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some ages the supreme kings of that country were placed upon it at the time of inauguration. When mentioning the ancient names of Ireland, Sir James says, also, that “it was called Innis-fail, or the Island of Destiny, from the Fatal Stone, called Liafail," which was the Irish designation of this stone.
Chalmers asserts, that the last of the Scottish Kings who “had the felicity to be crowned in this essential seat, was Alexander III; and it is said that the Earl of Fife, as it was his privilege to do, (from hereditary right) placed the King in Cathedrum Marmoreum." Hardyng, however, whose metrical “Chronicle” was partly composed in Henry the Sixth's reign, (and with whom, on this point, several ancient historians agree) speaking of John Baliol, affirms that he was crowned
* In the Minster of Scone, within Scotlād groñd,
On Sainct Andrewes day, with al joye therefore." Buchanan, speaking of Kenneth II., in his Scotish History, says, that “having enlarged his kingdom, and settled wholesome laws for the good administration of the government, he further endeavoured to confirm the royal authority by mean and trivial things, almost bordering on superstition itself." There was “a Marble Stone,”+ he continues, “ which Simon Breccus
* “Caledonia," vol. i. p. 468.
+" Saxum Marmoreum, &c." “ Kennethus in Cathedram ligneum inclusum." Vide“ Rerum Scot. Hist.”. Lib. vi., p. 156. edit. 1697.
is reported to have brought out of Spain into Ireland, and which Fergus, the son of Ferchard, is also said to have brought over into Scotland and placed in Argyle. This Stone Kenneth removed out of Argyle to Scope, by the river Tay, and placed it there inclosed in a Chair of wood. The Kings of Scotland were wont to receive both the regal title and insignia, sitting in that chair, till the days of Edward I., King of England.” Holinshed, speaking of the removal of this Stone to Westminster, calls it a “Chaire of marble,” probably from the old translation of Buece, which thus mentions it: “ In this Chiar all Kinges of Scotland war ay crownit quhil ye tyme of Kyng Robert Bruse ; in quhais tyme besyde mony othir cruelties done by Kyng Edward lang schankis, the said chair of merbyll was taiken be Inglismen and brocht out of Scone to London, and put into Westmonistar, quhare it remainis to our dayis."
The internal dissentions of Scotland in the latter part of the thirteenth century, were extremely favourable to the designs of Edward I., who, having formed a league with Bruce against John Baliol, defeated the latterin a desperate battle near Dunbar, in April, 1296; and quickly subduing all Scotland, resolved to deprive the nation of every vestige of its independence. With that intent he caused the crown, sceptre, and Inauguration Stone,* with all the public archives, charters,
• If entire credence could be given to the "Metrical History of Sir William Wallace," written by Blind Harry, we must
jewels, &c., to be conveyed to London, there to remain as lasting memorials of his conquests, and of the entire subjugation of the Scots.
In the wardrobe account of Edward I., under the head of “ Jewels remaining at the end of the twentyseventh year, of those which were some time the King of Scotland's," are enumerated, “a large silver Cup
believe that Edward I., after he had dethroned and imprisoned Baliol, was bimself crowned King of Scotland upon this very Stone; but the circumstance does not appear to be mentioned by any other historian, although so extremely consonant to Ed. ward's Policy.
King Edward past, and Corspatrick to Scone,
Qubair ye Stane standis, Scotland suld maister be,
and a great Stone, upon which the Scottish Kings were accustomed to be crowned."*
Walsingham, in his “Ypodigma Neustræ," says that Edward, in returning by the Abbey of Scone, took from thence the Stone which the Kings of Scotland were wont to use for a throne at the time of Coronation, and brought it to Westminster; ordering it to be thenceforth made the chair of the officiating priests : and Hardyng, in his before mentioned “ Chronicle," who evidently derived his information from that writer, but with an amplification, which shews that he had himself seen the Chair, has thus stated the circunstances of the removal in homely verse :“ And as he came homewarde, by Skone away,
The Regal there of Scotland then he brought
In a Cheire of old lyme made fulfyne. Matthew of Westminster informs us, under the date 1297, that the King, coming to Wes!minster on the morrow of St. Botolph, offered to the blessed King Edward, through whose virtues he had acquired them, the Regalia of the Scotish Kingdom; namely, the
* " Jocalia remanencia, &c." videlicit,
“ Una Petra Magna super quam Reges Scocie solebant coronari.” Vide“ Ward. Acc.'' Lib. Quotidianus.
Throne, the golden Sceptre and the Crown. Grafton, who says this offering was made on the 18th of June, includes the “Cloth of Estate" among the regalia, but he makes no mention of the Fatal Stone.*
Rapin, after alluding to the intention of King Edward to unite the two kingdoms, and mentioning his removal into England of the Scotish regalia, &c., together with “the famous Stone on which the inauguration of their Kings was performed,” proceeds thus ;—“ The people of Scotland had all along placed in that Stone a kind of fatality. They fancied that whilst it remained in their country the State would be unshaken, but the moment it should be elsewhere removed, great revolutions would ensue; for this reason Edward carried it away, to create in the Scots a belief that the time of the dissolution of their monarchy was come, and to lessen their hopes of recovering their liberty.”+ Nothing, indeed, can shew the vast importance attached to the possession of this Stone by the Scots, in a more forcible point of view, than the circumstance that it was not only made the subject of an express
*" Chron." p. 177. Edit. 1569. It would seem that both the Crown and Sceptre, as well as the Royal Seat, were still preserved in the Abbey Church in Camden's time. His words are, after speaking of the offering to God, (Deo obtulit, &c.) of the Crown, Sceptre, and Throne, -"Quod quidem Solium adhuc in hac Regia Capella servatur, cum saxo Jacobi, ut vocant. imposito.” Vide. “Reges, Reginæ, Nobilis, et alij in Eco. Col. B. Petri West, sepulli.” Small 4to. 1603.
t“History of England.” Vol. i. p. 375.