« ForrigeFortsæt »
THE NEW INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA
ERJULFSON, her'yulf-son. BJARNI. The hero of an ancient Icelandic saga, according to which he was the first Norse discoverer of America. He was the son of Herjulf, one of the early settlers of Iceland. When he grew to manhood he became a sea-rover, and spent most of his time abroad, returning only to pass alternate winters at his father's house. During one of his absences Herjulf removed to Greenland with Eric the Red, and, when Bjarni on his return to Iceland the following year (986) found his father gone, he determined to follow. Three days after he had left Iceland a storm arose and the ship drifted for some time at its mercy. When at last the storm abated, the crew hoisted sail and came to a land covered with trees. As this could not have been Greenland, Bjarni refused to go ashore; so they sailed away, leaving the land on their left. Three times more they made the land, and the third time they found Eric's settlement in Greenland. News of the discovery they had made of a well-wooded country to the southward came to the ears of Leif Ericson (q.v.), son of Eric, and incited him to make his famous voyage to Vinland. Consult Reeves, The Finding of Wineland the Good (London, 1890).
HER KIMER. A village and the county-seat of Herkimer County, N. Y., 81 miles west by north of Albany; on the Mohawk River, the Erie Canal, and the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad (Map: New York, F 2). It has a free library of over 7000 volumes, and the Folts Mission Institute. The village is in a dairying region, and manufactures knit goods, paper, furniture, beds, mattresses, etc. The water-works and electric-light plant are owned by the municipality. Population, in 1900, 5555. HERKIMER, NICHOLAS (1715?-77). An American soldier of the Revolutionary War. He was born probably in what is now Herkimer County, N. Y. Nicholas served as a lieutenant of militia in the French and Indian War, and was in command of Fort Herkimer in 1758, when the French attack on German Flats was made. 1775 he was commissioned a colonel of militia, and was chairman of the Committee of Safety of Tryon County. In the following year he was appointed a brigadier-general of the New
York militia, and operated against Sir John Johnson. After Ticonderoga fell into the hands of Burgoyne's advancing army on July 7, 1777, Colonel Saint Leger joined Sir John Johnson at Oswego, and with a mixed force of 1800 British regulars, Tories and Iroquois Indians under Joseph Brant, advanced toward Fort Stanwix (q.v.). The fort was invested on August 3d, and two days later Herkimer, with a force of 800 hastily recruited militia and volunteers, marched to its relief. Apprised by his Indians of the advance of the relieving column, Saint Leger arranged an ambuscade in a swampy ravine at Oriskany. The battle that ensued, perhaps the most obstinate and murderous of the entire Revolution, was indecisive. The Americans held the field and drove their opponents off, but lost a third of their force in dead and wounded, and were too weak to continue the advance. Saint Leger's force, on the other hand, was so crippled and disorganized as to render out of the question both the continuation of the seige and the advance southward. Early in the fight Herkimer had his horse shot under him and his leg shattered by a musket-ball; but, seated on his saddlebags underneath a tree, he continued calmly to smoke and shout out his commands until the fight was over. Ten days later he died, as a result of an unskillful operation. A monument 85 feet high was erected to his memory on the field of Oriskany in 1884.
