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climbing up the neft, it sometimes is a circumstance that hitherto, 1 drops its buithen, and thus is foiled believe, has escaped the notice of in its endeavours; but, after a little the ornithologist. So great is the respite, the work is resumed, and disproportion, that it is in general goes on almost incessantly till it is smaller than that of the houle-spareffected. It is wonderful to see the row; whereas the difference in the extraordinary exertions of the young size of the birds is nearly as five to cuckoo, when it is ewo or three days one. I have found a cuckoo's egg old, if a bird be put into the nest fo light, that it weighed only 43 with it that is too weighty for it to grains; and one so heavy, that it lift out. In this state it leems ever weighed 55 grains. relless and uneasy. Bat this dis The circumstance of the young position for turning out its compa- cuckoo's being destined by nature to nions, begins to decline from the throw out the young hedge-sparrows, time it is two or three, till it is about seems to account for the parenttwelve days old; when, as far as I cuckoo's dropping her eggs in the have hitherto seen, it ceases. Indeed, Aests of small birds, as the smallness the disposition for throwing out the is a condition requisite to enable the egg; appears to cease a few days young cuckoo to throw thein out. fooner; for I have frequently teen It may be remarked, that though the young cuckoo, after it had been nature permits the young cuckoo to hatched nine or ten days, remove a make this great waste, yet the anje nettling that had been placed in the mals thus destroyed are not thrown nest with it, when it suffered an egg, away, or rendered useless. At the put there at the same time, to re- sealon when this happens, great main unmolested.

numbers of tender quadrupeds and Having found that the old hedge- reptiles are seeking provision ; and sparrow commonly throws out some if they find the callow nestlings of her own eggs after her neft has which have fallen victims to ihe received the cuckoo's, and not young cuckoo, they are furnished knowing how she might treat her with food well adapted to their peyoung ones, if the young cuckoo culiar late. was deprived of the power of dif It appears a little extraordinary, poffeffing them of the nest, I made that two cuckoo's eggs Mould ever the following experiment.

be deposited in the fame neft, as the July 9.

A young cuckoo that young one produced from one of had been hatched by a hedge-spar- them must inevitably perith ; yet I row about four hours, was confined have known two instances of this in the neft in such a manner, that it kind, one of which I Mall relate. could not posibly turn out the June 27, 1787. Two cuckoos and young hedge-sparrows, which were a hedge-Sparrow were hatched in the hatched at the same time, though it fame nest this morning; one hedgewas almost incessantly making at- sparrow's egg remained unhatched. tempts to effect it. The consequence In a few hours after, a contest began was, the old birds fed the whole between the cuckoos for the pofalike, and appeared in every respect session of the nest, which continued to pay the same attention to their undetermined till the next afternoon; own young as to the young cuckoo; when one of them, which was someuntil the 13th, when the nest was what fuperior in size, turned out unfortunately plundered.

the other, together with the young 'The smallness of thecuckoo's egg, hedge-sparrow and the unbatched in proportion to the size of the bird, egg. This contest was very remark

able.

able. The combatants alternately presented to it with great vehemence, appeared to have the advantage, as often at the same time making a each carried the other several times chuckling noise like a young hawk. nearly to the top of the neft, and Sometimes, when difturbed in a then funk down again, oppretted by finaller degree, it makes a kind of the weight of its burden ; till at hiiling noise, accompanied with a length, after various efforts, the heaving motion of the whole body*. ftrongest prevailed, and was after- The growth of the young cuckoo is wards brought up by the hedge- uncommonly rapid. sparrows.

The chirp is plaintive, like that Mr. Jenner enters into the en: of a hedge-sparrow, but the found quiry, why the cuckoo should not, is uot acquired from the fosterlike other birds, build a neft, incu- parent, as it is the same whether it bate its eggs, and rear its own young. be reared by the hedge-fparrow, or He thinks this may be owing to the any other bird, fhort residence this bird is allowed There feems to be no precise time to make in the country where it is fixed for the departure of young destined to propagate its species, and cuckoos. I believe they go off in a call which nature has upon it, fucceffion, probably as soon as they during that short refidence, to pro- are capable of taking care of themduce a numerous progeny. There selves; for although they stay here is no reason to be aligned why, from till they become nearly equal in faze the formation of the cuckoo, it and growth of plumage to the old mould be prevented from incuba- cuckoo, yet in this very state the tion, or from bringing food to its fostering care of the hedge-sparrow young

is not withdrawn from them. I have Mr. Jenner next fhews, from frequently feen the young cuckoo facts, that birds can keep back or of luch a fize that the hedge-Sparro:v bring forward their eggs, under has perched on its back, or halfcertain limitations, at any time dur- expanded wing, in order to gain ing the season appointed for them to sufficient elevation to put the food lay; but the cuckoo, not being sub- into its mouth. At this advanced ject to the common interruptions, stage, I belicve that young cucgoes on laying from the time she be- koos procure some food for them. gins till the eve of her departure from felves ; like the young rook, for inthis country, which happens gencral- stance, which in part feeds it felt, ly about the first week of July. and is partly fed by the old ones till

