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dead bodies are usually cast forth; a few minutes it stopped; and now and where dogs and vultures are ever the worship of the God began.-A

high priest mounted the car in front Juggernaut, 18th of June, 1806. of the idol, and pronounced his ob

I have returned home from scene stanzas in the ears of the people; witnessing a scene which I shall never who responded at intervals in the forget. At twelve o'clock of this day, same strain. • These songs,' said he, being the great day of the feast, the are the delight of the God.

His car Moloch of Hindostan was brought can only move when he is pleased out of his temple amidst the acclama- with the song.'--The car moved on a tions of hundreds of thousands of his little way, and then stopped. A boy of worshippers. When the idol was about twelve years was then brought placed on his throne, a shout was forth to attempt something yet more raised by the multitude, such as I had lascivious, if peradventure the God never heard before. It continued would move. The · child perfected equable for a few minutes, and then the praise of his idol with such argradually died away. After a short dent expression and gesture, that the interval of silence, a murmur was God was pleased, and the multitude, heard at a distance; all eyes were emitting a sensual yell of delight, turned towards the place, and, be- urged the car along. After a few hold, a grove advancing. A body of minutes it stopped again. An aged men, having green branches, or palms, minister of the idol then stood up, in their hands, approached with great and with a long rod in his hand, celerity. The people opened a way which he moved with indecent action, for them; and when they had come up completed the variety of this disgustto the throne, they fell down before ing exhibition.— I felt a consciousness him that sat thereon, and worshipped. of doing wrong in witnessing it

. I * The throne of the idol was placed was also somewhat appalled at the on a stupendous car or tower, about magnitude and horror of the specsixty feet in height, resting on wheels tacle; I felt like a guilty person on which indented the ground deeply, as whom all eyes were fixed, and I was they turned slowly under the ponder- about to withdraw. But a scene of a ous machine. Attached to it were six different kind was now to be presentcables, of the size and length of a ed. The characteristics of Moloch's ship’s cable, by which the people drew worship are obscenity and blood. We it along. Thousands of men, women, have seen the former. Now comes the and children, pulled by each cable, blood. crowding so closely, that some could • After the towerhad proceeded some only use one hand. Infants are made way, a pilgrim announced that he was to exert their strength in this office, for ready to offer himself a sacrifice to the it is accounted a merit of righteous-idol. He laid himself down in the ness to move the God. Upon the tower road before the tower, as it was morwere the priests and satellites of the ing along, lying on his face, with his idol, surrounding his throne.

arms stretched forwards. The multitold that there were about a hundred tude passed round him, leaving the and twenty persons upon the car alto- space clear, and he was crushed to gether. The idol is a block of wood, death by the wheels of the tower. A having a frightful visage painted black, shout of joy was raised to the God. with a distended mouth of a bloody He is said to smile when the libation colour. His arms are of gold, and he of the blood is made. The people is dressed in gorgeous apparel. The threw cowries, or small money, on the other two idols are of a white and yel- body of the victim, in approbation of low colour. Five elephants preceded the deed. He was left to view a conthe three towers, bearing towering siderable time, and was then carried flags, dressed in crimson caparisons, by the Hurries to the Golgotha, where and having bells hanging to their ca- I have just been viewing his remains.' parisons, which sounded musically as Juggernaut, 20th June, 1806. they moved.

The horrid solemnities still I went on in the procession, close continue. Yesterday a woman devotby the tower of Moloch; which, as it ed herself to the idol.

She laid herwas drawn with difficulty, grated on self down on the road in an oblique its many wheels harsh thunder.” After direction, so that the wheel did not

I was


kill her instantaneously, as is generally giarism, always revolting to the moral the case; but she died in a few hours. feelings of the heart," does not evince This morning, as I passed the place of so much of candour and generosity, as skulls, nothing remained of her but of a disposition to cavil and find fault ; her bones.'

and we are afraid that, throughout his As to the number of persons assem- | Grammar, he seems glad, and even bled at this horrid festival, which Dr. eager, to catch at every opportunity Buchanan witnessed, no accurate cal- of opposing and censuring his popular culations, he says, could be made. The predecessor. natives, when speaking of particular That Mr. Sutcliffe's publication is festivals, usually declare, that if 100,000 a work of some merit, and contains persons were to withdraw from the several things curious, useful, and imamazing multitude, their absence portant, we do not deny. At the same would not be perceptible.

time, after an attentive, and, we trust,

a candid perusal, we are constrained Review of A Grammar of the Eng; his sentiments erroneous, his princi

to aver, that on many points we deem lish Language, by the Rev. Joseph ples false, his illustrations and arguSutcliffe.London, 1815.