HERKOMER, HUBERT VON (1849-). A genre and portrait painter and etcher of the English school. He was born at Waal, near Landsberg, Bavaria, May 26, 1849. His family emigrated to the United States in 1851, but returned to England in 1857. Herkomer's early life was a struggle with poverty and ill health. He evinced early talent for painting, and in 1865 he studied under Echtler in Munich. In 1866 he studied at South Kensington under Frederick Walker, whose influence is evident in his early works. In 1870 he removed to London, where he soon be came famous as an illustrator for the London Graphic, as well as for his painting. He was an excellent water-colorist, and became a member of the Royal Society in 1871, but was not made an Academician until 1890. In 1873 he settled at Bushy, Hertfordshire, where in 1881 he estab lished an art school, in which various branches
of art besides painting were practiced. In 1882 Many examples are preserved in European muhe visited America, painting a number of portraits and delivering lectures in New York and Boston; he came again in 1883, and in 1885 he opened a studio in Boston. From 1885 until 1895 he was Slade professor of fine arts, Oxford, succeeding John Ruskin. His lectures before the university were published under the title Etching and Mezzotint in Engraving (London, 1892). He has been the recipient of many honors in European countries, and has taken three gold
Herkomer's work includes not only oil and water-color painting, but also excellent etchings. He has worked successfully in various branches of applied art, such as wood-carving, wrought-iron work, and architecture, and has also figured as a playwright, actor, magazine writer, musical composer, and singer. His paintings are excel lent in drawing and good in color. The best known of them is the "Last Muster," which took the grand medal of honor at the Paris Exposition of 1878. It represents the veterans of Chelsea at prayer in their chapel. Among his other paintings are: "After the Toil of Day" (1873); "Eventide" (1878); "Life, Light, and Melody" (1879); "God's Shrine" (1880); "Der Bittgang" (Bavarian peasants praying for harvest); and "Pressing to the West" (1884), representing the arrival of emigrants at Castle Garden; "Gathering in the Charter House;" "The Magistracy of Landshut" (1893), which he presented to his native town. His portraits are marked by strong characterization and excellent technique. The best include: The "Lady in White," which took the medal of honor at the Berlin Exposition in 1886; the "Lady in Black" (an American girl); the artist's father, Lorenz Herkomer, in the series "Makers of My House;" Wagner (1878); Ruskin (1881); Browning; Tennyson; Archibald Forbes (1882); and Hans Richter (1883). Among his best-known water-colors are: "Im Walde;" "The Wood Cutter's Rest;" "The Poacher's Fate;" and "At the Well." Consult: The articles on "Herkomer," by Dafforne, in the Art Journal (1880); Courtney, Art Annual (1892).
HERKULESBAD, hĕěrʼkōō-lâs-bät. See ME
HERLIN, hěr lên, FRIEDRICH (?-c.1499). German painter, born in Rothenburg or Nördlingen. He was probably the pupil of Rogier van der Weyden the Elder. At any rate, he painted in the style of that master. There is an altarpiece by him, representing scenes from the life of the Virgin, in the Church of Saint James at Rothenburg; a "Madonna and Saints" in the town hall at Nördlingen; and a "Nativity" in the Church of Saint Blasius at Bopfingen.
HERM (Lat. Hermes, from Gk. 'Epuns, connected with Skt. Sarameya, dog of the lower world, from Saraman, messenger of Sudra, from sar, to run, to flow, to hasten). A pillar, generally surmounted with a head of Hermes or Mercury, erected commonly in many parts of ancient Greece, especially in Attica, where they were used as milestones, Hermes being the god of traffic, roads, and boundaries. Sometimes heads of other divinities, such as Athena and Eros, were combined with that of Hermes. The Romans used them rather for merely decorative purposes than with any religious significance.
HERMAN, HENRY (1832-94). An English dramatist and novelist, born in Alsace. He was educated at a military college, emigrated to America, and served in the Confederate Army of a wound received in action. during the Civil War, losing an eye as a result Afterwards he removed to London, and began to write for the stage. His first play, Jeanne Dubarry, was produced at the Charing Cross Theatre in May, 1875, and was followed the next year by Slight duced his first great success, The Silver King, Mistakes, a farce. In November, 1882, was prowritten in collaboration with Henry Arthur Jones, with whom he also wrote Breaking a Chatterton (1884). He then wrote Claudian Butterfly (1884) (Ibsen's Doll's House) and with William Gorman Wills (1884), and The also wrote: For Old Virginia (1891); Eagle Joe Golden Band (1887) with Freeman Wills. (1892); and Fay o' Fire (1885), a romantic opera, for which Edward Jones composed the music. Between 1887 and 1891 he wrote several novels in collaboration with David Christie Murray, such as: One Traveler Returns (1887); A Dangerous Catspaw (1889); The Bishop's Bible (1890); He Fell Among Thieves (1890); and Paul Jones's Alias (1891). He also wrote alone a large number of novels.
