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FIGURE OF JUGGERNAUT.

plates and cast-iron, with respect to | Gideon his, Jehovah-shalom. This their effects in emitting heat; and it was done evidently to mark out these was found, by measuring the quantity places as memorials of what Jehovah of Steam condensed in equal lengths had done, or what it was expected he of pipe, or, in other words, by measur- would do. And in the same manner, ing the water of condensation, that, Jerusalem, as a type of the Gospel taking the effect of tin-plate in emitting Church, was called Jehovah-tsidheat as one, the effect of cast-iron was kenu, to point out what the Lord equal to two and a half.

would do for that church of which Cast-iron, has likewise been found every member can say, In thee have much more durable, and convenient I righteousness and strength.”. in its application, than any other Dublin, July 9, 1819. AMICUS. metals which have been tried. And it appears, when durability is required, that it is the only substance which seems properly applicable to the purpose. Indeed it has been adopted in all the late cases of warming by Steam.

With regard to the thickness of pipes, it appears not to be limited, but by expense; for a thick pipe acting as a reservoir of heat, preserves a more uniform temperature than a thin one. It is usual, in order to save unnecessary expense, to make the pipes as thin as they can be conveniently cast, which varies from one-fourth to three-fourths of an inch, according to their diameter and length. The sizes now mostly in use, are four inches internal diameter, and about three-eighths of an inch in thickness.

The following fact will give some idea of the effect of Steam, in produc- History and Description of Jugünnaing expansion in metallic substances. thi, usually written Juggernaut. Acopper steam-pipe, 160 feet long, Since the time that Dr. Buchanan was two inches longer when filled with steam, than when cool: and in prac- in Asia,” the name of this Idol has

published his “ Christian Researches tice, the expansion of steam-pipes of been well known in England, associcast-iron, may be taken at about one-ated with those bloody and indecent tenth of an inch, in every ten feet of rites, which are inseparably connected length, or one inch to thirty-three with his abominable worship. The yards. BENJAMIN Hick.

figure of Juggernaut has also been deBolton, Nov. 1819.

lineated in various descriptions, but his real image has been presented only

in a partial manner to the public eye. RIGHTEOUSNESS."

The history of this monster has also The Jews acknowledge that this ap

been comparatively but little known, pellation, Jer. xxiii. 6. belongs to the

even to many who affect to doubt the Messiah: and we can easily discern propriety of sending Bibles and Misin it the dignity of our Lord, as Jeho- sionaries to India, for the purpose of vah ; and the nature of his office, as

diffusing a knowledge of Christianity our righteousness. It has often been

throughout those populous and exten

sive regions. asked, Why is the same appellation bestowed on Jerusalem? (xxxiii. 16.) ficiency, we have been induced to open

To supply in some measure this deAbraham called the mount, Jehovah-hibit a sensible representation of this jireh ; Moses his altar, Jehovah-nissi ; Asiatic Moloch, accompanying the

* For a more particular acconnt of these figure, with an outline of his history, experiments, see Leslie on Heat, Dalton's and an account of some of those effects Chemical Philosophy, and Buchanan's Essays which result from the influence of his on Fuel.

long established dominion.

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OBSERVATIONS

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Description of Juggernaut.

934 Jugunnathu, or Juggernaut, is a dei- | have been joined by several large bofied hero, complimented with the title dies of pilgrims, perhaps 2000 in numof “ Lord of the World,as his name ber, who have come from various parts signifies; he is a form of Vishnoo. The of Northern India. Some of them, with image of this god has no legs, and only whom I have conversed, say, that they stumps of arms; the head and eyes have been two months on their march, are very large. Krishnu, it seems, had travelling slowly in the hottest season accidentally been killed by a hunter, of the year, with their wives and chilwho left his body to rot under a tree; dren. Some old persons are among his bones, however, were collected, them, who wish to die at Juggernaut. and kept in a box, till a pious king Numbers of pilgrims die on the road; was directed by Vishnoo to form the and their bodies generally remain unimage of Jugunnathu, and put into its buried. On a plain by the river, near belly these bones. Vishwukurmu, the the Pilgrim's Caravansera at this place, architect of the gods, undertook to there are more than a hundred skulls. make the image ; but declared, that The dogs, jackals, and vultures, seem if disturbed while he was about it, he to live here on human prey. The vulwould leave it unfinished. The king tures exhibit a shocking támeness. The who employed him, being impatient to obscene animals will not leave the see the image, went to the spot, when body sometimes till we come close to the artist desisted from the work, and them. This Buddruck is a horrid left the god without hands or feet. The place. Wherever I turn my eyes, I king was much discouraged, but on meet death in some shape or other. praying to Brumha, he promised to Surely Juggernaut cannot be worse make the image famous in its present than Buddruck.' shape. Brumha himself gave eyes and