Among the many peculiarities of the approach of the pairing seafon. the young cuckoo, there is one that if they did not go off in successicn, fhews itself very early. Long before it is probable we should see them in it leaves the nest, it frequently, when large numbers by the middle of Auirritated, assumes the manner of a gust; for as they are to be found in bird of prey, looks ferocious, throws great plenty t, when in a neftling itself back, and pecks at any thing liate, they must now appear very.

* Young animals, being deprived of spring, and imitates very closely the other modes of defence, are probably found of the word buff! as we proendowed with the powers of exciting nounce it in a loud whisper. This diffear in their common enemies. If yoù position is apparent in many other anibut flightly touch the young hedge- mals. hog, for instance, before it becomes + I have known four young cuckoos fully armed with its prickly coat, the in the nests of hedge-sparrows in a little animal jumps up with a sudden small paddock at the same time.

22

pumcrous,

numerous, fince all of them must the eggs and young of the owner of have quitted the nest before this the nest. The scheme of nature time. But this is not the case; for would be incomplete without it; for they are not more numerous at any it would be extremely difficult, if feaion than the parent birds are in not impossible, for the little birds, the months of May and June. destined to find succour for the cuc

The fame instinctive impulse koo, to find it also for their own which directs the cuckoo to deposit young ones, a ter a certain period; her eggs in the nests of other birds, nor would there be room for the directs her young one to throw out whole to inhabit the neít.

SELECT BIOGRAPHY,

TH

MEMOIRS

them, that Mr. Hanway never

spoke or wrote of his mother, but OF JONAS HANWAY, ESQ.

in terms of the highest reverence and [From Mr. Pugh's " Remarkable Occur. gratitude. rences in the Life of that Gentleman."]

Jonas was put to school by his mo

ther, in London, where he learned HE character of a philan- writing and accompts, and made

thropist, or a lover of man. some proficiency in Latin. At the kind, is certainly one of the most age of seventeen he went over 10 exalied which can excite the notice Lisbon, where he arrived in June or claim the admiration of every de- 1729, and was bound apprentice có scription of finite beings. Whether a merchant in that city, it is in imitation of a few indivi. Here his affections were captiduals, such as the one before us; vated by a lady, then celebrated for from the leflons of divines; the her beauty and mental accomplishwritings of moralists;

from an ments ; but the preferring another innate delire of lessening human dif- for her husband, returned to Eng. tresses; there cannot remain a doubt, "land, and spent the latter part of but that universal benevolence has her life in London with her family, of late considerably adorned the na on terms of friendhip with Mr. tional features of Great Britain. Hanway.

“ Jonas Hanway, Esq. was born On the expiration of Mr. Hanat Portsmouth, in Hampshire, on way's apprenticeship, he entered inthe twelfth day of August 1712. to butinels at Lisbon as a merchant His father, Mr. Thomas Hanway, or factor; but did not remain there was an officer in the naval line, and long before he returned to London. for some years agent victualler at From the time of his arrival in Lorie Portsmouth. He lost his life by an don, to the year 1743, when he accident, and left his widow with went over with intention to settle at four children, Jonas, William, Tho- St. Petersburgh, nothing remarkable mas, and Elizabeth, all of a very happened. tender age.

In 1743, he entered into an enMrs. Hanway, thus deprived of gagement” which totally changed her protector and support, and left the course of his life ; and was atto rear up a young family by her tended with occurrences truly reown exertions, removed with her markable. children to London ; and such was In February 1743, Mr, Hanher maternal care and affection for way accepted the offer of a partner

thip in the house of Mr. Dingley, Jews, brought in and paffed by both a merchant, at St. Petersburgh; houses of parliament about 1754. and embarking in the river Thaines In consequence of which, and perin the April following, he arrived 'haps for other reasons that occurred at St. Peterfburgh the tenth of June. to the ministry, that act was repealHere he first became acquainted with ed the following year. Mr. Han the Catpian trade, then in its infancy, way about this time also suggested a and entertained an ardent desire to plan for an uniform pavement of 1ee Perfia, a country so renowned ihe streets of Westminster, which for extraordinary events in ancient were disgraced by numberlefs inconand modern times.”