HERMAN, âr'mäN', MARTIAL JOSEPH ARat Saint Pol. He became a lawyer and an ardent MAND (1749-95). A French revolutionist, born revolutionist, and in 1793, when he had laid aside all his earlier counsels of moderation and had
become intimate with Robespierre, he was appointed president of the Revolutionary Tribunal, and tried Marie Antoinette, Danton, and many others who died in that year. As Minister of Justice (1794) he had, and used, fresh opportunity for horrible judicial murders. Accused of being bribed by Robespierre in 1794, and of complicity with Fouquier-Tinville (1795), he was condemned on May 6th and guillotined the next day.
brotherhood). The name given to associations HERMANDAD, âr'mån-dän', THE (Sp., formed at various times by the principal cities of Castile, Leon, and Aragon for the defense of their liberties in times of trouble. These confederacies were sanctioned by the sovereigns as agents for suppressing the increasing power of the nobles, and for maintaining public security throughout the land with no cost to the Government. In Aragon the first Hermandad was established in the middle of the thirteenth century, and in Castile about thirty years later. In 1295 thirty-four cities of Castile and Leon formed a confederacy, and entered into a compact by which they pledged themselves to inflict either robbed or injured a member of their assosummary punishment upon every noble who had ciation and who refused to make just atonement for the wrong; or upon any one who should attempt, even by the order of the King, to levy an unjust tax. During the long period of anarchy, in which the Christian rulers of Spain were powerless to maintain order in their own dominions, the Santa Hermandad, or Holy Brotherhood, presented the only check against the unbounded license of the nobles. Isabella of Castile, seeing the beneficial effects which an extension of the
institution was capable of producing, obtained the sanction of the Cortes (1476) for its thorough reorganization and extension over the whole kingdom. A court was established in every community of thirty families, and an appeal from the local court went to the Supreme Council. A general junta met annually, and instructions were transmitted to the provincial juntas. The crimes reserved for the jurisdiction of the Hermandad were all acts of violence and theft committed on the high roads or in the open country, and the penalties attached to each misdemeanor were specified with the greatest precision in the codes of laws which were enacted at different times in the yearly assemblies of the deputies of the confederated cities. An annual contribution was assessed on every hundred householders or veHERMANN, FRIEDRICH BENEDIKT WILHELM cinos for the equipment and maintenance of the horsemen and quadrilleros, or officials of the He was born in Bavaria, and studied at the uniVON (1795-1868). A German political economist. Brotherhood, whose duty it was to arrest offend-versities of Erlangen and Würzburg. His aters and enforce the sentence of the law. Al- tention was early directed to mathematics and though the Hermandad was regarded with much disfavor by the aristocracy, it continued for some political economy. In 1823 he became privat-dotime to exercise its functions, until the country cent at the University of Erlangen; in 1825 he was called to the professorship of mathematics at the Gymnasium of Nuremburg; and in 1827 he became professor extraordinary of Kameralwissenschaften in the University of Munich. His great work, Staatswirtschaftliche Untersuchungen, which appeared in 1832, ranks as one of the most important contributions to German eco
had been cleared of banditti and the ministers of justice enabled to discharge their duties without hindrance from lawless disturbers of the
peace. In 1485 the association issued its code of laws, known as the Quaderno de las leyes nueras de la Hermandad. In 1498, the objects of the Hermandad having been obtained and pub
nomics. In 1835 he was made member of the
lic order established on a firm basis, the func
tions of the Brotherhood were greatly reduced and most of its officials done away with; in the course of half a century the Hermandad became transformed into a mere police force. Consult: Mariana, Historia de España (Valencia, 178396); Prescott, History of Ferdinand and Isabella (Boston, 1838).
Royal Bavarian Academy of Science. He was inspector of technical instruction in Bavaria; in Minister of the Interior; and in 1848 sat as a 1845 was appointed one of the Councilors to the member for Munich in the National Assembly at Frankfort, where he was one of the founders of the so-called 'Great-German Party,' which opposed the rise of the hegemony of Prussia; in 1850 he assumed charge of the Bureau of Statisties, and in 1855 he became Councilor of State. He published a large number of pamphlets and papers on political, economic, and industrial subjects, and the annual reports which he published as head of the Bureau of Statistics entitle him to the rank of one of the founders of the science of statistics.
HERMANFRID, hěrʼmån-frêt (?-531). The last King of the Thuringians, son of Basinus. He ruled at first with his two brothers, Baderich and Berthar, but, urged on by his ambitious wife, Amalberga, killed Berthar and joined with Theoderich I., King of the Franks, against Baderich, who was defeated and dethroned in 516. Hermanfrid now refused to give up half of his kingdom, as he had promised, to Theoderich. The latter joined Clotaire I., his brother, and the Saxons, in a grand alliance against Thuringia, and dethroned Hermanfrid in 531. One story says that he was killed by his own armor-bearer. Amalberga went to Italy with her children, the bulk of Thuringia was joined to the kingdom of the Franks, and the Saxons took the northern part. The story of Hermanfrid has been dramatized by Wetzel and by Schlönbach.