ments unsatisfactory; and that we think That the study of the English Lan- the work, taking it in the whole, far guage has, within these few years, more calculated to be detrimental than been greatly facilitated and improv- useful, in the study of our language. ed, is a fact which none can contro- The annexation of Mr. Si's name has vert, and in which all the friends of stamped a degree of respectability on science will rejoice. Before the ap- the work, and procured for it a conpearance of Lowth's "6

Introduction," siderable circulation. Hence we think, our language was much neglected, and his statements should be publicly conof course very imperfectly understood. troverted; that all his readers may at Since that time, the rising generation, least have both sides of the question and English students in general, have fairly laid before them, and be better been laid under great obligations, qualified to decide where truth and acby the meritorious and successful la- curacy are to be found. bours of Mr. Lindley Murray. The We shall now proceed with our anihigh opinion universally entertained madversions on various parts of the of this gentleman's works, is evidenced Grammar. by the unprecedented sale they have Page 17. “ The letter a has five dishad, both in the British dominions, tinct sounds ;-the first is primitive or and in the United States of America. open-in father, gracious, large.' They have almost superseded all other Here father and gracious are both adworks of the kind, and obtained exclu- duced as instances of the open a; sive patronage, wherever the language whereas its sound in father is totally is taught or learned.

distinct from that which it has in graWe are not however so weak, as to cious. suppose Mr. Murray infallible; nor Page 20. “ L is silent in soldier." would we bind ourselves, on all gram- To sink the l in soldier is incorrect and matical questions, by his sentiments vulgar. and authority. His positions are open Page 22.“ H is mostly silent after to investigation; and if any of them w, as in wharf, wheel, while.” In these can be proved erroneous, they should cases, the h is distinctly sounded before instantly be abandoned. To this prin- the w;, the words being pronounced ciple we heartily subscribe; and if hwarf, hweel, hwile, &c. where Murray errs, any subsequent Page 36. Declension of kingdom. grammarian can point out the path of It is improper to call of kingdom or of truth, we shall gratefully avail our- kingdoms the genitive case ; for though selves of his help.

such expressions would be the geniThough we believe ourselves free from tive in Latin or Greek, they cerany blind and unreasonable partiality tainly are not so in English. Of is a in favour of Mr. Murray, yet, we must preposition, and kingdom, when preconfess, we were somewhat startled at ceded by of, is not the genitive, but the the charge brought against him, in Mr. objective case. Sutcliffe's preface. We conceive that

Page 37.

When we are obliged to Mr. S. in accusing Mr, M. of “pla- I use two nouns together, separated by a


By ad

hyphen,as ship-mate, wine-whey,china- | think perfectly right, and Mr. S.'s obware ; mostly the latter, and sometimes jection altogether futile. In the phrases the former, is the adjective.” Here Mr. quoted there is no ellipsis of any verb. S. is unquestionably wrong. In com- We have enough, is a complete sentence, pound substantives, it it mostly, if not equvalent to we possess enough. He always, the former noun, that is used as wills it to be so, is equivalent to he dean adjective. Thus in the examples sires or he chooses it to be so ; and, they adduced, the three former nouns, ship, do as they please, to they act as they please. wine, china, are used like adjectives, To say that in such cases the verbs have, indicating the sort or quality of the wills, do, are not principals, but auximate, the whey, and the ware. We liaries, is as absurd as to say, that the know not of a single instance, in which verbs which we have substituted above, the latter noun is used as an adjective, viz. possess, desires, act, are not princito qualify the former.

pals but auxiliaries; neither are the Page 42. (Note.) “ The Greek word words execute, written, appointing, &c. ENGXIsotegw, signifies the most lowest.” understood, as Mr. S. intimates. Not so ; it is not a double superlative; Page 62.

It seems erroneous to but a comparative formed from the call am an auxiliary verb.” superlative shaxosos; and its sense is mitting, with Mr. Murray, that it is precisely and literally lower than the sometimes an auxiliary, sometimes a lowest, or rather, less than the least. principal verb, every difficulty is ob

Page 43. “ He is amazingly, or as- viated. tonishingly, or infinitely popular.” Page 72. “The participle, to sicken." Such an expression as infinitely popu- Sicken is a verb, not a participle ; neilar, is inaccurate and objectionable, if ther can we see the propriety of saying not absurd.

that to be sick is a verb. To be is a verb, Page 47. “ In asking questions, but sick is an adjective; to be sick is no which is distinguished from what by its more a verb than to be old, to be rich, to always following noun expressed or be pious, to be proud, &c. understood; as what is the news? which Ditto. “ The participle is the root of the papers do you read?” Which, or parent of the verb.” This is indeed in the above example, does not follow a novel and singular doctrine. We any noun expressed or understood ; have always thought, on the contrary, but it agrees with the noun paper under that the verb is the root or parent of the stood ; which (paper) of the papers do participle. Would it not be absurd to you read? and so in all similar cases ; say that have comes from having, love thus, which (house) of the houses be- from loving, think from thinking, &c. longs to you? which (garden) of the when have, love, think, are evidently the gardens do you choose ?