veniences, particularly dangerous Here Mr. Pugh proceeds to give to foot paffengers; and, if he did an abridged account of Mr. Han not wholly effect, he certainly conway's travels through Perlia; dur- tributed to that uniformity which at ing which, though his principal at- present sublists. tention was contined to commercial The advantages resulting from objects, there are many indications the institution of the Marine Socieof the natural goodness of his heart, ty, are too conspicuous to be here and which, on hazardous emergen- recapitulated. cies, is considerably heightened by a “ Mr. Hanway had not only the manly and prudent display of per- merit of being the original proposer sonal intrepidity. After an abfence of this design; but by the most juof eight years, he returned to Lon- dicious and unceasing attention to don; giving up the most lucrative its intereft, and the management of prospects, partly on motives of its finances, deserved the title of its health, and, more than all, to have guardian allo: he led it as it were full leifure for the glorious exercise by the haod, during its intant ftate; of a benevolent propensity. and protected and watched over it,

“ When Mr. Hanway arrived in with the care of a parent, till it ar. London, he went to live at the rived by degrees to the strength and houte of his sister, then Mrs. Town- maturity it at present enjoys. fend, in the Strand, where proper In 1757, Mr. Hanway publime apartments had been prepared for ed his journey from Poritmouth him ; and his mercantile affairs be- to Kingston,'whish running through ing finally closed, except only some two editions, in the last he animadTemittances which he received after- verted on the pernicious custom of wards from his partpes at St. Peters- tea-drinking, and the expence it' burgh, he lived here as a private created to the lower clasles of the gentleman. His fortune was small; people. Doctor Johnson, to whom but it was sufficient to fatisty all his this liquor was extremely grateful, wants, and atford a portion to alle- and who applied to it when his spiviate real distress, when it came to rits wanted recruit, as others apply his notice. His carriage, which was to a cordial, was at that time enof the kind called a Solo, from its gaged in a periodical work, called holding but one person, was orna The Literary Magazine.' Stirred mented with his motto,

66 never de

up by this attack on his favourite spair," and the device of a man juft beverage, the Doctor condescended escaped from a storm at fea, on a to stoop from tliat dignity of characdefolate coast."

ter, which he was so peculiarly quaMr. Hanway was distinguished lified to support, and in an anonyby his opposition in several pamph- mous effay inserted in his work, leis, to the bill for naturalizing the without answering the remarks made

by

by our author, attacked him in his his line of life, and by this effay personal character, in a style be- convinced their mutual friends, tween irony and ill-nature. The that he was not more superior to Doctor, in his warmth, perceived his adversary in learning, than innot that Mr. Hanway's remarks ferior to him in affability and social were not intended for people in benevolence.

HISTORY OF NATIONAL EVENTS.

FOR THE YEAR 1988.

T

office. In the House of Commons, THOUGHTS ON THE CONTINENTAL WAR-BRITISH HISTORY, ON THE

Mr. Fox confidered the Prince's SUBJECT OF THE REGENCY. claim as matter of right; and in the

House of Peers, Lord Loughborough HE feverity of the season supported the same position.

having fufpended the military the other hand, Mr. Pitt mainoperations of the belligerent powers, tained that his royal highness, in it became almost a general opinion, point of right, had no ftronger claim át the conclufion of the campaign, than any other fubject, and brought that the principal courts of Europe parliament to a decision upon the would become mediators, and by question, which was determined in their exertions produce a peace. favour of his opinion. li must be This however has not happened, acknowledged even by the opponents nor do the contending parties evince of the minister, that the right of any symptoms of an amicable dispo- the two houses of parliament to profition towards each other.

vide for the existing neceffity, was We intended to have appropriated almost universally admitted; and if, the whole of this month's political re- on the other fide, the word right, as trospect to foreign affairs; but a do- applied to the Prince of Wales, had mestic event of the most serious nature been fairly construed into the term has called for our attention, as hav- claim, which construction it certainly ing been not only alarming, but pro- bears, much parliamentary discul. dučtive of as serious, interesting quef- fion would have been avoided. tions, as ever came before the people The debates on this question, and of this country.

every other public question that arose The malady with which his ma- on the regency, will be found rejefty was afflicted, fpread a general ported in our parliamentary history; alarm over Great Britain and Ire- in this department therefore, we shall Jand; and, on the meeting of parlia- only oblerve upon the principles, ment, the minister found that the and investigate the motives, which neceility of the times demanded the influenced the oppofing parties. immediate appointment of a regent, It is an essential principle in moto administer the executive power of rals, that opposite and contending the crown, his majesty being then rightscan, in nocase, haveesitteace. incapable of exercising the royal By the finplett and most obvious of functions.

the operations of reason, opposite Every man looked up to the claims, like oppofite arguments, are Prince of Wales as the only person mutually destructive, and it is the who could with propriety fill the preponderating weight only that temporary vacancy in the kingly possesses substance and operation.

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