HERMANN. A town and the county-seat of Gasconade County, Mo., 81 miles west of Saint
Louis; on the Missouri River and on the Mis
souri Pacific Railroad (Map: Missouri, E 3). It is the centre of extensive vine-growing interests, and manufactures wine, in which there is an important trade, beer, flour, foundry products, etc. The picturesque scenery of the vicinity attracts many excursionists during the summer. Population, in 1890, 1410; in 1900, 1575.
HERMANN, hĕrʼmån. The leader of the Cherusci in their celebrated victory over the Roman legions of Varus (A.D. 9). See ARMINIUS.
He was elected Archbishop of Cologne in 1515, and supported the claims of Charles V., whom he crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520. The next year, at the Diet of Worms, he strongly opposed heresy, and endeavored to have Luther declared an outlaw, in spite of the fact that he himself was striving to bring about a reform, though within the Church. In 1542 he became an advocate of the new teachings, and in consequence was outlawed by the Emperor and banned by the Pope. The Emperor then secured the election of Adolf of Schaumburg to the Archbishopric, and Hermann withdrew to his Earldom of Wied, where he died a few years later. Consult Varrentrapp, Hermann von Wied und sein Reformationsversuch in Köln (Leipzig, 1878).
HERMANN, Count of WIED (1477-1552). Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, born at Wied.
HERMANN, GOTTFRIED (1772-1848). A German philologist. He was born at Leipzig, November 28, 1772; studied there and at Jena, and was made in 1798 professor extraordinary of philosophy at Leipzig. In 1803 he was professor of eloquence, becoming in addition professor of poetry in 1809, and in this position he remained till his death, December 31, 1848. The first department which he began to cultivate on original principles was metre, of which he attempted to develop a philosophical theory from the categories of Kant; and on this subject he wrote, beLatin treatises, among which his Epitome Docsides his Handbuch der Metrik (1798), several trina Metrica (1818) reached a third edition in 1852. Of wider importance, however, was the new method which he introduced into the treatment of Greek grammar. The principles of this method are not only explicitly developed in his De Emendenda Ratione Græcæ Grammaticæ (1801), but are practically illustrated in his numerous editions of the ancient classics. Hermann's power of dealing with chronological, topographical, and personal questions is shown in his Opuscula (7 vols., Leipzig, 1827-30), which also
contain some poems. Consult: Jahn, Gottfried Hermann, eine Gedächtnisrede (Leipzig, 1849); Köchly, Gottfried Hermann (Heidelberg, 1874); Bursian, Geschichte der klassischen Philologie in Deutschland (Munich, 1883).
HERMANN, KARL FRIEDRICH (1804-55). A German classical scholar. He was born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, and was educated at Heidelberg and Leipzig. In 1832 he was appointed professor of classical philology at the University of Marburg, and in 1842 succeeded O. Müller as professor of philology and archæology at the University of Göttingen, where he remained until his death. His principal works were his Lehrbuch der griechischen Antiquitäten (6th ed. 188292), a standard work on Greek antiquities; Geschichte und System der Platonischen Philosophie (1839); Kulturgeschichte der Griechen und Römer (1857-58); and text revisions of Plato (6 vols., 1851-52); Juvenal's Satires (1854); and Persius (1854). Consult Lechner, Zur Erinnerung an Karl Friedrich Hermann (Berlin, 1864).
HERMANN, ROBERT (1869-). A Swiss composer, born at Bern. He studied music at the Frankfort Conservatory in 1891, and with Humperdinck (1893-94). In 1895 the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra gave his Symphony in C, and since that time his compositions have met with increasing favor in Germany. His works include pieces for violin and piano, songs, a concert overture in D minor, quintets, trios, etc.
