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** The pronoun they in both the places say, that whenever an objective case is in the nominative, and in the plural occurs after a transitive verb, it is gonumber, to agree with ladies in the verned by a preposition understood. In same case.” The pronoun they does the last example, whom shall we send, not agree with ladies in the same case; no preposition whatever is omitted or for ladies is the objective case, govern- understood. ed by the preposition on.

In the 2d example, He whom we Page 120. “ To involve his minister thought would prove, &c. Mr. S. is right in ruin who had been the cause of it. in saying whom ought to be who; not, as Ruin is in the accusative case, and go- he supposes, because it will not admit verned by the verb to involve.Not a preposition before it; but because it so; ruin is governed not by the verb is nominative to the verb would prove, involve, but by the preposition in. the intervening words we thought, being

Page 123. “ Almost the only point a sort of parenthetical sentence, equiof danger here is of putting whom for valent to, aswe thought, and having no inwho, when the relative follows a noun fluence at all on the rest of the sentence. in the objective case; as in the four Whom do men say that I am ? examples which follow : The public Whom do the people say that I am ?" often despise pawnbrokers, whom they in these sentences no preposition at take to be avaricious and sordid cha- all is understood. Mr. S. says : racters.' • He whom we thought would the preposition is prefixed, the sense prove our best friend, neglected us in would determine that the relative trouble.' 6

Several persons called to- should be written objectively; as, ' For day, whom we took to be foreigners.? whom of the ancient prophets do they • Whom shall we send ? and who will take me ?!In this last clause, the obgo for us? In the three first examples jective whom is undeniably correct, it should be who ; and in the last ex- being governed by the preposition for; ample whom, the preposition by is but the construction of this sentence is omitted, as being understood. wholly dissimilar to that of the former,

Here we cannot but dissent alto- and proves nothing at all as to the gether from Mr. S. except in reference point in dispute. to the second example. Mr. S. would Mr. S. thinks that the English verteach us to say, “ the public often de- sion of these texts may be vindicated pise pawnbrokers, who they take,” &c. from the Greek and Latin. Who is here nominative case. Why? The Greek (Mark viii. 27.) is, Tuva It is not nominative to the following

με λεγεσιν οι ανθρωποι είναι; ; verb take ; for its nominative is they ; neither is its nominative governed by dicunt homines ?

The Latin (Beza) Quemnam esse me any verb, for there is no verb in the

Now if we literally follow these lansentence that governs a nominative. So that here is a nominative case, uncon- tion; thus, Whom do men say (or re

guages, we shall have a true construcnected with any verb; contrary to one port) me to be? Here whom is properly fundamental principle of English gram- the objective case, governed, not by mar, thatevery nominative case belongs any preposition, nor by the verb say'; to some verb, expressed or understood; but by the infinitive to be, which having (with the exception of absolute cases

an objective me before it, requires an only) that is, either is the nominative to

objective also after it.

But when our some verb, or the nominative after

translators changed the infinitive sivat, some passive or neuter verb. According to the uniform construction of si- esse, into the indicative am, and the pre

ceding accusative milar sentences in Greek and Latin,

Me, me, into the noas well as English, the relative not minative I, it was needful to make a being nominative to the following verb, correspondent change in the relative is governed by the verb take, and must Tive, quemnam, and render it by the noof course be whom, in the objective minative who; otherwise the connec

Just so also in the 3d and 4th tion of the words is broken, and the of the above examples, where the rela- verb am has a nominative I before it, tive is governed in the objective case while it governs an objective whom afby the verbs took and send. Mr. S.'s ter it. If the accusative and infinitive hypothesis about a preposition being in Greek and Låtin had been changed understood wherever the objective is into a nominative and indicative, thus proper, is nugatory. As well might we Öğı eyw eiti, quod ego sum, the relative No. 10. -VOL. I.



also would have been changed, and the Page 125. “ I thought it was him." sentences would have been;

Here Mr. Sutcliffe says both the proΤις λεγεσιν, οι ανθρωποι ότι εγω ειμι; nouns are in the accusative case. Not Quisnam dicunt homines quod ego so: it is not the accusative, but the sum?

nominative to the verb was, which conor in English ; Who do men say that I sequently requires a nominative after am?