Juggernaut, 14th June, 1806. a soul to it. He has many temples ;

I have seen Juggernaut. The one of the most famous is in Orissa. scene at Buddruck is but the vestibule

The annual Car Festival is the most of Juggernaut. No record of ancient popular; the car is in form of a taper- or modern history can give, I think, an ing tower, between 50 and 60 feet in adequate idea of this valley of death; height: it has sixteen wheels, two it may be truly compared with the ‘valhorses, and a coachman, all of wood. ley of Hinnom. The idol called JuggerThe crowd draw the carriage by means naut, has been considered as the Moof a hawser; he is supposed to pay an loch of the present age; and he is justly annual visit to his brother; and while so named; for the sacrifices offered up the car remains empty near his bro- to him by self-devotement, are not less ther's temple, immense crowds flock to criminal, perhaps not less numerous, gaze at the indecent pictures which than those recorded of the Moloch of are painted on it. At the end of eight Canaan. Two other idols accompany days, he is drawn back again to his Juggernaut, namely, Boloram and Shuown temple.

budra, his brother and sister; for there Unnumbered multitudes of pilgrims, are three Deities worshipped here. from all parts of India, attend this fes- They receive equal adoration, and sit tival, among whom a great mortality on thrones of nearly equal height.” frequently prevails; and hundreds

This morning I viewed the perhaps thousands of persons, diseased Temple: a stupendous fabric, and or distressed, have cast themselves un- truly commensurate with the extensive der the wheels of this ponderous car, sway of the horrid king.' As other and have been crushed to death. temples are usually adorned with

figures emblematical of their religion, Dr. Buchanan, in his Christian re- so Juggernaut has representations searches, speaking of this horrid idol, (numerous and varied) of that vice this Moloch of India, has transmit- which constitutes the essence of his ted to posterity the following observa- worship.

The walls and gates are tions.

covered with indecent emblems, in Buddruck, in Orissa, May 30, 1806. massive and durable sculpture.--I have • We know that we are approaching also visited the sand plains by the sea, Juggernaut (and yet we are more than in some places whitened with the bones fifty miles from it) by the human bones of the pilgrims; and another place a which we have seen for some days little way out of the town, called by strewed by the way. At this place we the English, the Golgotha, where the

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seen.

His car

dead bodies are usually cast forth ; a few minutes it stopped; and now and where dogs and vultures are ever the worship of the God began.-A

high priest mounted the car in front Juggernaut, 18th of June, 1806. of the idol, and pronounced his ob

I have returned home from scene stanzas in the ears of the people ; witnessing a scene which I shall never who responded at intervals in the forget. At twelve o'clock of this day, same strain. * These songs,' said he, being the great day of the feast, the are the delight of the God. Moloch of Hindostan was brought can only move when he is pleased out of his temple amidst the acclama- with the song.'--The car moved on a tions of hundreds of thousands of his little way, and then stopped. A boy of worshippers. When the idol was about twelve years was then brought placed on his throne, a shout was forth to attempt something yet more raised by the multitude, such as I had lascivious, if peradventure the God never heard before. It continued would move. The · child perfected equable for a few minutes, and then the praise of his idol with such argradually died away. After a short dent expression and gesture, that the interval of silence, a murmur was God was pleased, and the multitude, heard at a distance; all eyes were emitting a sensual yell of delight

, turned towards the place, and, be- urged the car along. After a few hold, a grove advancing. A body of minutes it stopped again. An aged men, having green branches, or palms, minister of the idol then stood up, in their hands, approached with great and with a long rod in his hand, celerity. The people opened a way which he moved with indecent action, for them; and when they had come up completed the variety of this disgustto the throne, they fell down before ing exhibition. I felt a consciousness • him that sat thereon, and worshipped. of doing wrong in witnessing it. I

The throne of the idol was placed was also somewhat appalled at the on a stupendous car or tower, about magnitude and horror of the specsixty feet in height, resting on wheels tacle; I felt like a guilty person on which indented the ground deeply, as whom all eyes were fixed, and I was they turned slowly under the ponder- about to withdraw. But a scene of a ous machine. Attached to it were six different kind was now to be presentcables, of the size and length of a ed. The characteristics of Moloch's ship’s cable, by which the people drew worship are obscenity and blood. We it along. Thousands of men, women, have seen the former. Now comes the and children, pulled by each cable, blood. crowding so closely, that some could • After the towerhad proceeded some only use one hand. Infants are made way, a pilgrim announced that he was to exert their strength in this oflice, for ready to offer himself a sacrifice to the it is accounted a merit of righteous-idol. He laid himself down in the ness to move the God. Upon the tower road before the tower, as it was morwere the priests and satellites of the ing along, lying on his face, with his idol, surrounding his throne.

