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weight of years. The hours of his life are numberedyea, the very last grain is dropping. He lies upon his

couch, and the spectres of former years are crowding Among the many causes that contribute to man's phy. sical and moral destruction, one of the most prominent upon the walls. These are the shadows of noble im

pulses and generous feelings, lofty aspirations and sunis Intemperance. The youth starts forward in life with natural hopes The walls around him are those of a madhouse-bis couch

light hopes, and their murderer was Intemperance. and justifiable expectations. Education has cultivated

is loathsome straw. The damps of death are upon his his powers and enlarged his views. The hopes of a fond parent are set upon bis advancement and he looks for- brow, no affectionate hand wipes them away. The ward to life as the theatre of his fame and prosperity. the eye that must soon close rolls and burns in the bor.

tongue that must soon stiffen utters nought but shrieksBut the openness of his temper and the simplicity of his heart are his greatest enemies, for they expose him rors of madness. He tears his white locks and strives

to escape from the chill serpent-like folds that are windto the influence of evil example and friendship designing and false. He is drawn into the midnight revel, he ing around his limbs. In vain—they creep faster and is gayest amidst the gay, his voice is loudest in the faster around him, until he feels the last pang and

breathes his last. Such are the evils of Intemperance. bacchanalian song. Here Intemperance presents its first cup-it is sparkling to the eye and gratifying to the

The Soldier's Death, taste. The tempest is near but it is unseen-the abyss is The sun had sunk in the crimson west, before his feet but its edge is covered with flowers. Re- From the summer stream and mountain's breast, peated draughts but enhance the fascination, and it is

But the golden and amber clouds still smiled

In the deep blue heaven like flowers in the wild. not until he finds friends, health and character gone that

All sounds were hushed save the trickling stream, he awakes fully to his condition. Too frequently then That danced in the light of the parting beam, does the cold pointing finger of scorn weave the shroud And a wild bird which seated the bushes among, of his perfect destruction. From the blackness of his Poured on the air his melodious song. future a hand is stretched forth, not to wave him back,

The zephyrs trembled the roses through,

That were spangled bright with the silver dew; but with demonlike grasp to drag him deeper and deeper

And played along a form that lay within that frowning depth. The shattered bark of his As still as if life had fed away. existence drives onward and onward, night, dark starless Sunken and dim and fixed was his eye, night around him, the tempest whistling through his As he lay so pale and silently ; tattered sails, with the waves of destruction beneath

The tender grass that was round him spread,

Was dyed with a deep and bloody red. him and the helm yielded from despair.

His breast was open to the air, The man on whose brow middle age has set its signet And many a scar was graven there ; is blessed with a wife whom he loves, and children that He had fought in many a bloody fight look to him for protection. He toils industriously

For country, for friends, and honor bright.

His form had been first in the battle's flood.: for their support, prosperity smiles upon him, he is

And his sword had drank deep in hostile blood; winning an enviable name amongst his fellow men. The

But now in fight he had stood his last, sphere of his usefulness is wide, the eye of poverty For his life's blood was trickling thick and fast. brightens at his approach and the heart of the afflicted He turned his eyes to the evening star, is gladdened with his presence.

And his thoughts were fixed on his friends afar;

He thought of the scenes of his youthful days,
But the picture is changed—a cloud is upon it charg- Ere his eye was dazzled with glory's blaze.
ed to bursting with the thunderbolts of Intemperance. He looked to the moon as in beauty bright,
The last brand has decayed upon the household

She trod the blue heavens with silver light; hearth-the midnight moon beams pure and holy

And she seemed in the sky so lovely and lone,

Like a joy of the heart when the rest are gone. through the broken casement upon the form of the wife

He thought of the bliss of a parent's love, bending over the couch of her dying infant. A rustle- Of his rustic home and his shady grove; it is the sweeping of the wind-a footstep, it is He thought of one who was far more dear, that of the heedless passer-by. Where is that voice

And his eye was wet with a burning tear, which has sworn to protect her in her path through

of one as pure as the silver bearn

That shone on the breast of the chrystal stream. life-where is that arm which is bound to sustain her in

No more can the home of his boybood rise all her sorrows. Go seek in the haunts of riot and re- In beauty before his raptured eyes, velry, where the tongue is loudest in ribald glee and No more can he clasp in a dear embrace horrid blasphemy, and behold the husband insulting That form, and view that lovely face. with the overflow of his intoxicated passions the mag.