it; and hence it should be, I thought it Lest any should think that the rela- was he. Mr. S. seems not aware that tive is governed by the verb say, we an accusative cannot precede any remark, that this verb has no influence mood, except the infinitive. Change at all on it; and indecd it is one of the verb was into the infinitive to be, those verbs, which cannot govern any and then the construction will be corobjective, unless in nouns of a cognate rect: I thought it to be him ; to be being signification ; e. g. to say a word, to say preceded by one accusative, it, and a speech, to say a lesson: for it would be followed by another accusative, him. nonsense to use it thus; to say a man, “Whenever the pronoun follows the to say a disciple, to say a prophet, &c. infinitive mood of this verb (Be), it is

Besides, if our version be right, always in the accusative case.' Not whom do men say that I am? it must be so; even in the infinitive mood the equally proper to say, him do men say verb to be takes an accusative after it, that I am; or, restoring the words to only when it has an accusative immetheir natural order, do men say that I diately before it. Of the three examples am him? where the impropriety is gla- given by Mr. S. the second only is corring, the verb am having a nomina- rect; “people supposed it to be them." tive before it, and an objective after; Here the verb to be has the accusative and we apprehendit is the transposition it before and the accusative them after of the relative that occasions an over- it; which is right. In the 1st and 3d sight of its proper regimen. It has examples Mr. S. is wrong; "it was been intimated, that our Lord could thought to be him.The accusative not mean to ask who he was, but what him is improper, because there is no men said about him ; but the difference accusative before the verb; the only between these two inquiries is suffi- pronoun in the preceding part of the ciently obvious, without adopting Mr. sentence being it, which nominaS.'s scheme. In the former case he tive to the verb was thought. So in would have said, Who am I? in the the 3d example; “ it was affirmed to latter, Who do men say that I am ?! be her:" the accusative her is wrong,

Page 124. “ Who do you think I there being no accusative before the saw, &c. and who do you think I took verb to be, as the pronoun it is nomihim for? In this last example, both native to the verb was affirmed. the relatives should be whom, as they Mr. Murray treats this subject with admit the prepositions, which deter- his usual accuracy and precision, givmine that they should be in the ob- ing a variety of appropriate examples, jective case.” The first relative should under Rule xi. Note 4, of his large be whom, not because it admits any Grammar. preposition, but because it is governed Page 128. “ After a verb infinitive, by the verb saw; and the latter rela- the noun or pronoun in the accusative tive should be whom, because it is go- is often understood ; as, “he cheats;" verned by the preposition for, trans- that is, “he cheats in trade.” On posed to the end of the sentence. this we observe; here is no infinitive

We have been informed that Mr. mood, so that this example cannot ilSutcliffe has discovered and corrected lustrate the rule. Even allowing that several of the errors, contained in page he cheats is elliptical, and that the full 123, and some other parts of his gram- sentence would be he cheats in trade; mar; and that he has cancelled some yet trade is not governed by the verb, pages and substituted new ones, in but by the preposition in; trade cansome copies of the book. But as many not be the object of the verb: it is not copies are in circulation, precisely si- trade that is cheated, but people who milar to that which we have used, in are cheated. which all these errors remain uncancel

Page 129. Participles, the same led and uncorrected, we think it highly as Verbs, govern the accusative case; necessary, that they should be thus as, sold to slavery; plunged in despair; publicly exposed and reprobated. given to hospitality; relieving the distressed.” It is strange that Mr. S. Hungarian machine, or Chomnitz should give four examples, 3 of which Fountain, as it was first called, from furnish no illustration of the rule. The its being applied to hydraulic pursubstantives slavery,despair, hospitality, poses in the mines of that place. in the first 3 examples are governed, Mr. Boswell, a clever mechanic, first not by the participles sold, plunged, improved upon it, by rendering the given, but by the prepositions to and in. pump self-acting; but a new one, upon

Galloping his horse on the road a better construction, and extremely which leads to London. Here London, simple, has been invented by James road, are both objective cases, in oppo- Hunter, esq. of Thurston, in Scotland, sition to horse.” Not so; their case is the principle of which is to raise water not at all dependent on the case of the above the original reservoir, by the word horse ; road is governed by the descent of a certain portion of it. preposition on, and London by the pre- That such a pump is perfectly appliposition to.

cable to all domestic purposes, is Page 133. “ Lord Nelson lay in proved by the fact of a very small one state. It should be laid in state.” | having continued working for three Here again Mr. S. would mislead us. months without being touched, raising Lay is perfectly correct, being the im- about two tons of water in the fourperfect tense of the neuter verb to lie ; and-twenty hours. It acts entirely whereas laid is the imperfect or passive without friction ; and by its means the participle of the transitive verb to lay ; rain water collected on the top of a and could not be used on the occasion, house, will pump up a corresponding unless in the passive voice, thus : Lord quantity of pure water from a well as Nelson was laid in state.

deep as the house is high. (To be concluded in our next.)

