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One of the principal matabooles then addressed the spirit of Finow's father to the following purpose: “ Behold the man (meaning “Finow) who has come to Tonga to fight his “enemies; be pleased with him, and grant “ him thy protection; he comes to battle, “hoping he is not doing wrong; he has al“ways held Tooitonga* in the highest respect, “ and has attended to all religious ceremonies “ with exactness." One of the attendants then went to Finow, and received from him a piece of cava root, which he laid down on the raised mount before the Fytoka (burying-place). Several others, who had pieces of cava root in their bosoms, went up to the grave in like manner and deposited them. The ceremony being thus finished, Finow and his friends returned to the beach, where a large root of cava was brought to them as a present, by the chief of the consecrated place, on which they regaled. During this time, the greater part of the men who were not yet disembarked employed themselves in preparing for battle, again painting their bodies and faces after various fanciful forms. The enemy on shore were also in a state of preparation: they shouted the war

* Tooitonga is a great chief, supposed to be descended from a God.

Deschiption of Ni‘oocALO'FA Fort TREss. 97

whoop, and ran up and down the beach with furious gestures; splashing up the water with their clubs, brandishing them in the air, flourishing their spears, and bidding bold defiance to their invaders. Finow and his attendants having returned on board, the whole fleet proceeded to a neighbouring fortress called Nioocalofa, the strongest, though not the largest, in the whole island. As it will be proper to understand the usual form and construction of these Tonga fortresses, we shall give a general description of them, taking that of Nioocalofa as a model for the rest. The fortress of Nioocalofa is situated on the west coast of the island, about one hundred yards distant from the water's edge, and occupies about four or five acres of ground. It consists, in the first place, of a strong wall or fencing of reeds, something like wicker-work, supported on the inside by upright posts, from six to nine inches in diameter, and situated a foot and a half distant from each other; to which the reed-work is firmly lashed by tough sinnet, made of the husk of the cocoa-nut. This fencing is about nine feet in height, the posts rising about a foot higher: it has four large entrances, as well as several small ones, W 0 L. I. H

secured on the inside by horizontal sliding pieces, made of the wood of the cocoa-nut tree. Over each door, as well as at other places, are erected platforms even with the top of the fence ing, supported chiefly on the inside, but projecting forward to the extent of two or three feet: these platforms are about nine feet square, and situated fifteen yards distant from each other; and as they are intended for the men to stand on, to shoot arrows, or throw down large stones, they are also defended in front, and half way on each side, by a reed-work six feet high, with an opening in front, and others on either hand, for the greater convenience of throwing spears, &c. The lower fencing has also openings for a similar purpose. On the outside is a ditch of nearly twelve feet deep, and as much broad; which, at a little distance, is encompassed by another fencing similar to the first, with platforms, &c. on the outside of which

there is a second ditch. The earth dug out of .

these ditches forms a bank on each side, serving to deepen them. Opposite each large doorway, there is no ditch dug. The inner and outer fencings are ornamented profusely with white shells. Some of these fortifications are square, others round. That of Nioocalofa was round.


Disembarkation of the forces—Siege of Nioocalofa—Destruction of the fortress—Cruelty of the conquerors— Decription of the effect of the artillery—Embarkation for Pangaimotoo—Ceremony of invoking a God—Inspiration of a priest—Return to Tonga—The fortress rebuilt—Cannibalism—Garrison of Bea enters into alliance with Finow—Finow embarks again for Pangaimotoo, leaving the fortress in the care of the chief of Bea—Treachery of this chief—Return of the fleet to the Hapai islands— Astonishment of Finow at the mode of communicating sentiments by writing, with the circumstance that gave rise to it—A Tonga chief and his family join Finow.— Arrival at Lefooga—Ceremony of Fuccalahi—Ceremony of marriage between Tooitonga and Finow's daughter.

Finow being arrived with the whole of his fleet off Nioocalofa, and having with him, besides Mr. Mariner, fifteen other Englishmen, eight of whom were armed with muskets, he proceeded to land his troops under cover of a fire of musketry, which speedily drove almost all the enemy who had sallied forth back into the garrison. The first fire killed three, and wounded several; and a repetition of it threw them into such dismay, that in five minutes only forty of the bravest remained to molest them ; and these began to retire, as the forces of Finow increased on the beach. In the mean while, the carronades were dismounted from their carriages, slung on poles, and conveyed over a shallow reef to the shore. The whole army being landed, and the guns again mounted, the latter were drawn up before the garrison, and a regular fire was commenced. Finow took his station on the reef, seated in an English chair, (from the Port au Prince) for his chiefs would not allow him to expose his person on shore. The fire of the carronades was kept up for about an hour: in the mean while, as it did not do all the apparent mischief to the exterior of the fortress, owing to the yielding nature of its materials, that the king expected, he sent for Mr. Mariner, and expressed his disappointment: the latter replied, that no doubt there was mischief enough done on the inside of the fort, wherever there were resisting bodies, such as canoes, the posts and beams of houses, &c.; and that it was already very evident the besieged had no reason to think slightly of the effect of the artillery, seeing that they had already greatly slackened their exertions, not half the number of arrows being

now discharged from the fort; arising, in all

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