HERMANNSTADT, herʼmån-ståt, Hung. NAGY-SZEBEN, nōd'y'-se ben (Lat. Cibinium). An important town of Hungary, formerly the capital of Transylvania, beautifully situated on the Cibin, or Zibin (Hung. Szeben), an affluent of the Aluta, about 70 miles west-northwest of Kronstadt (Map: Hungary, J 4). Hermannstadt is the seat of a Greek archbishop and of a Lutheran superior consistory, possesses many fine schools, a library of 40,000 volumes, and a number of fine churches. There are extensive barracks. Tanning, wax-bleaching, and the making of cloth, combs, paper, and gunpowder are among the chief industries. Population, in 1890, 21,500; in 1900, 26,077, of whom two-thirds are Germans and the rest Magyars and Rumanians. Hermannstadt is the principal town in the so-called Saxon Land, and is supposed to have been founded by German colonists in the twelfth century.
HERMANN UND DOROTHEA, oont do'rôtă'à. An idyllic poem by Goethe (1797). The plot was suggested by the appearance in Weimar and Eisenach of French emigrants who had been driven from Würzburg by the Bishop. This reminded Goethe of the historic expulsion, in 1731, of several hundred Protestants from his territory by the Archbishop of Salzburg, and on this the poem was based. The scene is laid in a small German town in 1796. Hermann, the son of an innkeeper of the town, meets Dorothea among the exiles and falls in love with her. The opposition of his father is overcome, and after clearing up the misconception of Dorothea, who at first understands that Hermann is seeking her as a servant for his father's household, Hermann wins her love. The poem is in nine cantos and contains 2000 hexameter verses. Goethe acknowledged indebtedness to Voss's Luise for the idea of his
poem, which, however, surpasses Voss's work in all particulars.
HERMANN VON FRITZLAR, fōn frits'lär. A German mystic of the fourteenth century. Of his life we know merely that he came from Fritzlar, in Hesse, and that he traveled through Europe, visiting the tombs of the saints. It is surmised that he was a rich layman. He wrote Die Blume der Schauung, a speculative work now lost, and a mystical Heiligenleben, preserved in a manuscript written under his own supervision. This valuable document for the reconstruction of German mysticism in the fourteenth century is edited by Pfeiffer, in his Deutsche Mystiker.
HERMANN VON REICHENAU, ri'ke-nou, HERMANN DER LAHME, or HERMANNUS CONTRACTUS (1013-54). A German poet and mathematician. He was the son of the Swabian Count Wolverad. From childhood his limbs were painfully contracted, whence the name by which he is generally known. He attended a monastic school at Reichenau, and at the age of thirty joined the brotherhood. He was an earnest and a successful teacher, and drew about him a zealous body He wrote a of pupils from various places. treatise on the abacus (published by Treutlein in the Boncompagni Bullettino, vol. x., Rome, 1877); and did much to extend the knowledge of the column computation. Unlike Gerbert (see SYLVESTER), however, he seems to have had no knowledge of the Hindu numerals. He also wrote on a number-game, 'Rhitmomachia,' and on the use of the astrolabe (q.v.). He is best known, however, for his Chronicon, a work on history down to the year of Hermann's death. It was continued by Berthold (edited by Pertz, vol. V. of Monumenta Germania Historica, 1844; and translated by Nobbe, 1892). Among his poems are: De Octo Vitiis Principalibus (ed. by Dümmler, in Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum, vol. xiii.), and the Latin hymns, Salve Regina and Alma Redemptoris Mater. Consult Hansjakob, Hermann der Lahme von der Reichenau (Mainz, 1875).
HERMANN VON SALZA, zälʼtså (?-1239). A grand master of the Teutonic Order, probably descended from the lords of Salza, in Thuringia. He became grand master in 1210, and raised the Order to an enviable position both in the Fast and in Europe. He made his headquar ters in Venice, though his duties kept him continually traveling in Egypt, Palestine, Italy, and Germany, and several times he acted as arbitrator in the frequent quarrels between the Pope and the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II. Carlyle says of him: "He is reckoned the first fourth in the series great Hochmeister of masters; perhaps the greatest to be found there at all, though many were considerable." Consult: Carlyle, History of Frederick the Great, vol. i. (London, 1858-65); Koch, Hermann von Salza, Meister des Deutschen Ordens (Leipzig, 1885).
HERMANRICH, hĕr'mån-rik (c.269-375). King of the Ostrogoths, variously called Hermanrich, Ermanarich, Ermanrich, and in myth Ermrich. He was the founder of a great Ostrogothic power about the middle of the fourth century. when he conquered many Slavic and Finnish tribes, so that the saga makes him rule from the Black Sea to the Baltic. This story makes him