primitive words, and the others, inPage 48.That has a decided pre- flections or variations of the primitive ference of euphony over who,-after word ? the pronoun they.This we think Page 73. “The participle promotes very doubtful, and not established by beauty and variety in language, by good authority. It might be contended superseding the too frequent recurwith much plausibility, that on the rence of the infinitive mood. Ex. Forground of euphony, who should be pre- bidding to marry, and commanding to ferred to that, as tending to prevent the abstain,” &c. The participles forrecurrence of the sound th in two suc- bidding and commanding are not here cessive words, they, that. Dr. Blair used, as Mr. S. supposes, instead of says, They, who are learning to com- infinitive moods.

Ditto. “ Sometimes the participle is Page 61. (Note.) Mr. Sutcliffe, more impressive than the noun. * Ex. after quoting from Murray an obser- What are the pangs of a mother when vation that the verbs have, be, will, do, she hears the moanings of her infant ?" when unconnected with a principal Mr. S. seems not aware that here, as verb, expressed or understood, are not in a thousand cases besides, the word, auxiliaries but principal verbs,

,” sub- originally a participle, becomes a perjoins : “ This mistake arises through fect noun, and follows in all respects the inattention to the ellipsis in these usual regimen of nouns. Certainly phrases. If we except the verb am, moanings is not a participle, but a noun. the principal verb is always under- Page 77. (Note.) “ In London and stood.Mr. Murray's opinion we l its vicinity, the following phrases are

pose,” &c.

much used; I have began to learn talk much of a case absolute; as, French; the coach had came away,”&c. shame being lost, all virtue is lost;' We think it highly objectionable to he being dead, yet speaketh.'— The give any sort of countenance to such case absolute is no case at all. It is expressions as I have began, the coach merely the fragment of a phrase, not had came. If such innovations be al- reducible to law, till the ellipsis is lowed, our language will be essentially supplied. Hence Dr. Crombie, and seinjured.

veral of our wiser grammarians, are Page 85. “When the prepositions silent about the case absolute.” out, near, far, even, &c. precede an- Notwithstanding Dr. Crombie's and other preposition, they become ad- Mr. Sutcliffe's opinion, this case must, jectives.' This we think a novel and we think, be allowed in our language. objectionable hypothesis. Mr. S. mere- One of the two examples adduced ly makes the assertion, without ad- above, contains no case absolute: he ducing any authority, or offering any being dead, yet speaketh; here he is argument in proof. If the occurrence plainly nominative to the verb speaketh. of two consecutive prepositions causes The other example is appropriate ; any change of character in the first of shame being lost, all virtue is lost. This them, it would be far more plausible to Mr. S. does not attempt to analyze ; say that it becomes an adverb, than an nor do we see how such a construction adjective.

can be accounted for, without calling Page 99.“ When the infinitive mood shame the case absolute. It is not the occurs, it is said to supply the place of nominative to the verb is lost, that verb the nominative;- as, 'to learn is laud- has virtue for its nominative: neither able.' But assuredly the noun or pro- is it the nominative after that verb; noun is understood ; as, 'for me or you nor is it the objective case ; for there to learn is laudable.' It certainly is neither verb nor preposition, that would be more correct to say, that the can cause it to be in the objective. nominative is understood before the Some grammarians think that the infinitive mood.”

absolute cases in Latin and Greek are Mr. S. would have us to believe, it always governed by some preposition seems, that in the above example, the understood. Some of the English abobjective case me or you (understood), solute cases may be accounted for on governed by the preposition for, is no- this principle. Thus, in the above minative case to the verb is. This is example shame being lost, denotes the perfectly absurd. In all such instances, same as in consequence of shame being the infinitive is a mere substitute for a lost, or through shame being lost. Others noun; thus, to learn is laudable, is equi- of our absolute cases may be accountvalent to learning is laudable ; to err is ed for, on the principle of ellipsis ; human, that is, error is humun: hence thus, the sun rising, the shadows disapthere can be no impropriety in saying, pear; i. e. when the sun is rising : whose that the infinitive, in these cases, is used gray top shall tremble, he descending ; as a nominative to the following verb. i. e. while he is descending. But if