His bosom weaker and weaker grew,

And darker and darker the crimson hue; nificence of the night which bends over still and solemn

He turned his dim and glaring eye like the visible presence of a sin-hating God. He has Where the wild bird was pouring her melody ; fallen forever. The red sunken eye-the inflamed But the music fell upon his ear countenance, the trembling limbs, all proclaim the Faint, for the angel of death was near ; change. He looks to the world, it is a blank-he turns

He folded his arms on his dying breast, to his own heart and memory is there a solitary mourner

To compose himself for his dreamless rest.

His bosom heaved with a broken sigh, over the tomb of happiness.

One moment more-his darkened eye But another forin presents itself to our gaze. His Was fixed in its cold and its glassy glare, hair is white with age, his form is bent beneath the

Tis o'er-the hand of death is there.


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Brief History of The Revenues of Great Britain. The revenue for the thirteen years reign of William The celebrated “Doomsday Book," was a compiled and Mary, was over 72 millions sterling; and for the survey of all the landed property in the Kingdom of twelve years of Queen Anne, over 62 millions, in addiWilliam the Conqueror, for the purpose of adjusting a tion to a borrowed amount of 60 millions more. royal revenue, which in A. D. 1066 was £400,000.

The revenues of the House of Brunswick are estiUnder William Rufus, it was in 1087,

£350,000 mated as follows:
Henry I. in 1100, it was
£300,000 George I, at his death,

Stephen in 1135, it was
£250,000 George II,

8,523,000 The pound at that time, was equivalent to the weight

George III,


George IV, average per annum, 60,000,000 of three at the present, and in real value was ten fold

William IV,

47,000,000 more; so that £400,000 then, would command as much

“The total aggregate,” says a writer on this subject, service, &c., as four million pounds now. The above produced by all branches of the revenue,

from the acmonarchs constituted the Norman line, and it was dis- cession of George III, to the close of the war in 1815, tinguished by two points; public credit was unknown, was one billion, three hundred and eighty-six millions, and the expenditure was not greater than the revenue. two hundred and sixty-eight thousand, four hundred and

The founder of the Plantagenet line, was the first to forty-six pounds sterling! A sum three times greater establish a tax on personal estate, which the expenses than all the stock of gold and silver existing in the of the crusades soon increased from 2d on the £1 to 28 world in 1809, the epoch of the greatest known abunon the £1. The revenues of this line, under the seve- dance of these metals.” ral monarchs which formed it were as follows:

These immense sums were chiefly expended for three Under Henry II, 1$54,


objects—to enforce Parliamentary laws in the Colonies; Richard I,'1189,

150,000 John 1199,


to keep down and afterwards replace on the throne the Henry III, 1216,

80,000 Bourbon family; and to support the various branches of Edward I, 1272,

150,000 the Royal Family. Edward II, 1307,


The King of England replaced the Bourbons on the Edward III, 1327,

154,000 Richard I, 1377,

130,000 throne of France, at a cost above a thousand millions During the reign of Edward III, the Poll Tax was sterling! The amount paid in the shape of annuities to originated, which was then 4d. on every individual over the several members of the Royal Family, fifteen in fourteen.

number, from 1766 to 1816, was £12,600,000; while During the reign of the House of Lancaster or Red the whole sum granted for useful discoveries, and durRose, the revenues were

ing forty seven years, was only £77,463. From the Henry IV. 1399,

£100,000 accession of William III. to 1815, above one thousand Henry V. 1413,

76,600 one hundred millions, were chiefly expended in deHenry VI. 1422,

65,000 pressing the House of Bourbon ; while during the same Under the House of York or White Rose

period an equal sum was appropriated to raise it to the Edward IV. 1460,

£100,000 splendor and strengthen it in the possession of the Edward V. 1483,


throne. Richard III. 1483,


The subject we have thus briefly noticed, is one exUnder the house of Tudor the revenues were as fol.

ceedingly interesting in many points; particularly as lows: Henry VII. 1485,

shewing how easy it is to originate and increase a na

£400,000 Henry VIII. 1509,

800,000 tional debt; to advance from one grade of taxation to Edward VI. 1547,

400,000 another, and to drain and exhaust the resources of the Mary, 1553,

450,000 kingdom by profligate and squandering princes.-SaElizabeth, 1558,


vannah Georgian. The extortion of the seventh and eight Henry was exceedingly oppressive. Monasteries, Abbeys, Colleges A Hint to Messrs. Catlin and Rankin.-The followand Hospitals were abolished, and their revenues, worth ing extract from the Parliamentary History, March 5th, about six million pounds of the present day, appropri- 1765, seems peculiarly apposite to the present time: ated to the royal coffers. Of the extravagance of Mary “On notice being taken in the House of Lords that two it is recorded that at her death there were found no less Indian warriors of the Mohawk Nation were to be seen than 3000 suits of clothes for her own person ; which at the Sun Tavern, on the payment of 1s. each, it was averages more than one suit a day during the five years the Indians who are under his Majesty's protection,