It is said, however, to be found most useful, where a large body of water is

to be raised through a small height; DOMESTIC SELF-ACTING PUMP. and consequently, it may be judiciously There is scarcely any thing, supposed applied to canal locks to prevent a to lie within the range of scientific waste of water, restoring the water to research, with which mankind have the upper level from the lower locks. been more frequently amused, or in Its principle depends upon the alwhich they have been more uniformly ternate filling and emptying of four disappointed, than the tales circulated reservoirs with air and water, by respecting the perpetual motion. Many means of pipes and valves. a time has this eel of science been almost caught by the tail; but unfortunately it has been so slippery, that HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY. it has hitherto escaped the fingers,

[Continued from col. 614.] even of those who were confident that they held it securely within their grasp. Between the time of Hipparchus and Ages have elapsed since this chimera Ptolemy, the chief observers of any has been pursued “ o’er bog and note are Agrippa, Menelaus, and brake;" and scarcely any one year Theon; the two latter of whom are passes by, in which we do not find that better known as geometricians than some individual or other has done astronomers. every thing towards the discovery, We remark, however, in this interexcept finding the object he sought. val, the reformation of the calendar by

The domestic self-acting pump, is an Julius Cæsar, and a more exact knowinvention which seems to bear some dis- ledge of the flux and reflux of the tant affinity to this imaginary desidera- ocean. Posidonius, a celebrated Stoic tum; and according to the following philosopher, who lived about eighty statement given of the improvements years before Christ, appears to have it has lately received, it promises to been the first who observed the relation be of more practical utility, than even of these phenomena with the motions the philosopher's stone, or the inex- of the moon; and of which, Pliny, the tinguishable lamp:

naturalist, has given a description, Domestic Pump, self-acting.A most remarkable for its accuracy. ingenious and highly useful improve- It would be very easy to record the ment has taken place in the appli- names of a great number of Greek and cation of the famous air and water other astronomers, who lived between the times of Hipparchus and Ptolemy; | times of Timocharis, Callippus, Hipbut as they made little or no advances parchus, and others : and concludes in the science, we shall pass them by, with a catalogue of the stars in the and come immediately to that prince northern hemisphere. of astronomers, Claudius Ptolemy, of The eighth book contains a cataPelusium. He is the most ancient logue of the stars in the southern astronomer, whose works have been hemisphere, as also a catalogue of the handed down to us.

stars in the twelve zodiacal constelIt is to his Almagest, or the great lations: this catalogue of the Stars is composition, that we are indebted, not the oldest extant; and therefore cononly for his own observations, but for stitutes a very valuable part of the almost all which remain of Hipparchus, work. This book concludes with a Aristyllus, Timocharis, and the ancient discourse on the Galaxy, or milkyBabylonians.

way; and an account of the rising and This learned person was born in the setting of the Sun and fixed Stars. year of Christ 69; and although the The ninth book treats of the order principles upon which his system is of the planets, and of their periodical founded are erroneous, yet his work revolutions: contains tables of their will always be useful to Astronomers, mean motions; and concludes with on account of the great number of the theory of Mercury, and that of acobservations which it contains, and counting for its various phenomena, as will, undoubtedly, pcrpetuate his name seen from the earth. to the latest posterity. It is divided Books ten and eleven treat also of into thirteen books: in the first he the various phenomena of the planets endeavours to shew that the earth is Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn; at rest in the centre of the universe ; and shew how tables have been corthat it is spherical, and but a point in rected from the observations of precomparison of the distance of the fixed ceding astronomers. stars.

The twelfth book treats of the staIn the second, he treats of the habit-tionary and retrograde appearances able parts of the earth, and of the of the Planets; and the thirteenth of nature and positions of its circles in a their latitudes, the inclination of their right sphere.

orbits, rising, setting, &c. The third book treats of the true This work was first translated out of length of the year ; of the unequal Greek into Arabic, about the year 827, motion of the sun in the ecliptic; and and out of Arabic into Latin, by favour also of the unequal length of days and of the emperor Frederic II. about the nights; it likewise contains tables of year 1230. The Greek text of Ptolemy the sun's mean motion, and precepts was not known in Europe until the for using them.

beginning of the fifteenth century, In the fourth, he treats of the lunar when it was brought from Constantimotions; gives tables for computing nople (then taken by the Turks) by them; and exhibits the principles, George, a monk of Trapezond, who and observations on which they are translated it into Latin. This translafounded.

