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Nam neque adhuc Vario videor, nec dicere Cinna 35
Digna, sed argutos inter strepere anser olores.
M. Id quidem ago et tacitus, Lycida, mecum ipse voluto,
Si valeam meminisse ; neque est ignobile carmen.
“Huc ades, o Galatea ; quis est nam ludus in undis ?
Hic ver purpureum, varios hic flumina circum
Fundit humus flores, hic candida populus antro
Imminet, et lentae texunt umbracula vites;
Huc ades; insani feriant sine litora fluctus."
L. Quid, quae te pura solum sub nocte canentem

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35.] “Varo’ is the reading of all the Galatea is addressed as in 7. 37 (note). MSS., but · Vario' is supported by Serv. • Quisnam’or 'nam quis' (G. 4. 445) is a and Cruquius' Schol. on Hor. 1 Od. 6, and common form of interrogation, the thought required by the context, as the mention of on which 'nam' depends being suppressed: Cinna and the parallel in Theocr. l. C., here however it is contained in . Huc ades.' where Asclepiades and Philetas are spoken For the interposition of a word between of, show that two poets are here intended. • quis' and 'nam on G. 4. l. c. • Varo’ is easily to be accounted for from • Ludus in undis :' comp. Theocr. 11. 62, üç vv. 26, 27. For Varius and Cinna see κεν ίδω τί πoχ’ αδύ κατοικήν τον βυθόν Dict. B.

ύμμιν. 36.] • Argutos-olores,' an expression of 40.] • Purpureum,' 5. 38 note, red being the same class as those referred to on 8. 55, doubtless meant here as the prominent though the allusion here seemingly is not colour of blooming flowers, like “vere ruto a contest between geese and swans, but benti,” G. 2. 319. Theocr. 18. 27 has to geese spoiling the melody of swans' songs levkov čap. by their cackling. •Anser, Serv. tells us, 41.] • Candida populus, called “alba' is a punning reference to a contemporary Hor. 2 Od. 3. 9, leven being the Greek poet of that name, mentioned by Ov. Trist.

• Antro' carries us back to Poly2. 435, along with Cinna, and by Cic. Phil. phemus and his cave in the passage from 13. 5 as a friend of Antony, and probably, Theocr. 11. 44. like Bavius and Maevius, personally ob- 42.) Whether the vine grows over the noxious to Virgil, as would appear from an cave, as in 5. 6, or forms a bower of itself, obscure, if not corrupt, passage in Prop. is not clear. “Umbracula :'"

prope aream 3. 26. 83, 84, as well as from Donatus, faciundum umbracula, quo succedant howho however may have known nothing mines in aestu tempore meridiano," Varro, beyond the present line and the note of R. R. 1. 51. Serv.

43.] • Insani,' 'the wild waves' play,' 37–43.] ‘M. I am trying to recollect. as they dash themselves recklessly and Here are some lines in which he asks Gala- blindly on the shore, is contrasted with the tea to leave the sea, and come on shore and quiet beauty of the land, that Galatea may enjoy the glories of spring.'

give the latter the preference. 37.] ‘Id agere' is a common phrase for 44, 45.] ‘L. What of that song of his I being busy about an object, as in the well. heard you singing to yourself the other known expression “ hoc age,' the same sense night?' doubtless which appears in the common use 44.] • Quid, quae,' like the common of the imperative age,' though in the phrase quid, quod.' • What do you say Greek äve, from which it obviously comes, to those verses ?? How about those verses?' the notion must be that of leading or going “Pura sub nocte:' comp. G. 2. 364 note. The along with.

clearness of the night is doubtless mentioned 38.] “Si valeam,' in the hope that I may because Moeris sang in the open air: but be able,' like si forte,' 6. 57, A. 2. 756. there is probably also a reference tơ the * Neque' here gives the reason why he is clear sky as a medium for sound. Forb. trying to recollect the verses, like . et' in well comp. Lucr. l. 142, “inducit noctes such passages as A. 11. 901.

vigilare serenas.' 39.] Condensed from Theocr. 11. 42 foll.