Page 101. “ Again where there such forms of speech are allowable, it are two nominatives and but one accu- seems necessary to call the noun or sative, or but one nominative and two pronoun the case absolute, as it cannot accusatives, we could not know whe- be proved to be either nominative or ther to use a singular or a plural verb. objective according to the ordinary Ex. His meat was locusts and wild rules of construction. honey.” In this example there is no If Mr. S. will not allow this case to accusative case at all, the three sub- exist in our language, we would prostantives, meat, locusts, honey, all being, pose the following sentences ; according to Mr. S. himself, (Rule ix. “- Isaiah flourished in the reign of page 125) in the nominative. An ac- Hezekiah ; who being sick unto death, cusative case after a verb can never and having prayed to the Lord, the proaffect the number of that verb. To phet was sent to comfort him, and to convey Mr. S.'s meaning correctly, the announce his recovery.” rule should be: “ when there are two “ A blow was aimed at the duke; nominatives before a verb, and but one but he escaping in due time, the assassin nominative after it; or one nominative was disappointed.” before and two nominatives after it.” How would Mr. S. account for the

P. 102.“ Many of our grammarians two pronouns who and he, both nomi

natives ; but not nominative to any say in the present ? you am, you art, or verb, nor nominative after any verb; you is; since he considers you as a sinnor yet agreeing in case with their gular? That the plan for which we antecedents; for both their antece- contend will render it necessary to say, dents, viz. Hezekiah and duke are in you were the person” or

you were the objective?

the man,” is granted; but this inconveAnother example we take from the venience admits of no cure, except by New Testament, Luke iii. 21. “ It the adoption of the primitive style, alcame to pass, that Jesus also being ways using thou to an individual. baptized, and praying, the heaven was Page 105.“ Mr. Murray misguides opened, and the Holy Ghost descend- his pupils when he gives as bad Enged,” &c.

lish the following phrase: “ Every perThis sentence is complete ; there is son and every occurrence are beheld in no ellipsis; the substantive Jesus is the most favourable light.” Mr. Sutnot nominative to any verb, nor nomi- cliffe's opinion on this phrase is cernative after any verb, nor is it in the tainly deserving of regard. Not being objective case; but is put absolutely fully satisfied in our own mind, we with the two participles being baptized cannot presume to determine the point and praying, and in point of govern between him and Mr. Murray. ment, is wholly independent of the rest Page 106. The quotation from Baof the sentence. If Mr. S. will not al- con, which Mr. S. vindicates, we think low it to be the case absolute, how will indefensible :-“ the mathematics girhe account for the construction ? eth a remedy thereunto, for in them,"

Page 102.“ Dr. Crombie deems it a &c. to consider mathematics first as sinviolation of this rule—when we say, gular, and then, after an intervalof four * You was presenť he would write or five words, as plural, is certainly ob

you were present.' This practice Ijectionable. We think it should alapprehend would occasion a great im- ways have a plural verb and pronoun. propriety.—The alteration would mere- Page 110. “For brevity we say also, ly occasion a change of difficulties for I have not seen him this ten years;' the worse ;

for you, applied to the that is, this space of ten years.” We second person singular, is but a word consider it highly improper to vindiof courtesy and honour; and a courtesy cate such an evident breach of gramwhich we cannot pay to the singular mar, on the principle of ellipsis. With noun by a plural verb.”

equal propriety might another mainDr. Crombie's opinion we deem per- tain the accuracy of such expressions fectly correct, and Mr. S.'s objections as, this grapes, that books, this pence ; of no importance. To justify the ex- saying, that they are elliptical phrases

, pression you was present, is highly im- used for this bunch of grapes, that parproper. Was is either 1st person sin- cel of books, this heap of pence. No elgulár or 3d person singular, imperfect lipsis can justify a plain and positive tense, indicative mood, of the verb To violation of the established laws of Be (see Mr. Sutcliffe's Grammar, page grammar. It should unquestionably 62.) If you was be correct, it must be be, these ten years. proved either that you is the 1st person

Page 112.°" Any is always joined to singular, or the 3d person singular, or the singular number expressed or unelse that was is the second person derstood.” Any may be joined indisplural ; or otherwise it must be allow- criminately to singular or plural nouns ; ed, that a verb needs not agree with its and we do not know how Mr. S. can nominative case, either in number or per- prove, that when it is joined with a

The general use of the plural plural, there is any ellipsis. pronoun you to an individual, is evi- Page 114. Other, when used withdently a grammatical impropriety. Mr. out an article, is mostly joined to a Sutcliffe says, Since custom has es- plural noun ;-- but when preceded by tablished one anomaly, let us intro- an article, it is joined to the singular." duce another to keep it in coun- Mr. S. seems not aware that other, pretenance. we use a plural pronoun ceded by the definite article, may be to a single person, let us join a sin- joined to a plural, as properly and as gular verb to that plural pronoun, frequently, as to a singular. and thus violate the first rule of Syn- Page 115, 116. “ I waited on the tax. Besides, if you was be right in the ladies before they left town, and have imperfect tense, what would Mr. S. since heard that they arrived safe."


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