tion was published at Venice in 1527, In the fifth, he treats of the eccentri- and Basil 1541: at the latter place city of the lunar orbit, and the inequa- the Greek had been printed in 1538

, lities of the moon's motion : assigns with a commentary by Theon the the magnitudes of the sun, and moon, Younger, and Pappus, both mathemaand earth; and their distances from ticians of Alexandria in the fourth one another.

century. In the sixth, he treats of the conjunc- It may also be remarked, that Ptotions and oppositions of the Sun and lemy has rendered gr-at services to Moon; the limits of solar and lunar Geography, by collecting all the deeclipses; and gives tables for com- terminations of the latitudes and longiputing the times when they happen. tudes of places then known; and by

In the seventh, he treats of the fixed his laying the foundation of the method Stars ; describes the various constella- of projections, for the construction of tions, by means of an artificial sphere; geographical charts, which was but rectifies their places to his own time; little known before his time. and shews how different they then With the labours of this great astrowere, from what they had been in the nomer ended the glory of the Alexandrian School, which had now sub-rior has been succeeded by the wissisted for more than five centuries, dom of the legislator. Not only will with as much credit to itself as advan- the page of history tell to future ages, tage to the sciences; but the succes- that Henry I. gave liberty to the Haysors of Hipparchus and Ptolemy con- tians, but that from him also they retented themselves with commenting ceived their laws, the guarantee of on their works, without adding any its preservation to their posterity. thing remarkable to their discoveries. Your Majesty's renown will be even The knowledge of nature, which had greater than that of the intrepid pahitherto been cultivated with so much triot, whose bosom beat high with a success, gave way to the desolating generous ardour for the emancipation irruption of the Saracens, who were of his country from an ignominious led by a ferocious zeal to destroy the yoke, and on the point of whose sword celebrated library of Alexandria, liberty had staked her triumph: it will which contained so many treasures of also be that of the legislative sage, learning and genius.

whose powerful reason placed a barrier By a singular turn, however, of between the ennobling passion for human affairs, this people became freedom, and the intoxication of licenafterwards the protectors and culti- tiousness. vators of literature and science, and In ages yet remote, the people of were then sensible that this frantic this country will feel their bosoms measure had deprived them of the most swell at the name of Henry; and will precious fruits of their victories. hail him as their deliverer from a dis(To be continued.)

graceful thraldom, and the founder of their commonwealth. They will say,

he shewed the white men'we were Address to Christophe.

brave, when he led our forefathers to MR. EDITOR,

victory and triumph; and taught our Sir,--I enclose you a copy of a trans- proud calumniators, that as our arms lated address to Christophe. It may were powerful, our intellect was equal tend to throw some light on a country, to their own : he filled our port with of the manners and institutions of the ships of the stranger, and gave us which we are confessedly too ignorant. to participate in the commerce of the If it should come within the subjects world; he instituted the schools in admissible into your Magazine, its which our youth were instructed; he insertion will be esteemed. To its brought the Bible in our native tongue authenticity I can safely pledge my- from the shores of the Briton, and put self. Yours, most truly,

within our hands the inspired volume, J. W.

from which we receive the sublime

doctrines of religion, and are taught to To His Most Excellent Majesty. practise the holy precepts of morality; The humble and respectful address of he restrained the unhallowed intercongratulation, on the sixteenth anni- course of the sexes, the badge and versary of Haytian Independence, of mark of slavery and degradation; and the Rev. Wm. Morton, Professor of in uniting our fathers and our mothers Languages in the Royal College of in the sacred rites and indissoluble Hayti.

bands of marriage, opened the chanThe commencement of a new year nels of the social affections, and renhas brought round another anniversary | dered our homestead abodes of reciproof the independence of Hayti; a coun- cal benevolence, and solid enjoyment. try over which your Majesty has been Our nobles trace their descent from called to reign, as over a people in those illustrious youths, who received whose cause your sword had been un- in colleges of his establishment knowsheathed; for whose liberties your ledge, and wisdom, and virtue: in blood had been shed. In the assertor fine, be led us to peace, to plenty, and of their claims to the unalienable rights to happiness, by teaching us to fulfil of humanity, the people have recog- our duties to our Maker, and to yield nized their king.

a willing obedience to salutary laws. The sword has been replaced within Such, Sire, will be the retrospections its scabbard; but your Majesty's zeal of the people of Hayti, long after your has found another channel for its ex- Majesty shall have been gathered to ertion; and the bravery of the war- your forefathers: for the glory of the

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