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Audieram ? numeros memini, si verba tenerem.
M. “Daphni, quid antiquos signorum suspicis ortus ?
Ecce Dionaei processit Caesaris astrum,
Astrum, quo segetes gauderent frugibus, et quo
Duceret apricis in collibus uva colorem.
Insere, Daphni, piros ; carpent tua poma nepotes.”
Omnia fert aetas, animum quoque; saepe ego longos
Cantando puerum memini me condere soles :
Nunc oblita mihi tot carmina ; vox quoque Moerim
Iam fugit ipsa ; lupi Moerim videre priores.

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45.] •I remember the tune, if I only had 49.] Duceret-colorem :' “variis solet the words.' In the construction memini uva racemis Ducere purpureum nondum -si tenerem,' the conditional clause is not matura colorem," Ov. M. 3. 484.“ • Uvaque logically connected with the other, but with conspecta livorem ducit ab uva," Juv. something understood, e.g. it might be 2. 81.

numeros memini, et carmen ipsum revo- 50.] *Poma’ are the fruit which are to carem, si verba tenerem,' so that we may grow on the pear-tree. •Insere piros,' l. compare the use of si' to express a 74. The meaning is that the trees shall be wish.

good bearing trees for more than one gene46–55.] ‘M. The Julian is the star ration. Palladius (8. 3., 9. 6) says that of stars : it will tell us when to sow, and pears may be grafted in August, or if the plant, and graft.- Memory fails me- soil is moist (which, as Voss reminds us, is memory,

that was so good—and the case in the neighbourhood of Mantua), voice too: but Menalcas will gratify you in July. himself.'

51.] · Fert,' as in 5. 34. Emm. comp. 46.] Daphnis is addressed as the repre- Plato's verses, aiwy távra dépel colexos sentative of the shepherds, who watch the χρόνος οίδεν αμείβειν Ούνομα και μορφών stars for agricultural purposes (G. 1. 204 kai qúowv no è rúxnv. Animum :''in anifoll., 257, 258). •Antiquos' is transferred mo esse' is used for recollecting (Ter. And. from ósignorum’ to ortus.'

1. 5. 47), and 'ex animo effluere' for for47.] The allusion is to the comet which getting (Cic. de Or. 2. 74), as we talk of appeared when Octavianus was giving games * bearing a thing in mind;' and hence proba. in honour of Julius, the year after his bly 'animus' comes to be used for the death, and which was supposed to signify memory itself, like 'mens'in Cic. Brut. 61, the dictator's apotheosis (Suet. Caes. 88). "huic ex tempore dicenti effluit mens. Comp. Hor. 1 Od. 12. 47, “micat inter Comp. the old English expression to bear omnes Iulium sidus.” Dionaei' as the a brain' for “to remember.' descendant of Venus, who is called • Dionaea 52.] ' Condere,'' to bury,' for 'to see go mater,' A. 3. 19. • Processit,' of the rising down imitated doubtless from Callim. of a star, 6. 86.

Ep. 2. 3, ήλιον έν λέσχη κατεδύσαμεν, and 48.] The Julian star is to be the farmer's Lucr. 3. T090, vivendo condere saecla." star, as Julius in 5. 79 is the farmer's god, So Hor. 4 Od. 5. 29, “ Condit quisque diem and Octavianus also (G. 1. 24 foll.). • Quo' collibus in suis." denotes the agency, not, as in . quo sidere,' 53.] Oblita,' passive : a rare use, folG. 1. 1, the time. The rising of the star lowed by Val. Fl. 1. 792., 2. 388. might naturally be the signal for harvest 54.] A man meeting a wolf and not and vintage (G. 1. 253): but Virgil evi- catching its eye first was supposed to be dently expresses himself here as if the stars struck dumb. Pliny, 8. 34, speaks of it not only formed the shepherd's calendar, as an Italian_belief: but it is alluded but actually foretold or created agricultural to by Plato, Rep. 1, p. 336, where Soprosperity. Keightley suggests that he crates congratulates himself on having summer of A.U.c. 711, when the comet first caught sight of Thrasymachus. appeared, would naturally have been very Theocr. 14. 22 has oủ phayšū; lúxov. hot and dry. "Segetes,' of fields, as in sides, where the effect seems to be attriG. 1. 47.