Resolved,–1st, That the bringing from America any of of her reign.

without proper authority for so doing, may tend to give The House of Stewart began with the first James, great dissatisfaction to the Indian nations, and be of danand its revenues were as follows:

gerous consequences to his Majesty's subjects residing

in the colonies. 2d, That the making a public show of James I, 1603,

£600,000 Indians, ignorant of such proceedings, is unbecoming Charles I, 1625,

896,000 and inhuman. Then it was moved, “That John Schuppe Charles II, 1649,

1,800,000 and Hyam Miers be called in and ordered not to show James II, 1685,

2,001,800 the said Indians from this time, but to detain them, takCharles II, was one of the most extensive and most ing proper care of their maintenance till a proper persquandering monarchs England ever had. During his son shall be sent by the Commissioners for Trade and

Plantations to receive them in order to their being rereign he received over 43,000,0001.

turned to America, which being agreed to they were To his successor, James II, Parliament voted a revenue called in and acquainted therewith by the Lord Chanof two millions sterling per annum for life.



Literary Notices.

connexion of the writer with the aboriginal race," and ONEOTA or the red race of America : their history, traditions, cus

a short article on “The Indian Languages,” by the toms, poetry, picture writings, &c., in extracts from notes, jour Editor. nals, and other unpublished writings. BY HENRY R. SCHOOL “ Considerations of the art of picture writing and

New-York, published by Burgess, Stringer, & Co., the system of mnemonics of the North American IndiNo. 222 Broadway, corner of Ann-street, American Museum Buildings.

ans, Chapter I.” is the next in succession, full of We have received the first number of this work research and matters relative to the subjects specified which promises not only to be highly entertaining but followed by a description of “Grave Creek Mound,” a eminently instructive. The want of such a work as “ gigantic tumulus, the largest in the Ohio valley, openthis promises to be has long been feit. As sure as the ed some four or five years ago, and found to contain arAnglo-Saxon race is destined to people this continent, ticles of high antiquarian value, in addition to the ordiso sure are the red men doomed to utter and entire ex- nary discoveries of human bones, &c.” tinction. They retire befcre the axe and the plough

Geographical Terminology of the United States," like the forests they once inhabited. The atmosphere gives the Indian names of our rivers, lakes, villages, &c., of the white man is their poison. They cannot exist some of which have been retained, whilst others, with among us. Civilization, instead of refining their minds, exceeding bad taste, have been altered. This article we taming their passions, and otherwise elevating their have extracted in another part of our paper, and will be condition, seems to teach them nothing but its vices. found very interesting. It is a sorrowful but incontrovertible truth. The red “ Indian music, songs and poetry, No. 1,” we find man in the wilderness, uncontaminated by the pre

next in succession. sence of the white, following his own customs, and

Then follow “Piskaret," an Algonquin chief, describliving under his own system of government, is a noble ing the achievements of this forest hero. object--the red man living amongst the cities, villages,

“ The Saustawraytsees, a Wyandot tradition, giving orchards and grainfields of the Anglo-Saxon, is a de- an account of the origin of the feud between the two graded and worthless thing, alike pitiable and disgusting. tribes of the Wyandots and Senecas, that had hitherto To this general rule there are a few trifling exceptions, mingled freely in the same villages, succeeds. but so few and trifling, as not to effect the truth of the

“ And then follow “Early Sketches of Indian woabove. Any thing therefore that treats of the Indian men,” “Chant of Indian Children to the Fire Fly," in his native wildness should be universally read. felicitiously translated, and “Indian Arrowheads, &c."

The distinguished author of the work, the title to We have been"thus particular in noting the contents which is given above, has enjoyed great opportunities of because we approve heartily of the design of the work, studying the red men in their deepest retreats and be- and the manner in which it has progressed so far, and fore the demoralizing influence of civilization has been we sincerely hope it will be carried out so as to embrace much felt. He has made himself familiar with their all its objects. domestic life as it exists in the interior of their lodges, Scenes, Incidents, and Adventures in the Pacific Ocean or the as well as their traits of character while at the council

Islands of the Australasian seas, during the cruise of the clipper fire and in the war-path. The fields of their imagina. Margaret Oakley, under Captain Benjamin Morrell. tive eloquence, their wild legends and their rude poetry,

Thomas JEFFERSON Jacobs. Illustrated by numerous engray. have been explored by him with an earnestness and en

ings. New-York: Harper & Brothers, 82 Cliff-street, 1814. thusiasm that have not failed in attaining their object.

