowl. edge that at least one African was a man of intellect. I have mentioned him as being near to me, he first occurring to my recollection, but I could, were it necessary, adduce many other instances. Among my followers I have representatives of some seven or eight distinct tribes, and I have found no difficulty in teaching them any trade or art, and I have now among them many whom I can implicitly trust. About nine months ago, I rescued a little girl about eight or nine years old from some slave-dealers; she belonged to a very rude tribe, and when I first received her, she was rather wild-looking and savage. Since that time she has, by merely a little care being paid
to her, quite altered her habits and appearance, and is quite reconciled to our semi-civilized life. She has acquired one rather difficult language, the Nupe, and is now fast progressing with another, the Hausa; and this, remember, is the progress of a mere child, of unpromising antecedents, in nine months.
In another of your numbers, a correspondent, writing on the subject of the West Indies, asserts, on the authority of Barth, Richardson, and Livingstone, that the African races are incapable of steady, continuous labor. I do not so read Dr. Barth's account, while Dr. Livingstone's remarks apply to tribes of the Kaffre, and not to the negro race. My own observations, made during lengthened residences, often of several months, in various places, lead me to an opposite result. Wherever I have been, I have found the bulk of the population steadily pursuing their occupations, from day to day, and from week to week, whether as traders, agricultural labores, hunters, or fishermen; and as far as I can learn, they go on so for years, if not interrupted by sickness or war. Of course, their labor is not that of an English or Scotch workman; the climate is different, and more exhausting, nor do either the culture or the means of living require such exertions. Here, in Nupe, the farm laborer proceeds to his daily work at daylight, and never returns till afternoon, possibly not till after 4 P. M. The Yomba race is noted above all for love of money, and Yombans daily follow the pursuit of gain and the boarding up of wealth as eagerly and as keenly and unceasingly as Jews are held to do among us. I have among my followers men whose daily work would not be found fault with in England, especially those from Gbari, a country east from Nupe.
In conclusion, allow me to express my conviction that any real advance in Central Africa must be attempted, not by emigration of bodies of men from the United States or the West Indies, for negroes who have been brought up in these countries are essentially foreigners, and are less able to adapt themselves to the customs of the land of their forefathers than Englishmen are. It must be effected rather by the more individual exertions of white traders: and others personally interested in the country, and by the labors of practical missionaries, such as many whom I could name, as distinguished from the mere doctrinal and preaching missionary. With such an essentially trading race as the negro is, legitimate commerce is the true remedy for this destructive slave trade, and it is, I firmly believe, the precursor and pioneer of civilization and of Christianity.
I am, sir, &c.,
WILLIAM BALFOUR BAIKIE.
West Coast of Africa-The Slave Trade. An African mail steamer arrived at Liverpool, brings late dates from the west coast. Trade at Lagos was almost entirely suspended on account of internal wars. The region back of Lagos is very populous, comprising the walled city of Abbeokuta, and several others nearly as large, but the constant warfare between the tribes forbids any progress toward civilization.
Τ Η Ε
WASHINGTON, AUG., 1863.
[From the London Times, June 23.] Captains Speke and Grant in London-Welcome by the Royal Geographical
Society. An extra meeting of the Royal Geographical Society was held last night, at Burlington House, to welcome back to England Capts. Speke and Grant, and to hear from them a short account of their discovery of the source of the Nile. Long before eight o'clock the large room was crammed in every part with a fashionable audience, all eager to see and hear the heroes of the Nile. As it was, large numbers were disappointed, the hall not being large enough to hold the whole of the crowd of would-be-welcomers of these brave men.
In opening the meeting, Sir Roderick I. Murchison, the President, said that, although it was before the hour fixed, he was sure the impatient audience would not be loth to make the acquaintancee of Captains Speke and Grant at once. He would, therefore, take the chair, and commence the meeting immediately by introducing to them the travelers who had achieved so grand a success. (Loud cheers.) As Englishmen they had every reason to be proud that this great discovery had been made by this nation, and the Fellows of the Society were to be specially congratulated upon the successful termination of an expedition that had been carried out with the means supplied by them.
Sir Roderick went on to give an account of the state of our knowledge with respect to the source of the Nile up to the time of Capts. Speke and Grant's discovery, that Lake Victoria Nyanza was the chief feeder of this mighty river. In a brief account of the matter that he had sent to the London Times, on the 29th of May, he had stated that no maps older than three hundred years gave any trace of this great lake; but he had since learned that it was not only clearly marked in an Arabian map of Africa, over one thousand years old, but that Ptolomy was the first geographer who gave an account of these sub-equatorial lakes. Many travelers, in all ages, had tried to ascend the Nile, but none of them reached beyond the third parallel of northern latitude, or within four or five hundred miles of Lake Nyanza. It would please them all to know that their chief patron (the Queen) took the greatest possible interest in this marvellous achievement of human enterprise. Her Majesty had specially congratulated him most graciously on the subject during her visit to the International Exhibition building, a few days since.
The Prince of Wales, their vice-patron, evinced no less interest in the discovery than her Majesty, and it was only through a most pressing engagement that his Royal Highness was not present that evening
The King of Italy had sent through the Marquis d'Azeglio two gold medals specially struck in honor of the occasion for presentation to Captains Speke and Grant, accompanied by a most flattering letter, which he would read to them. The French Geographical Society having given Capt. Speke their gold medal for his discoveries in the Lake Nyanza district in 1858, Capt. Speke had shown his sense of the honor done to him by naming the principal channel leading from the Lake after the Emperor Napoleon. He would take up their time no longer, but at once introduce to them Capt. Speke, who would, on behalf of himself and his companion, Capt. Grant, read to them a paper on the “ Nile and its Tributaries."
On coming forward, Capt. Speke met with a most flattering reception, the whole meeting rising and cheering loudly. When silence was at last restored, Capt. Speke said that before reading his paper, he begged to introduce to them a little boy belonging to one of the most intelligent of the equatorial tribes. It was through the friendliness and fidelity of a man of this tribe that he was able to complete his great work, and he thought it only just that the Government should educate some of the most intellectual of this race, and send them back to their native country as consuls, to assist in spreading our commerce and civilization throughout Eastern Africa. The little fellow, a fine boy of about fourteen, is an excellent specimen of the intellectual black type, his nose being as straight and his forehead as high as those of a European, although his woolly head and dark skin were thoroughly characteristic of his African blood. He seemed in no way disconcerted at his reception, and was as cool and collected as if he had attended the meetings of the Society all his life.
Capt. Grant had a similar companion with him.
Capt. Speke commenced his paper, “The Nile and its Tributaries Compared,” by describing the Lake Nyanza the principal head of the Nile. This lake is situated in latitude three degrees south,