buted to meeting a wolf under any cir

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Sed tamen ista satis referet tibi saepe Menalcas.
L. Caussando nostros in longum ducis amores.
Et nunc omne tibi stratum silet

aequor, et omnes,
Aspice, ventosi ceciderunt murmuris aurae;
Hinc adeo media est nobis via ; namque sepulchrum
Incipit adparere Bianoris : hic, ubi densas
Agricolae stringunt frondes, hic, Moeri, canamus;
Hic haedos depone, tamen veniemus in urbem.
Aut si, nox pluviam ne colligat ante, veremur,
Cantantes licet usque-minus via laedit-eamus ;
Cantantes ut eamus, ego hoc te fasce levabo.

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cumstances. • Priores,' like 'prior inquit,' Ocnus Bianorus. Thus the scenery beA. 1. 321.

comes Mantuan again. 55.] “Ordo est, satis saepe,” Serv. 61.] Stringere' of the frondatio,' or 56–65.] L. Do not put me off - there

clearing away

of leaves,' which were used is perfect stillness about us, and we are half for fodder, G. 1. 305., 2. 368, Hor. 1 Ep. way to the town: we can afford to stop: or 14. 28, “ oleam ubi nigra erit stringito,” if you want to get on, we can sing as we Cato, R. R. 65. Col. 11. 2, § 65 (referred walk.'

to by Keightley) says that the frondatio' 56.] Comp. Lucr. l. 398, “ quamvis should be done antelucanis et vespertinis caussando multa moreris. • Amores' for temporibus.' • Canamus :' they were to • studium' or “cupido.' “Si tantus amor sing alternately, as in Theocr. 7. casus cognoscere nostros," A. 2. 10.

62.] . Tamen,' after all,' .notwithstand57.] Apparently imitated from Theocr. ing.' “ Tamen cantabitis," 10. 31 (note). 2. 38, ηνίδε σιγά μεν πόντος, σιγώντι δ' Keightley thinks the expression strange, as áñtai, so that . aequor' seems to be the they were within a mile and a half of Mansea, the scenery being taken from Sicily. tua : but it seems to be a playful anticipaNeither the context nor the language of tion of an objection from Moeris. · the line itself allows to interpret the 63.] The night is said to gather the rain, word of the swamp of the Mincio. because the gathering of the clouds is the • Tibi, for your purpose, so that you prelude of rain. Comp. G. 3. 327, “ ubi may sing.

quarta sitim caeli collegerit hora." 58.] · Adspice,' řvide, calling attention. 64.] From Theocr. 7. 35. Usque' with • Ventosi murmuris' is apparently equiva- 'eamus,' •let us go straight on.' “ Juvat lent to venti murmurantis,' with which usque morari,” A. 6. 487. “Laedit' is the 'aurae' is naturally connected, like“Zephyri reading of the Med. for ‘laedet’or • laedat.' tepentibus auris," G. 2. 330, quoted by The sense

to be cantantis via Voss. This seems better than with Heyne minus laedere solet.' Comp. 10.75, “Surto make murmuris’ the attributive geni- gamus : solet esse gravis cantantibus umtive, like veneni,' 4. 24, though there is bra.” not much room for choice. Virgil probably 65.] 'Fascis,' of a burden generally, as intended a variation on the more natural G. 3. 347 of a soldier's baggage, G. 4. 204 expression, ventosae

aurae.' of the food brought home by the beesCadere,' of winds, G. 1. 354.

here of the kids, which may have been car59.] · Adeo' apparently throws a stress ried in some sort of bundle. Comp. Moreeither on.hinc' (see on 4. 11), or on me- tum, v. 80, “venalis olerum fasces portadia.' The line is imitated from Theocr. bat,” of things taken to market. Lycidas 7. 10, κούπω ταν μεσάταν οδόν άνυμες, offers to carry the kids while Moeris is singουδε το σώμα Αμίν τω Βρασίλα κατ- ing, meaning him to begin. εφαίνετο.

