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feeling of indignation against the Italian bishop, when he despatched Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman to England, as Archbishop of Westminster, to found a new hierarchy in this country.* The various religious and political parties concurred in the opposition to that audacious attempt, although the reasons upon which they founded their opposition differed considerably from each other. But unfortunately at that important crisis, the Government held opinions which did not respond to the national sentiment, and it causes amazement to know that the British ambassador in Paris, communicated to the French Government, in April, 1849, that~"the restoration of the Pope, under an improved form of government, was precisely that which he had always been instructed to state was the object of Her Majesty's Government.+

The ambitious designs of the Emperor of Russia against Turkey have been long entertained, and a warlike movement has always been considered as a mere question of time, but the world indulged the hope that it might be delayed for a long period. The time has, however, now come, and the war just declared will be a speedy and terrible development of the conflict between THE CROSS AND THE CRESCENT AS STANDARDS IN

* A vague opinion prevailed that the Roman Catholics in England were very numerous, and the priests and members of that Church were active in their endeavours to promote the idea that they were on the increase. The statistics of the population returns show the real state of the numbers, and, like all things connected with the Roman Church, there has been much exaggeration in the matter. The following is the statement of the number of attendants in the churches on Sunday, 30th March 1851. Church of England

2,971,258 Protestant Dissenters

3,110,782 Other bodies

24,793 Roman Catholics



6,356,222 It thus appears that in England there are only four Roman Catholics to every 100 Protestants !

+ See the Official Correspondence on the affairs of Rome in 1849, published by order of Parliament.


London, 5th April, 1854.


CHAPTER IV.—The Wars of the Crusades, emphatically so



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