arms stretched forwards. The multitold that there were about a hundred tude passed round him, leaving the and twenty persons upon the car alto- space clear, and he was crushed to gether. The idol is a block of wood, death by the wheels of the tower. A having a frightful visage painted black, shout of joy was raised to the God. with a distended mouth of a bloody He is said to smile when the libation colour. His arms are of gold, and he of the blood is made. The people is dressed in gorgeous apparel. The threw cowries, or small money, on the other two idols are of a white and yel- body of the victim, in approbation of low colour. Five elephants preceded the deed. He was left to view a conthe three towers, bearing towering siderable time, and was then carried flags, dressed in crimson caparisons, by the Hurries to the Golgotha, where and having bells hanging to their ca- I have just been viewing his remains.' parisons, which sounded musically as Juggernaut, 20th June, 1806. they moved.

The horrid solemnities still I went on in the procession, close continue. Yesterday a woman devotby the tower of Moloch; which, as it ed herself to the idol. was drawn with difliculty,“ grated on self down on the road in an oblique its many wheels harsh thunder.” After direction, so that the wheel did not

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937 Review-Grammar of the English Language. 938 kill her instantaneously, as is generally giarism, always revolting to the moral the case; but she died in a few hours. feelings of the heart,does not evince This morning, as I passed the place of so much of candour and generosity, as skulls, nothing remained of her but of a disposition to cavil and find fault; her bones.'

and we are afraid that, throughout his As to the number of persons assem- Grammar, he seems glad, and even bled at this horrid festival, which Dr. eager, to catch at every opportunity Buchanan witnessed, no accurate cal- of opposing and censuring his popular culations, he says, could be made. The predecessor. natives, when speaking of particular That Mr. Sutcliffe's publication is festivals, usually declare, that if 100,000 a work of some merit, and contains persons were to withdraw from the several things curious, useful, and imamazing multitude, their absence portant, we do not deny. At the same would not be perceptible.

time, after an attentive, and, we trust,

a candid perusal, we are constrained Review of A Grammar of the Eng; his sentiments erroneous, his princi

to aver, that on many points we deem lish Language, by the Rev. Joseph ples false, his illustrations and arguSutcliffe.London, 1815.

ments unsatisfactory; and that we think That the study of the English Lan- the work, taking it in the whole, far guage has, within these few years, more calculated to be detrimental than been greatly facilitated and improv- useful, in the study of our language. ed, is a fact which none can contro- The annexation of Mr. S.'s name has vert, and in which all the friends of stamped a degree of respectability on science will rejoice. Before the ap- the work, and procured for it a conpearance of Lowth’s “ Introduction,

siderable circulation. Hence we think, our language was much neglected, and his statements should be publicly conof course very imperfectly understood. troverted; that all his readers may at Since that time, the rising generation, least have both sides of the question and English students in general, have fairly laid before them, and be better been laid under great obligations, qualified to decide where truth and acby the meritorious and successful la- curacy are to be found. bours of Mr. Lindley Murray. The We shall now proceed with our anihigh opinion universally entertained madversions on various parts of the of this gentleman's works, is evidenced Grammar. by the unprecedented sale they have Page 17. “ The letter a has five dishad, both in the British dominions, tinct sounds ;-the first is primitive or and' in the United States of America. open-in father, gracious, large.” They have almost superseded all other Here father and gracious are both adworks of the kind, and obtained exclu- duced as instances of the open a ; sive patronage, wherever the language whereas its sound in father is totally is taught or learned.

distinct from that which it has in

graWe are not however so weak, as to cious.

corage 20. « L is silent in-soldier.” suppose Mr. Murray infallible; nor would we bind ourselves, on all gram- To sink the l in soldier is incorrect and matical questions, by his sentiments vulgar. and authority. Ilis positions are open Page 22. “ H is mostly silent after to investigation; and if any of them w, as in wharf, wheel, while.” In these can be proved erroneous, they should cases, the h is distinctly sounded before instantly be abandoned. To this prin- the w; the words being pronounced ciple we heartily subscribe; and if hwarf, hweel, hwile, &c. where Murray errs, any subsequent Page 36. Declension of kingdom. grammarian can point out the path of It is improper to call of kingdom or of truth, we shall gratefully avail our kingdoms the genitive case; for though selves of his help.

