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poets, ib.

Silva, of a luxuriant crop, 152

Stag, longevity of, 75
Silvae, how connected with pasturage, 20 : Stage-curtain, ancient, rose instead of fall-
of plantations, 228, 237

ing, 254
Silvanus, connexion of with the cypress, Stagnare, of overflowing rivers, 334

Star, evening, connected with marriage, 82:
Silver, litharge of, 290

mixed up with morning star by Latin
Similes, grammatical structure of in Virgil,
165, 224, 268

Stars, the living inhabitants of heaven, 229,
Similis et, 221

Simplex, in the sense of unus, 202

Slare, of a person to whom a statue is
Sincerus, 333

raised, 75 : of a victim sacrificed, 236
Sinere, with accusative, 304

Steeping seeds before sowing, 164
Singultus, of a hiccup, 295

Stellio, 305, 329
Sinum, or sīnus, 75

Stinßwv, the planet Mercury so called,
Sinus, meanings of, 207

Sistere, intransitive, 191

Stirps, perhaps in the sense of stipes, 198 :
Sithonius and Sithonius, 106

masculine, 234
Sitis, of fever, 293

Stiva, 161
Situs, senses of, 152

Storks, enmity of to serpents, 227
Sky, gates of, 275

Stratus somno, 350
Slaves, manumitted, shaved their beards, Stringere, of the frondatio, 97, 176

Stubble, when cut, 175
saved their peculium to buy their Studia, 303
freedom, 22

Studium ad aliquid, 267
sometimes their masters' rivals, 29 Style in poetry, what it involves, 13 foll.
Sleep called soft, 76

Styx interfusa, 354
Smoke, its effect in seasoning wood, 162 Sua not likely to have been used by Virgil
Snakes, how got rid of, 287: habits of, 289 as a monosyllable, 77
Soil and climate, treated together, 206: Sub armis, 263

tests applied to soil by the ancients, 220 Subducere, 37
Soldier, Roman, weight carried by, 282 Subigere, of rowing, 164 : other senses of,
Soles, 'fine days,' 184

Solifuga, solpuga, 329

Subiectare and subvectare, 273
Sollicitus, of love, 99

Subjunctive, in questions, 38, 240: pre-
Solstitium, restricted use of, 154

sent followed by imperfect, 315
Song during spinning or weaving, 341 Submittere, its agricultural sense, 24, 258
Sophocles, perfection of his style, 14 : his Succedere sub, 54

description of the fight between Hercules Succidere, to sever from below, 176
and Achelous, 271

Suckers, propagation of trees by, 197
Sorti, archaic ablative, 320

Sudum, of the season, 311
Sortiri for eligere, 258

Sufficere, 258
Spadix, 259

Sulphur, kinds of, 290
Spatia, senses of, 250

Sun, prognostics from, 188
Specimen, 218

Suovetaurilia, 181
Spectare ad aliquid, 40

Super, besides,' 233 : other adverbial
Speculari, shades of meaning of, 171 senses of, 275 : 'concerning,' 363
Spelaeum, a rare word, 104

Superare, its various senses, 94, 163, 218,
Spelt, a hardy grain, 167

227, 228, 257
Spenser, prefatory epistle to his 'Shep- Superesse, of abundance, 263
herd's Calendar' referred to, 3

Supinus, applied to land, meaning of, 223
Spercheus, orthography of, 245

Supremus clamor, 353
Spernere,' to spurn,' 328 : of slighted love, Surdo canere, &c., 99

Sus, of a wild boar, 274
Spinus, what, 318

Suspendere aratrum, 35: tellurem, 151
Spirare, of the sea, 178

Suus, uses of, 305, 323
Spondaic, hexameter, 276

Swallow flies low before rain, 183: enemy
Springs, sacredness of, 25, 338

to bees, 305 : harbinger of spring, 336
Squalere, of land going to weeds, 194: of Swans, music of, 94 : poets changed into,
roughness, 230 : connected with squama,
304, 312

Swineherds not out of place in the Eclogues,
Stabula, not confined to cattle, 305