66, 67.] .M. Best think only of our pre60.] Bianor, according to Serv., was the sent business, and leave singing till we see same as Ocnus, the founder of Mantua (A. Menalcas again.' '10. 198), called by Cato in his Origines

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M. Desine plura, puer, et, quod nunc instat, agamus ;
Carmina tum melius, cum venerit ipse, canemus.

66.] · Desine plura, puer,' 5. 19. •Instat,' reminding Lycidas that the business admits of no delay, not even of singing or talking as they walk along.

67.] 'Ipse,' Menalcas, designated either as Moeris' master (3. 3 note), or, in relation to the songs, as their author.

ECLOGA X.

GALLUS.

If the claims of friendship were but scantily acknowledged in the sixth and eighth Eclogues, they are abundantly satisfied in the present, which is entirely devoted to Gallus. Like Varus, C. Cornelius Gallus is said by the pseudo-Donatus to have been Virgil's early associate and fellow-student under Syro. He is said by Serv. to have been appointed by the triumvirs to collect money from those trans-Padane towns whose lands were to be spared ; and it is conjectured that he may have been the Cornelius who, according to Serv., attacked Alfenus Varus in a speech for his division of the Mantuan territory as unfair to the inhabitants—one or both of which grounds would be sufficient to account for Virgil's connection with him, even if the story of their previous intimacy should be deemed untrustworthy. Besides, he had been already admitted to Pollio's friendship, and so might easily win the regard of Pollio's protegé. His further life need not be noticed here: all we have to do with is the fact that, as this Eclogue shows at the time of its composition, he had become known as a poet and a lover, having written elegies (four books, Serv. says), chiefly addressed to his mistress Lycoris, like Propertius' to Cynthia, and Tibullus' to Delia, besides translating (if that is to be considered with Serv, a separate work) some of the poems of Euphorion (note on v. 50). Lycoris is identified by Serv. with Volumnia Cytheris, a freedwoman of Volumnius Eutrapelus, and at one time mistress of M. Antonius, whom the same account erroneously represents as the rival mentioned v. 23. These elegies are repeatedly mentioned by Ovid, who appears to have regarded them with high admiration, and once, in an obscure passage (3. 26. 91, 92), by Propertius : but only one fragment of them survives, preserved by Vibius Sequester, De Fluminibus, p. 333.

Here, as in Ecl. 1, the identification of the shepherd and poet is so rudely managed as to amount to absolute confusion. The subject of the Eclogue is the hopeless and absorbing passion of Gallus : Gallus, if not a pastoral poet himself, is the friend of a pastoral poet, and so one of the pastoral company: accordingly he is represented as being at one and the same moment a soldier and a shepherd, serving in the camp in Italy, and lying under a rock in Arcadia with wood-gods to comfort him. As before, the naked simplicity of the explanation has caused it to be missed : Gallus has been supposed to have gone on furlough into Arcadia, while others, who could not reconcile the language of v. 44 with his being in Arcadia at all, have changed the text.

The structure of the poem is taken from the latter part of Theocr. Idyl 1, the dying Daphnis supplying the model for Gallus, whose despair however does not bring him to death. Virgil is supposed to narrate the story in a song as he is tending his goats, and in rising to go home for the evening he gracefully intimates that he is closing the volume of pastoral poetry.

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The time is commonly considered to be fixed by vv. 23, 46 foll., and by general considerations regarding the date of the Eclogues, to the end of 716 or the beginning of 717, when Agrippa was leading an expedition into Gaul and across the Rhine, with which Gallus' rival is supposed to have gone, while Gallus himself was engaged in some other service, perhaps in Italy under Octavianus, acting against Sex. Pompeius. Vv. 20, 23, 47 seem to point to winter or early spring.

