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gents of the western continent against and ship captains concerned in the Great Britain, hath materially weak- infamous traffic. The evidence alened her own internal resources. It ready given on the question, though hath also communicated to the no- it does not fully amount to all the bility and people, a relish for that horrid facts contained in the charges liberty which their army fought for againit this trade, yet exhibits miin America, and with which their series truly pitiable, cruelcies grofs soldiers were delighted. Her par- and refined; and every man of liamencs have felt the flame, which, feeling muft with, even though the like an electric Ihock, seems to have consequence fhould be the loss of affected the whole nation in an in- rum, of sugar and of indigo, that a (tant; and the rights of the people trade which annually involves thouare openly opposed, in contradiction fands in Slavery, and subjugates them to the usurpations of the crown. to the exercise of every torture that

These events were truly propitious can afflict the body or mind, may be to the situation of Great Britain, on totally abolished. It is not solely in declaring the Thirteen United States the cruelties practised--but in the of America free and independent. power of practising them that The war encouraged by France be- llavery conlitts. tween the Turks and Ruffians, was The measures of the East India equally subservient to her advant- Company are of the utmost image. The diffentions in France portance to the political history of have prevented her from interfering this country. Their wealth hath with men or money: and the eme given them an influence, felt ma peror, taking an active part with the terially even in the senate; and their empress, is another event favourable patronage was by far too extensive to the British interests in Europe. for any body of subjects : parliament

The English, contented and set. hath therefore wisely taken upon tled; perfectly satisfied with the ad- themselves the power of directing ministration of affairs at home, and the one, and of controuling the nothing to apprehend from abroad; other. It does not come within our have naturally viewed, with horror retrospext to review the bills brought and discontent, the wretched fitue in by Mr. Fox and Mr. Pitt ; the ation of the negro laves, and have former was rejected, the latter acmade their emancipation a question cepted, by the nation ; and under for parliamentary discussion. The its authority the Board of Controul neceility for continuing this trade took upon them to order additional hath been strongly argued on prin- troops to India, whereby the veteran ciples of policy, and hath also been officers in the service of the commost ably opposed on the grounds, pany would have been superceded, not only of its being impolitic, but This measure gave an alarm to the contrary to the unerring law of na- directors and proprietors, who in a ture, the principles of morality, and full assembly, atter a long debate, the duties of religion. The legiflature declared by a majority, that the will probably give this question ma- measure was not only impolitic, but ture deliberation ; every part of the not within the powers of the board. country have petitioned in favour of This vore of the proprietors and aflicted humanity, and the few mer- directors, brought the question be. cantile parties who have opposed a fore parliament, where it was fully restoration of the indubitable and un- argued, the oppofition supporting alienable rights of nature, appear of the vote of the company. The Do better description than the traders minifter, to terminate the dispute,


brought in a bill to explain his for- to persevere in the war. The immer bill; and it having passed both provement of these people in every houses, the troops were sent off, and branch of tactics is very confi. the East India Company further re- derable, and in the art of navigatrenched of their privileges. tion they have also made great

