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"nuating genius of the other penetrated, by a cer"tain sweetness and complacency, to the most hid“ den recesses of the heart. He had the art of enter

ing into the interests, the inclinations, the passions, " and sentiments of all who heard hiin."

The archbishop of Cambray, having more courage than the two excellent writers above-cited, declares manifestly in favour of Demosthenes; and yet he cannot be thought to be an enemy to the graces, the flowers, and elegance of speech. He gives us his sentiments on this subject, in his epistle upon Eloquence. “I am not, says he, afraid to own, that I prefer De“mosthenes to Cicero. I protest no one admires Ci

cero more than I do: he adorns every thing he "touches: he does honour to speech: he makes “more of words than any other could: he is possessed “ of a variety of geniusses : he is even concise and

vehement whenever he pleases, against Catiline, “Verres, and Antony; but we perceive some em“bellishment in his orations. They are worked up " with wonderful art, but we see through it. When "the orator thinks of the safety of the common

wealth, he neither forgets himself, nor suffers others to do it; but Demosthenes seems to step out, as it were, from himself, and to see nothing but his country. He does not seek after beauties, for they occur to him naturally. He is superior to admira

tion : he makes use of speech as a modest man does " of clothes: he thunders and lightens: he is a flood,

that sweeps away all things in its progress. We

cannot criticize upon him, because we are capti"Svated by his Eloquence. We are attentive to his

ideas, and not to his words; we lose sight of him, "and our whole attention is fixed on Philip, who

usurps every thing. Both orators charm me; but "Iown myself less affected with Cicero's boundless

art, and magnificent Eloquence, than with the ra“pid simplicity of Demosthenes,

Nothing can be more rational and judicious than these reflections of the great archbishop; and the


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closer we examine his opinion, the more conformable we find it to good sense, right reason, and the most exact rules of true rhetoric. But whoever would take upon him to prefer Demosthenes's orations to those of Cicero, ought, in my opinion, to possess almost as much solidity, force, and elevation of mind, as Deinosthenes must have had to compose them. Whether it be owing to a long prepossession in favour of an author we have constantly read from our tender years; or that we are accustomed to a style which agrees more with our manners, and is more adapted to our capacities; we cannot be persuaded to prefer the severe austerity of Demosthenes to the insinuating softness of Cicero; and we chuse to follow our own inclinations and taste for an author, who is in some measure our friend and acquaintance, rather than to declare, upon the credit of another, in favour of one that is almost a stranger to us.

Cicero knew the high merit of Demosthenes’s Eloquence, and was fully sensible of all its strength and beauty: but, being persuaded that an orator may, without deviating from the best rules, form his style to a certain point upon the taste of his auditors (itisobvious enough, that I do not here mean a depraved or vicious taste,) he did not think the age he lived in susceptible of so rigid an exactness; [2] and believed it necessary to indulge something to the ears and to the delicacy of his auditors, who required more elegance and graces in orations.

in orations. Thus, he made some allowance to pleasure, but still never lost sight of the cause he was pleading; and he thought he was even then serving his country, which he did eflectually, since one of the surest methods of persuading is to please.

The best advice that can be given to young persons, who are designed for the bar, is to take for the model

[x] Quapropter ne illis quidem omnia utilitati, tùm partem quan. nimiùm repugno, qui dandum pu- dam delectationi daret : cùm & iptant nonnihil esse temporibus atque sam se rem agere dicere (agebat auauribus nitidius aliquid atque af- tem maximè) litigatoris. Nam hoe fectatius postulantibus. ... Atque ipso proderat,quod placebat. Quint. id fecisse M. Tullium video,ut,cum 112, c. 10.


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of their style, the solid foundation of Demosthenes, embellished with the graces of Cicero: [a] To which, if we may believe Quintilian, nothing can be added, except, says he, that perhaps a few more thoughts might be introduced in discourses. He means, no doubt, those which were very much in vogue in his tine, and by which, as by so many lively and shining strokes, they pointed the ends of most of their

P periods. Cicero ventures upon them sometimes, but it is very rarely; [b] and he was the first among the Romans who made them current. It is very obvious, that what Quintilian says in this place is nothing but a kind of condescension, which the depraved taste of the age seems to have forced from him, [C] when according to the observation of the author of the Dialogue upon orators, the auditor thought he had a right to insist upon a florid style; and when even the judge would not vouchsafe to hear a lawyer, if he were not invited, and in some measure corrupted, by the allurement of pleasure, and by the splendor of the thoughts and descriptions.

[d] But, let no one pretend, adds Quintilian, to "abuse my compliance, or to carry it farther. I

will indulge the age we live in so far, as to have the

gown now in fashion made of something better " than coarse stuff; but then it must not be of silk: I " will allow the hair to be neatly disposed, but it must not be in stages, and in ringlets; for dress is then

the most elegant, and at the same time most beau"tiful and becoming, when it has nothing luxurious

and excessive in it for the sake of pleasing.” [a] Ad cujus voluptates nihil tu descriptionum invitatis & corequidem, quod addi possit, invenio, ruptus est, aversatur dicentem. Ib. nisi ut sensus nos quidem dicamus n. 20. plures, Quint. 1. 12. C. 10.

[d] Sed me hactenus cedentem [b] Cicero primus excoluit ora- nemo insequatur ultrà.