Stabulare, intransitive, 271

Sword, straight, of the Roman soldier, 194

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Synizesis, 329

Threshing-floor, how to be constructed,
Syrian pears, 203

Threshold, common mention of in con-

nexion with lovers' visits, 88

Thule, 148

Thunderbolts, formation of, 321

Thunderclap, rain and wind increase after,
Tabularia, 247

Tabulata, of the branches which supported Thymbra, 306
the vine, 232

Thymbraeus, of Apollo, 338
Tabum and tabes, 293

Tibia, 214
Taenarus, entrance to the shades at, 354 Tibullus, avoids eliding long vowels after
Talis, in the vocative, 51

the first foot, 109
Talpa, masculine, 163

Tigers, black, 348: tigers not found in
Tamarisks, relation of, to bucolic poetry, Thrace, 358

Timere, with dative, 67
Tamen, after all,' 97, 102

Tinguere, of both immersing and dyeing,
Tantum, answering to cov, 64: used of 196

place or of time, ib. : with genitive, 311: | Tinus, 317
with adjectives, 313

Tithonus not one of the ancestors of the
Tardae noctes, 245

Caesars, 256
Tarentine territory, fertility of, 214, 316 Tityrus identified with Virgil, 11
Taurus for bos or iuvencus, 149

meaning of the name, 20
Taygeta and Taygetus, 245, 256

Tmolus not known to have been famous for
Taygete, one of the Pleiads, 328

saffron, 150 : its wine, 204, 345
Telum, of lightning, 179

Tofus (tophus), 216
Temo, of the plough, 161

Toga picta, 253 : praetexta, ib.
Tempe, of any lovely valley, 244

Tollere ad astra, 58
Temperare, of mitigating either heat or Tondere, of reaping, 152: of browsing,

cold, 155, 281 : with dative or ablative, 240, 333 : of plucking a flower, 317

Tonsa oliva, 254
Tempestas, shades of meaning of, 147, 171, Torches, cutting of, part of a countryman's
177, 178

work, 82
Temples dedicated after victory, 253 Torquere, of shooting an arrow, 105
Temptare (tentare), of giving physical pain, Torto verbere, 261
25, 289

Torvus, 256
Tendere vim, 347: vincula, ib.

Totus, of a full-length statue, 75
Tener opposed to aridus, 66 : tenerae res, Tractim, 331
of young plants, 229

Tpayqudia, origin of, 234
Tenere, of shutting out, 233: ora, 355 Truha or trahea, 160
Tennyson referred to, 8, 194

Trahi, of extent, 169, 347: other applica-
Tenuis, . subtle' or 'penetrating,' 153, 231, tions of, 347

280, 318: disyllable, 185: of wine, 204 Translation, estimation in which it was
Terere = tornare, 241

formerly held in England, 5
Tereus, Greek and Roman versions of the Trap set by Virgil for the critics, 45
story of, 70

Trees, cutting another man's maliciously a
Terni for tres, 86

legal offence, 37 : various modes of pro-
Terrae, of the whole earth, 191

pagating, 197: spontaneous generation
Terreus, "made of earth,' 229

of, ib.
Thalia said to be the inventress of agricul. fruit-bearing, the blasting of, omin-


ture, 63

ous, 21

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Thasian wine, 204

verse cut on the bark of, 55, 104
Theocritus, characteristics of, 2

Triboli (tribuli), 159
doubtful whether he had any Tribulum, 160
predecessors in pastoral poetry, 2 Tristis, of bad weather, 328

-, servility with which Virgil co- Tritura, how performed, 163
pies him, 5, 6

Triumph, Roman, allegory drawn from,
Theophrastus, undiscriminating use of by 252
Virgil, 230

Troglodytic life, 284
Thesidae, of the Athenians, 234

Troy, origin of Romans from, 235
Thrace the country of Mars, 353

Truncus, with genitive and ablative, 337
Three, magic efficacy of the number, 86 Tu, enforcing a precept, 313

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Tueri, 'to maintain,' 214

Venire, of a star rising, 106 : 'to become,'
Tugurium, etymology and meaning of, 27 148 : 'to grow,' 150, 197
Tum, marking a point in a description, 225: Venus, connexion of the Julian family with,
and tunc, 227

96, 147: of passion, 358
denique for tum demum, 233

Ver agere, 229
Tumultus, 190

Verb carried from one part of a sentence to
Tunica, of the rind of trees, 202

another, 241: omitted in inscriptions, 75
Turf, burning away of, not practised by the Verbenae, 85, 316
ancients, 153