such expressions would be the geniThough we believe ourselves free from tive in Latin or Greek, they cerany blind and unreasonable partiality tainly are not so in English. Of is a in favour of Mr. Murray, yet, we must preposition, and kingdom, when preconfess, we were somewhat startled at ceded by of, is not the genitive, but the the charge brought against him, in Mr. objective case. Sutcliffe's preface. We conceive that Page 37. “When we are obliged to Mr. S. in accusing Mr. M. of pla- I use two nouns together, separated by a

hyphen,as ship-mate, wine-whey,china- | think perfectly right, and Mr. S.'s obware; mostly the latter, and sometimes jection altogether futile. In the pbrases the former, is the adjective.” Here Mr. quoted there is no ellipsis of any verb. S. is unquestionably wrong. In com- We have enough, is a complete sentence, pound substantives, it it mostly, if not equvalent to we possess enough. He always, the former noun, that is used as wills it to be so, is equivalent to he dean adjective. Thus in the examples sires or he chooses it to be so; and, they adduced, the three former nouns, ship, do as they please, to they act as they please. wine, china, are used like adjectives, To say that in such cases the verbs have, indicating the sort or quality of the wills, do, are not principals, but auximate, the whey, and the ware. We liaries, is as absurd as to say, that the know not of a single instance, in which verbs which we have substituted above, the latter noun is used as an adjective, viz. possess, desires, act, are not princito qualify the former.

pals but auxiliaries; neither are the Page 42. (Note.) “ The Greek word words execute, written, appointing, &c. eða Xisotegw signifies the most lowest.” understood, as Mr. S. intimates. Not so ; it is not a double superlative; Page 62. It seems erroneous to but a comparative formed from the call am an auxiliary verb.” By adsuperlative saa Xu50s; and its sense is mitting, with Mr. Murray, that it is precisely and literally lower than the sometimes an auxiliary, sometimes a lowest, or rather, less than the least. principal verb, every difficulty is ob

Page 43. “ He is amazingly, or as- viated. tonishingly, or infinitely popular.” Page 72. “The participle, to sicken.” Such an expression as infinitely popu- Sicken is a verb, not a participle ; neilar, is inaccurate and objectionable, if ther can we see the propriety of saying not absurd.

that to be sick is a verb. To be is a verb, Page 47. “ In asking questions, but sick is an adjective; to be sick is no which is distinguished from what by its more a verb than to be old, to be rich, to always following a noun expressed or be pious, to be proud, &c. understood; as what is the news? which Ditto. “ The participle is the root of the papers do you read?” Which, or parent of the verb.” This is indeed in the above example, does not follow a novel and singular doctrine. We any noun expressed or understood; have always thought, on the contrary, but it agrees with the noun paper under that the verb is the root or parent of the stood ; which (paper) of the papers do participle. Would it not be absurd to you read? and so in all similar cases ; say that have comes from having, love thus, which (house) of the houses be- from loving, think from thinking, &c. longs to you? which (garden) of the when have, love, think, are evidently the gardens do you choose ?

primitive words, and the others, inPage 48. That has a decided pre-flections or variations of the primitive ference of euphony over who,-after word? the pronoun they'

This we think Page 73. “ The participle promotes very doubtful, and not established by beauty and variety in language, by good authority. It might be contended superseding the too frequent recurwith much plausibility, that on the rence of the infinitive mood. Ex. Forground of euphony, who should be pre- bidding to marry, and commanding to ferred to that, as tending to prevent the abstain,” &c. The participles forrecurrence of the sound th in two suc- | bidding and commanding are not here cessive words, they, that. Dr. Blair used, as Mr. S. supposes, instead of says, “ They, who are learning to com- infinitive moods.

Ditto. “ Sometimes the participle is Page 61. (Note.) Mr. Sutcliffe, more impressive than the noun. Ex. after quoting from Murray an obser- | What are the pangs of a mother when vation that the verbs have, be, will, do, she hears the moanings of her infant ?” when unconnected with a principal Mr. S. seems not aware that here, as verb, expressed or understood, are not in a thousand cases besides, the word, auxiliaries but principal verbs,” sub- originally a participle, becomes a perjoins: “ This mistake arises through fect noun, and follows in all respects the inattention to the ellipsis in these usual regimen of nouns. Certainly phrases. If we except the verb am, moanings is not a participle, but a noun. the principal verb is always under- Page 77. (Note.) “ În London and stood.” Mr. Murray's opinion we l its vicinity, the following phrases are

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pose,” &c.

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