The reading of this volume reminded us of the deA vast amount of information is therefore embodied in light we experienced in our youthful days in dwelling the number now upon our table.

upon the pages of “Sinbad the Sailor.” The wildness After an address to the reader by Mr. Schoolcrast, and of the adventures and the strange features of the couna brief account of the Indian story-tellers, by the edi- try visited give the work the appearance of a romance. tor, we have a tale entitled “The White Stone Canoe,” We are in doubt sometimes whether the book is a partold Mr. S. by an Ottawa. “The Lynx and the Hare," rative of real scenes or ingenious fiction. It enchains a fable from the Algonquin, succeeds, and “The Worship the attention of the reader from the beginning to the of the Sun,” an Ottawa tradition is next. “Shingebiss," end, and is written in a smooth and pleasing style. It is a tale also from the Algonquin, follows. Then comes

moreover adorned with engravings, and “beautifully an interesting article upon the “ Names of the Ameri- got up"-which is characteristic of those industrious can Lakes.” Au “Odjibwa Song." "Shingaba Wos- and eminent publishers, the Messrs. Harper. sins, or the Image Stones,” giving an account of various No. 8 of the Pictorial Bible. This number we think “masses of loose rock, that have been fretted by the surpasses its predecessors in the extreme beauty of its action of water into shapes resembling the trunks of illustrations. The engravings representing the defiles human bodies,” and painted by the native tribes so as of Eden, Jericho, Sinai, Mount Hor, and the hill of to resemble human features, for the purpose of idolatry, Bashan, are very beautiful, and even surpass our exwith an illustrative plate-an explanation of the figures pectations of the style in which this bible was to be upon the borders of the cover, and a description of the printed. horrible tortures inflicted upon a captive Indian girl by a tribe of the Pawnees, all of which occupy some seven No. 17 of McCulloch's Gazetteer.—The seventeenth pages, next arrest the attention of the reader.

number of this rich contribution to American books Then we have the commencement of the very in which no citizen should be without, is just issued. Tliree teresting “ Personal remniscences relative to the official' more numbers finish the work.


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is now open for the reception of company, having undergone a thorough repair and complete reno-
vation from the cellar to the attic. It has been newly furnished throughout, and in quality of beds,
cleanliness, and airy rooms, will now compare with any other establishment in the city.

In location, this House has many advantages, being situated in the centre, and on one of the most
beautiful streets in the city ; within a few moments' walk of the Eastern and Western Railroad Depots
and the landing of the Steamboats ; about midway between the Capitol, Public Offices, and the Banks,
Post-Office, and the business parts of the city, renders it very convenient for the man of business, as
well as gentlemen of leisure.

The subscriber places much reliance on the countenance and support of the AgriculturISTS throughout the Union, who may visit the city, and pledges himself to spare no exertions to render their stay agreeable, should they favor him with their company.

Three Hills Farm will be carried on as usual, under my own superintendance, by a careful mana-
ger, and the breeding and rearing improved stock will be continued as heretofore.

Albany, June, 1844.



This establishment has recently been greatly enlarged, embracing three sales rooms, each 60 feet

in depth, and now presents the greatest variety of goods and largest assortment of Wooden Wares, Baskets, Enamelled and Plain Iron Hollow Ware, Shaker Manufactures, Brushes, Combs,

Pocket Cutlery, Fancy Goods, Toys, &c., to be found in the Country. Ladies and gentlemen passing through the city will confer a favor on the proprietor by calling to examine the assortment, though they may not wish to purchase. Merchants supplied on the most reasonable terms.


JAMES HENRY, No. 71 STATE-STREET, ALBANY. Has for sale in quantities or by retail, an extensive assortment of School Books, Classical Books, Blank Books, Religious Books, Miscellaneous Works, Sacred Music, Stationery, &c. &c. NEW BOOK AND JOB PRINTING OFFICE,





Respectfully informs the citizens of Albany, and the public in general, that he has taken the above extensive establishment, and has just returned from New York with a large additional stock of Book and Job Letter of the newest and most approved styles, which makes his office decidedly the most complete in the city; and that he is now prepared to execute all kinds of work in his line of the Art, at the shortest notice, and at a great reduction from former prices.

C. W. returns his sincere and grateful thanks for favors heretofore received from his friends and fellow citizens; he begs a renewal and continuance of patronage, and pledges his reputation as a Printer, that his work shall be executed in a style of neatness, taste and good workmanship, that shall vie with any establishment in the country.

From long experience in Law Printing, he feels assured that he can give the most ample satisfaction to such gentlemen of the legal profession as may favor him with their work.

Works done in Colors, at a trifling advance.







HANDBILLS, &c. de Together with all and every thing in the Printing line which may be called for by a generous and liberal public.

Albany, June, 1844.

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