Versare, of keeping sheep, 106 : of plough-
Turning the back in certain ceremonies, 89 ing, 156: of forming plans, 311
Turpis, ' ugly,' 257

Versus, senses of, 317
Tus (thus), tree producing it, 206

Vertere, of ploughing, 144: vertere fas
Tusser, his · Five hundred points of good atque nefas, 194
husbandry,' 120

Vertex for polus, 169 : vertex and vortex,
Typhoeus, 173

191 : meanings of, ib.
Tyrannus, 356

Verutum, 211
Vescus, 266, 316

Vesevus properly an adjective, 217

Vespa, his · Iudicium Coci et Pistoris,' 116

Vesta, of a blazing hearth, 345
Uber a laudatory synonym for solum, 217:

Vestigia, simply for the feet, 68, 257, 268
of the fruitfulness of the vine, 223

Vetches, when sown, 168
Ubi for apud quos, 194

Via, 'method,' 198
Ulitius (Janus), his opinion of the author.

and limes, whether contrasted by Vir-
ship of Nemesianus' Bucolics, 108

gil, 223
Ulixes and Ulysses, 86

mortis, 293
Ultro, 324, 331

Vicinia, 334
Ulva, 267

Victor, of intellectual triumph, 252
Umbracula, 95

Videre, in the sense of vigilare, 64
Unguere ex, 'to anoint with,' 307

Videri, to be seen,' 65
Unpruned vine, scandal of, 35 : superstition Viduatus with genitive and ablative, 359
about its wine, ib.

Vigilare aliquid, 177
Upilio and opilio, 100

Vincere verbis, 277 : flamma, 301
Urere, of killing plants, 214

Vine leaves used for skimming must, 175
Urguere, of neighbours, 334

poles not allowed to remain out, 237

Vines sometimes trained on willows, 103 :
Urus, 233, 298
"Υστερον πρότερον, 209

different modes of rearing, 195 : innu-
Usus, transitions of its meaning, 198: in a

merable varieties of, 205; vine and its
periphrasis, 243: ad or in usum (usus),

supporters spoken of indifferently, 195,

221 : vines and figs, position of some-
Ut after utmutque, 69: uses of, 159

times changed on transplanting, 222:
Utilis with ablative, 209

some vines suited for the hill, others for
the plain, ib. : vine planted less deeply
than its supporter, 225 : training of, by
espaliers, 232 : pruning of, ib.
Vineyard, aspect of, 225: vineyards on ter-

raced rocks, 234
Vaccinium and υάκινθος, 31

Virgil draws his images to a great extent
Vacuus, “thinly peopled,' 217: of air, 261 from books, 7
Valli, of vine-poles, 237

seems sometimes to mistake the mean-
Varius = pictus, 184

ing of Greek authors, 83, 85, 89, 173
Varius, imitations of, by Virgil, 88, 237, hints at one mode of expression while
247, 274 : confused with Varus, 95

using another, 232 : tells things by im-
Varro Atacinus, Virgil's obligations to, 183, plication, 65, 233, 252, 272, 355, 361

does not name the authors whom he
Varus (Alfenus ?), how connected with Vir- imitates, 131
gil, 62

orthography of the name, 364
Vates and poeta, 74, 94

-, his literary ambition, 62, 135 foll. : his
Vector, sense of, 50

agricultural knowledge probably defective,
Vectus, in the sense of a present participle, 130 : his enthusiasm for nature and for

philosophy overrated, 134 foll. : his pro-
Venenum, a neutral word, 243

mises to celebrate his patrons, 62, 80, 256



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Virgo, of other than unmarried women, 67 Wind spoken of as the agent in producing
Virgultum, 196

a calm, 32, 355 : prognostics of, 182:
Virus, sometimes a neutral word, 157

impregnation by, 276
Vis and vin (visne) distinguished, 38 Winds supposed to blow from all quarters
Viscera, extent of its meaning, 300, 336 at once, 177: homes of, in the different
Vitium, 'disease,' 77

quarters of the sky, 183, 276
Vocare for provocare, 268

Wine given to horses, pigs, &c., 295 : poured
Vocative of the participle, 342

on altar at end of sacrifice, 345
Volans, .at full speed,' 199

Wines called from places after the vines
Volcanus (Vulcanus), of a large fire, 175 had ceased to be grown there, 204
Volemi, 203