The scenery seems to be Arcadian throughout, at least in the narrative part of the Eclogue.

EXTREMUM hunc, Arethusa, mihi concede laborem :
Pauca meo Gallo, sed quae legat ipsa Lycoris,
Carmina sunt dicenda : neget quis carmina Gallo ?
Sic tibi, cum fluctus subterlabere Sicanos,
Doris amara suam non intermisceat undam,
Incipe ; sollicitos Galli dicamus amores,
Dum tenera attondent simae virgulta capellae.
Non canimus surdis ; respondent omnia silvae.

Quae nemora, aut qui vos saltus habuere, puellae

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1-8.] ‘My last pastoral strain is in run smooth. That he should conceive of honour of Gallus : I sing of his love with her as constantly flying from Alpheus is my goats about me in the wood.'

less likely. 1.] ‘Arethusa' was conventionally the 5.] * Doris,' wife of Nereus and mother pastoral fountain, Mosch. 3. 78, and as such of the Nereids (Hesiod, Theog. 240), is here apparently is invoked by the dying Daphnis, put for the sea, perhaps, as Heyne suggests, Theocr. l. 117. She is here addressed as after some Alexandrian poet, like Amphia Muse might be, like the " Nymphae trite, the wife of Neptune, Hom. Od. 12. 60, Libethrides,7. 21. Concede laborem? 97 (referred to by Voss), Thetis, E. 4. 32. like · carmen concedite,' 7. 22. • Laborem' . Amara' is here equivalent to salsa,' with as in G. 2. 39. He asks to be allowed to which it is coupled G. 2. 238. elaborate one song more.

6.) 'Sollicitus’ is used as an epithet of 2.] Wagn., followed by Forb., connects love here and in Ov. H. 18. 196, and of a this line with the preceding, placing a lover Hor. 3 Od. 7. 9, just as cura' is a period at • Lycoris,' a change which seems common synonyme of 'amor.' plainly for the worse, as 'meo Gallo 'would 7.] Simae capellae,' oinai žpipot, come awkwardly after ‘mihi,' while 'pauca' Theocr. 8. 50. Virgulta,' note on G. 2. evidently refers to carmina.' For Gallo' 2. The goats browse while the goatherd

Lycoris' see Introduction. • Sed is singing, as in 5. 12. quae' is the antithesis to 'pauca,' though 8.] Non caninus surdis,' like "non infew, they must be such as may attract even inssa cano,' 6. 9. •We are not singing to ber scornful eye.'

deaf ears.

There is an allusion, as Emm. 4.] . Sic' followed by "incipe,' as in 9. remarks, to the proverbial expression surdo 30–32. The legend of the union between canere,' or "surdo narrare fabulam,' Livy Arethusa and Alpheus (see Dict. Biog.) is 40. 8, Ter. Heaut. 2. ). 10, Hor. 2 Ep. mentioned again A. 3. 694 foll., and is the l. 200. * Respondent:' resonare doces subject of what remains of Moschus' eighth Amaryllida silvas,” 1. 5. Idyl, vv. 4, 5, of which Virgil seems to have 9-30.] 'Why were not the nymphs preimitated : cai Balùs šußaivel Toiç kúpaoi, sent when their favourite lay dying? All την δε θάλασσαν Νέρθεν υποτροχάει, κου nature mourned for him : his sheep grieved μίγνυται ύδασιν ύδωρ. Alpheus in the for their master: the Swains came to visit legend is the pursuing lover: here Virgil him : Apollo was there, and Silvanus, and apparently contemplates them as reconciled, Pan, bidding him leave brooding to no end and passing to and fro to visit each other, over blighted hopes.' and prays Arethusa to assist his tale of love, 9.] This and the three following lines are if she would have the course of her own love from Theocr. 1. 66 foll., where the nymphs

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