Considering the increase of power progress. These acquisitions are no which the Prince of Orange hath doubt owing to the policy of the undoubtedly acquired by his fuc- French, who permit their officers cess, his publising a general act of to serve in the Turkish armies and amnesty for all offences, is a proof fleets. Baron De Tot gave them of humanity and mildness of difpofi- considerable instruction in gunnery; tion which does infinite honour to and it may be presumed, that in his character. To be superior to time they will prove themselves refentments, is the strongeit featuro adepts in the military science. Every of a dignified character; and it is campaign must prove conducive to only to be regretted, in the present this end. The Turks reap benefit instance, that an act of oblivion had from each action they engage in ; not passed at an earlier period, by defeats increase their experience ; which the lives and properties of and the Empress of Ruffia, as well as many citizens would have been pre- her ally the Emperor of Germany, served, and those who had been may yet be convinced, that in atduped by the French faćtion, would, tempting to contract the power and probably, have been soon convinced empire of the followers of Mahomet, of error, and brought back to their they have taught them the means duty. The revolution in the Ne- of increasing the one and protecting therlands has been attended with the other. It also is certain, that serious consequences to the coun- philofophy begins to dawn upon the try; the violent and brutal officers Ottomites ; and where her light who commanded on the part of the once beams, it soon pervades with prince, committed the most horrid refulgent lustre. Liberty is her naoutrages, and exercised such op- tural attendant; and liberty never pression and depredation on his op- fails to inspire wholesome laws ponents, that upwards of seventy wherever the establishes her standthousand citizens have emigrated ard. However gloomy, therefore, from their country, carrying with the prospect of Turkey may be to them their wealth ; and, what is still the eye of a fuperficial observer, it more estimable to those among whom requires no great strength of mental they have settled, their arts, trades, penetration to pierce the gloom, and industry : so that Holland is and discover, in the background, the likely to experience what France felt diftant approaches of civilization, by the revocation of the edict of arts, sciences, and manufactures. Nantz, which drove her people from their native homes into Eng. Here we conclude our prelimi.. land, Ireland, and other countries, nary sketch : in our future Num.' where they were encouraged, and bers, however, we shall be more established manufactures, to the in minute, and more argumentative. finite prejudice of the French trade. We shall attempt to lay before

The union of the Russians and the public, an historic series of Germans, by no means appears to events worthy their attention; have intimidated the Porte. On and, without partiality, delineate the contrary, the Russians redoubled every character worthy of notice their allid uity, and seein determined in the national history.



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foreign alliances, and the national

debt amounted to the enormous OF HIS MAJESTY GEORGE THE

sum of one hundred millions. Com. THIRD.

inerce, through the whole course of EORGE the Second died on this reign, had increased with ex

the twenty-fifth day of O&o- ceffive rapidity, though the necet: ber 1760 : at a time when Great fities of government had loaded the Britain, by the wisdom of her coun merchant with an increase of impocils, and brilliancy of her conquests, fitions : but industry had becoine had impressed terror upon her ene- general, and a spirit of adventure mies, and acquired the highest de had sprung up in every fea-port. gree of glory to her character, At this æra eight thousand mer

This prince had entered into a chant-men were employed in trade, war with France, which at its come and the produce of the sinking fund mencement was so unpropitious, that exceeded annually three millions the people, whose pride and impe- sterling.. tuolity would not stoop to the cool In this reign philosophy contriinvestigation of causes and events, buted it's influence, and enlightened imputed the whole of the national the miods of men. Considerable disgrace to the weakness, and as progress was also made in mathethey boldly added, the wickedness of matics, astronomy, and chemistry. administration. Their clamours on Natural philosophy became a polite this account were not only loud and study, and electricity grew into facontinued, but threatened infurrec- thion. Among churchmen, learntion; and the king found himself ing and piety were conspicuous; yet forced by necessity to accept, as ini- fanaticism spread her baneful influs nister, Mr. William Pitt, the man ence with alarming rapidity, while of their choice.

popery decreased in proportion, and From the instant this great man every idea of renewing the pretenentered into office, the national cla- 'fions of the male line of the Stuarts mour sublided, and satisfaction be- were given up by their most zeacame universal. The spirit of the lous supporters. minister pervaded the people ; in Many ingenious treatises, in me spiration succeeded to despondency, taphysics and morality, also appeared and the war was pursued every in this reign. Improvements in where with vigour and success. Nor agriculture were every where exwas confidence less evident in par. tended ; mechanics obtained perliament than among the people at fection, and indeed, art, science, and large. The former practices of core every branch of literature, flourislied, ruption were exposed, and condi- and were encouraged by many of dered no longer necessary to the ob- the nobility, and the people at iarge, taining of majorities. A militia of though not by the prince. freemen was formed and trained to In this enviable situation of glory, discipline for the internal security of honour and respect, was Great Brit the country; and every subsidy' de- tain, when GEORGE THE THIRD manded, was granted with cheerful- ascended to the throne ; and who, Dess, though considerable fums were being a BSITOx born, was imme. openly appropriated to the support of diately furnamed by the people, the



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