Winnowing-fan, 160
Volgo, universally,' 283

Wolves, change of men into, 88: supersti-
Volgus, of beasts, 292

tion about meeting, 96
Volitare per ora, &c., meaning of, 252 Wood pigeons, incubation of, a sign of au-
Volucer equivalent to tenuis, 216

tumn, 26
Volutabrum, 287

sacred to Venus, 42
Volvere, of passing time, 225 : of breath, Woods, sound of, a sign of wind, 182

Wool, varieties of, 279
Vomitoria, 243

Wycherley, his lines on Pope's Pastorals
Vopiscus, references of, to Nemesianus, 109 quoted, 12, 13

Vowel, a short, rarely unelided, 34



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Page 5. I ha

expressed myself as if P. 96, note on v. 50. Dele the words Pope might have been better employed in 'Insere-generation, and substitute • The original composition than in translation. meaning is not merely that the trees shall Further reflection has led me to doubt whe. be good bearing trees for more than one ther his Homer is not a more durable monu- generation, but that the farmer's posterity ment of his peculiar genius than any great shall enjoy the property of their progenitor. original poem, or perhaps any number of Servius says “ Hoc in gratiam Augusti, per small original poems, would have been. cuius beneficium securus de agris suis est But the value of the illustration, such as it ac si diceret, Nihil est quod possis timere: is, is not affected by the critical judgment nam illud respicit quod supra invidiose ait which goes along with it.

[1. 74], Insere nunc, Meliboee, piros.”' P. 10, line 11, for reality in which read P. 102, note on v. 27. For sulphate reality which.

read sulphide. Pp. 47, 48, notes on vv. 4, 5. Mr. Gres- P. 103, note on v. 40. I understand that well, in his “Origines Kalendariae Italicae," vines are trained on willows in Lombardy at vol. ii. pp. 625-630, explains the ultima the present day. aetas as the ninth in the decursus of sae- P. 158, text, v. 141. Dele semicolon cula peculiar to the city of Rome, coincid- after amnem. ing with the tenth in that of the Etruscan P. 167, note on v. 222. After E. 2. 67, saecula in general. He refers to a story add Virgil's meaning is express, and his mentioned by Servius on E. 9. 46, to the error is sufficiently accounted for when its effect that on the appearance of the comet source is pointed out. after the death of Julius Caesar, Vulcatius P. 168, note on vv. 231 - 251. For the haruspex announced that it signified Through the temperate zones read Between the end of the ninth (in the Roman order, the temperate zones. eighth) secle, and the beginning of the P. 184, note on v. 391, 392. For spattenth, adding that as the secret was one tering read sputtering. which he had no right to divulge, he should P. 216, note on v. 214. For a venomous be struck dead by the gods; which took snake read venomous snakes. place immediately. Mr. Greswell remarks P. 243, note on v. 466. For as then read that Vulcatius was in error, as the eighth as there. Roman secle had not then come to an end, P. 260, note on v. 91. For 2. 406 read being only half completed, but that the 2. 476. story shows what was believed at the time. P. 265, note on v. 155. For defendit read

P. 50, note on v. 28. Dele the reference defendite. to G. 2. 389. There is nothing in the note P. 278, text, v: 297. For felicum read there which need hinder our giving mollis' filicum. here and in E. 5. 31 the sense of .waving,' P. 280. Dele note on v. 326, which conneither corn-ears nor thyrsi being things tains an unintentional misquotation. which necessarily move altogether, if they P. 332, note on v. 276. I ought to have move at all. “Mollis arista' however pro- excepted E. 8. 76, which, though found in bably includes something more—the notion all the MSS., is almost certainly spurious, not merely of flexibility, but of delicacy and as I have there remarked: but the case of grace. The corn-ear may of course be a burden of a song repeated once too often looked upon as rough, horrens ;' but it is clearly different from that of an ordinary may also suggest an opposite notion, with interpolation. no less truth. To suppose with some of P. 344, note on v. 373. Lord Dudley, in the commentators that the corn of the his “ Letters to the Bishop of Llandaff,” p. golden age is to be no longer pointed and 61, says of the Po, “It is very broad at bearded, but soft, is, I think, to mistake Piacenza, and pours along with tremendous the poetical image.



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