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In case the priest should doubt from the answers of those who bring the child, whether it was lawfully baptized, a form of proceeding is appointed, which is also prescribed by the ancient rubrics of the English churches.

But if they which bring the Si vero dubitet rationabiliinfant to the church do make ter sacerdos utrum infans ad such uncertain answers to the baptizandum sibi oblatus prius priest's questions, as that it in forma debita fuerit baptizacannot appear that the child tus, vel non : debet omnia perwas baptized with water, in ficere cum eo sicut cum alio the name of the Father, and quem constat sibi non bapof the Son, and of the Holy tizatum, præterquam quod Ghost, (which are essential verba sacramentalia essentiaparts of baptism,) then let the lia proferre debeat sub condipriest baptize it in the form tione, hoc modo dicendo: before appointed for public baptism of infants; saving that at the dipping of the child in the font, he shall use this form of words :

If thou art not already bap- N. si baptizatus es, ego non tized, N. I baptize thee in the rebaptizo te: sed si nondum name of the Father, and of the baptizatus es, ego baptizo te Son, and of the Holy Ghost. in nomine Patris et Filii et Amen.

Spiritus Sancti. Amen r.

r Manuale Sarisb. fol. 44, 45. Eboracens. ad finem baptismi.




ANCIENT RITES OF CONFIRMATION. THE rite of confirmation (which is sometimes called a sacrament by the Fathers, though not in the same high and peculiar sense as baptism and the eucharist a) was regarded as an appendix to the sacrament of baptism. Not indeed that baptism was in any way imperfect or invalid without confirmation; but that the grace which the Holy Spirit communicated at baptism, for the remission of sins and regeneration, was increased and strengthened by confirmation. In primitive times, when many persons were baptized together on the vigils of Easter, Pentecost, and Epiphany, in the presence or by the hands of the bishop, the newly baptized, after ascending from the water, were immediately confirmed by him, with imposition of hands and a The Fathers

the name

confirmation as a sacrament, of sacrament or mystery to every

because the chrism signified thing which conveyed one sig- the grace of the Holy Ghost; nification or property to unas

and the imposition of hands sisted reason, and another to was not merely a bare sign, faith. Hence Cyprian speaks of but the form by which it was the “sacraments” of the Lord's conveyed: see Bingham, book Prayer, meaning the hidden xii. c. I. sect. 4. Yet at the meaning conveyed therein, same time they continually which could only be appre- speak of two great sacraments ciated by a Christian. The of the Christian church. Fathers sometimes speak of


prayer for the Holy Ghost. In after-ages, when baptisms were administered in many other churches besides the cathedral, and the presbyters and deacons received a commission from their bishops to administer this sacrament, it became necessary either to disjoin confirmation from baptism, or to give presbyters a commission to perform both. The former course has been followed by the western churches of England, &c. where confirmation is

c. always administered by the bishop, and generally several years after baptism; and the latter has been adopted by the patriarchate of Constantinople and all the eastern churches, in which presbyters have, from time immemorial, been permitted to confirm ; and in those churches confirmation is always administered to infants immediately after baptism. To the apostolical rites of prayer and imposition of hands, the church added that of anointing with an unguent or chrism, made of oil and balsam, and hallowed by the prayers of the bishop. It is difficult, if not impossible, to state the period at which the use of chrism was introduced into the church; but we learn from the writings of Tertullian and Origen, that it was already customary both in the east and west at the end of the second or beginning of the third century b. This chrism was intended to signify the grace of the Holy Spirit then conferred.

Notwithstanding the antiquity of chrism in the church, yet the imposition of hands is still more


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b Tertull. de Baptismo, c. 7. imponitur, per benedictionem

, “ Exinde egressi de lavacro advocans et invitans Spiritum perungimur benedicta uncti- Sanctum.” Origen. Hom. ix. c. 8. “ dehinc manus in Levit.


primitive. By this rite, accompanied with prayer, the apostles conferred the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit; and in the same manner the successors of the apostles communicated those spiritual gifts which are not perceived by the senses, but by faith.

In all the rituals of the Christian church, and in those of the Monophysites and Nestorians, who have in some respects separated from the apostolic doctrines, we find prayers at confirmation, in which the bishop or his representative invokes the grace of the Holy Spirit on those who are to be confirmed: and in almost all we find this prayer preceded or followed by an imposition of hands. The ancient Roman order, according to the sacramentary of Gelasius, and the ordo Romanus, and many other monuments, directed the bishop to give the imposition of hands to all the candidates at the same time, whilst he invoked the manifold gifts of the Holy Ghost for themd. In the church of Alexandria a similar invocation was followed by an imposition of hands and a benediction. The Nestorians, who separated

. from the catholic church about A. D. 431, still retain the imposition of hands on each individual, followed by a benediction and prayere. The churches


c Sirmond, a learned Jesuit, ab episcopo datur eis Spiritus admits the imposition of hands septiformis. Ad consignandum to be the peculiar rite of con- imponit eis manum in his verfirmation, to which the church bis.” Ordo Romanus apud Hitadded chrism. See his senti- torp. p. 83. “ Pontifex vero vements at p. 341, 352 of the niens ad infantes-elevata et Anæreticus Petri Aurelii, Pa- imposita manu super capita ris, 1633. Habertus and Es- omnium, det orationem super tius agree with him. See Bing- eos, cum invocatione septiforham's Antiq. book xii. c. 3. mis gratiæ Spiritus Sancti.” §. 2.

e Rituale Copt. Alexandrin. d Sacramentar. Gelasii, Mu- Assemani, tom. iii. p. 84. Ordo ratori, tom. i. p. 571. “ Deinde Chald. Nestorian. ib.

p. 138.

of Constantinople, of Armenia, and of Antioch and Jerusalem, all desire prayer to be made for the Holy Spiritf, but they do not seem directly to notice the imposition of hands. However, we know that originally it was used in the east by the testimony of the Apostolical Constitutions. Nor may we justly say that these churches are devoid of a valid confirmation, because they retain the prayer for the Holy Spirit: and if we do not reckon the imposition of hands in the anointing to be the original form, it may yet suffice; since we have no reason to judge that the ancient form was omitted from any wrong motive. It should be noticed, that the imposition of hands seems not to have been given to each individual in the ancient Roman ritual”, though in the patriarchate of Alexandria, and in Chaldea, such a form appears to have prevailedi. And although the church of England has directed the bishop to lay his hand on the head of each individual with a benediction, yet the ancient rite of the Roman church, when the bishop lifted up his hands over all the



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f Goar, Rit. Græc. p. 355. ended, and the deacons asking Ordo Confirm. Armen. Asse- the name of each of the chilmani Codex, tom. iii. p. 118.

Pontifex tincto pollice Rit. Syror. ib. p. 149, 155.

in chrismate, faciat crucem in g Ταύτα και τα τούτοις ακόλουθα frontibus singulorum ita dicenλεγέτω. εκάστου γάρ η δύναμις της do,” &c. p. 83. This form coχειροθεσίας εστίν αύτη. Apost. incides with that appointed by Const. lib. vii. c. 44. p. 381. the Roman Pontificale de Con. ed. Clerici.

firmandis, except that the ruh This appears from the an- bric does not distinctly recogcient Ordo Romanus, where, as nise it as an imposition of it is cited in note d, the bishop hands. “Tunc extensis versus is first said to invoke the grace

confirmandos manibus," is of the Holy Spirit on the chil. somewhat different from

eledren, “ elevatâ et impositâ vatâ et impositâ manu super manu super capita omnium;" capita omnium.” and then, the prayer being

i See note e, p. 200.

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