Do tem. fionem. . . . locosque lætiores at- pori, ne crassa toga sit, non serica: tentavit, & quasdam sententias in- ne intonsum caput, non in gradus yenit. Dial. de Or. n. 22. atque annulos totum comptum :

[C] Auditor assuevit jam exigere cùm in eo qui se non ad luxuriam ac lætitiam & pulchritudinem oratio- libidinem referat, eadem speciosiora nis ... Judex ipse, nisi. . . aut co- quoque sint, quæ bonestiora. Quint. borc sententiarum, aut nitori & cul. 1. 43. 6. 10.


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Had orators kept within these just bounds, and this wise sobriety with regard to ornainents, Eloquence would not have degenerated in Athens and Rome.

We may affirm, that the most conspicuous age for Eloquence at Athens was that of Demosthenes, [e] when so great a multitude of excellent orators arose, whose general character was, a natural and unadorned beauty: these orators did not all boast the same genius, nor the same style; but they were all united in the same taste of truth and simplicity; which continued as long as 'the Athenians imitated those great inen; but the remembrance of them growing insensibly more obscure after their death, and being at last quite obliterated in people's minds, a new species of Eloquence arose, which was softer, and more loose and diffused, than the ancient kind.

Demetrius Phalereus, who might have seen and heard Demosthenes, took a different course, by giving entirely into the florid and embellished species. He thought Eloquence ought to appear in gay and sprightly colours, and be divested of that gloomy and rigid air, which made her, in his opinion, too serious. He introduced a great many more thoughts; strewed more flowers over her; and, to use an expression of Quintilian, instead of the majestic, but modest dress she wore in Demosthenes's time, [/] he gave her a sparkling robe, variegated with colours altogether unfit for the dust of the bar, but at the same time very fit to attract and dazzle the eyes of people.


[] Hæc ætas effudit hanc copi- tamdiu genus illud dicendi studiumam : &, ut opinio mea fert, succus que vixit. Posteaquam, extinctis ille & sanguis incorruptus usque ad his, omnis eorum memoria sensim hanc ætatem oratorum fuit, in quâ obscurata est & evanuit, alia quænaturalis inesset non fucatus nitor. dam dicendi molliora ac remissiora Brut. n. 36.

genera viguerunt. 2. de Orat. n. Demosthenes, Hyperides, Lycur. 94, 95. gus, Æschines, Dinarchus, aliique [] Meminerimus versicolorem complures, etsi inter se pares non illam quâ Demetrius Phalereus di. fuerunt, tamen sunt omnes in eodem cebatur uti vestem, non benè ad veritatis imitandæ genere versati. forensem pulverem facere. Quint. Quorum quamdiu mansit imitatio, d. 10. c. I.


[s] Thus Demetrius, being fitter for affairs of pomp and ceremony, than the contest and litigations of the Bar, preferred softness to strength; endeavoured more to charm than subdue the mind; he thought it sufficient to leave in it the remembrance of a flowing and harmonious discourse; but did not endeavour, like Pericles, to leave at the same time sharp stings, as it were, blended with the allurements of pleasure.

Th] It does not appear, by the picture which Cicero had elsewhere drawn of Phalereus, and his opinion of him, that there was however any thing of forced and ' excessive in his style; since he says, [1] we might esteem and approve it, if not compared with the force and majesty of the noble and sublime style. [k] And nevertheless Demetrius was the first who caused Eloquence to degenerate; [l] and perhaps declamations, the practice of which was first introduced into the schools in his time, and possibly might have been invented by him, contributed very much to this fatal decline, as they certainly afterwards hastened that of the Roman Eloquence.

But things did not long continue in this state, {m] When Eloquence, after leaving the Pyræeum, had begun to breathe another air, she soon lost that sprightliness and florid health which she had always preserved there; and, being vitiated by foreign manners, she forgot, as it were, the use of speech, and

[3] Phalereus successit eis seni- aculeos etiam relinqueret in animis bus adolescens, eruditissimus ille corein â quibus esset auditus. Brut, quidem horum omniuin, sed non n. 37, 38. tam armis institutus quàm palæstrâ. [6] Orat. n.91, 96. Itaque delectabat magis Athenien- iij Et nisi coràm erit, comparases, quàm inflammabat. Processe. tus ille fortior per se hic, quem dirat enim in solem & pulverem : non co, probabitur. Orat. n. 95. ut è militari tabernaculo, sed ut è [k] Primus inclinâsse eloquentia Theophrasti, doctissimi hominis, am dicitur. Quint. I. 10. c. 1. umbraculis. Hic primus inflexit [1] Quint. 1.2. C. 4. orationem, & eam mollem teneram- [m] Ut semel è Piræeo eloquenque reddidit: & suavis, sicut fuit, tia evecta est, omnes peragravit invideri maluit, quam gravis, sed sulas, atque ita peregrinata totâ suavitate eâ quâ perfunderet ani. Asiâ est, ut se externis oblineret momos, non quâ perfringeret : & tan- ribus : omnemque illam salubrita. tùm ut memoriam concinnitatissuæ, tem Atticæ dictionis & quasi saninon (quemadmodum de Pericle tatem perderet, ac loqui penè dedisscripsit Eupolis) cum delectatione ceret.' Brut. n. 51.


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