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unity of the two natures, human and divine; but since the human nature had no existence previously to the incarnation, the Logos, that was made flesh, was not antecedently the Christ, the Son of man. And because the Son of man and the Son of God are one, that is, one Christ, one Son, the only begotten Son of the Father, and the Logos was not antecedently the Son of man, therefore he could not be antecedently the Son of God. For Jesus Christ exists alone in the unity of the divine and human natures; and since nothing which is human can have a share in the Eternal Sonship, the Sonship of Jesus Christ cannot be eternal. The subject then seems to be more of a philological, than of a doctrinal nature for it is not possible to raise the doctrine of the Eternal Sonship, be* fore it can be demonstrated that the Son of man and the Son of God are terms equally and indifferently referrible to an eternal Sonship; which seems in the nature of things to be an inconsistency.
Ir is the custom among the Capuchin Monks, to spend part of the night in the abode of the dead; but whether this is a penance, or a duty undertaken by the brethren in rotation, I could not learn. The following circumstance happened a few years since.-A Monk, passing a part of the night in this dismal apartment, sitting by his lamp, surrounded by the shrivelled and distorted countenances of the dead, thought he heard now and then, in the interval of his devotional exercises, an unusual noise; and looking stedfastly at that part of the room whence it proceeded, he perceived one of the dead Monks nod to him: he held up his lamp, and the head nodded again: he then instantly ran up stairs to the convent, to aequaint the brethren with
this fearful omen. Was it a ghost he had seen? No, it was the Devil, the Devil himself, who had possessed the dead Capuchin. The Monks laughed at his fears, and persuaded him it was a mere illusion of the imagination. Hetherefore summoned up his courage to return; but took care to go to a different part of these extensive galleries, where he remained awhile in anxious suspense. Finding, however, all still and motionless, he began to think he must have been alarmed at his own thoughts, and, resolving to convince himself whether his fears were false or not, he returned to his former station, and kept his eye fixed on the same dead Monk. Judge what was his astonishment, when he once more saw the head move, and nod to him. Away he ran, as may be supposed, and declared that all the saints in the calendar should not persuade him to go down again. He was so positive respecting the fact, that considerable alarm prevailed. The Monks were called up, and eight or ten went into the apartment with candles and holy water. They were brought opposite this dead body possessed by the Devil. But just as they drew up, a nod of his head put them all to flight. When the Superior was informed of this alarming affair, he was extremely angry, and said some English heretic had got in, and contrived this trick; for he would neither admit the Devil to be concerned, nor allow that the dead Capuchin could possibly stir; and therefore went down himself with another party. As they descended to the galleries, their courage in some degree abated; but after advancing cautiously to the place, the Superior held up his lamp to the Monk. It was no illusion; life had indeed actually again entered the frail tenement of mortality. At that very moment the head shook violently, and fell from the body; when out sprang, not the soul of the Monk, but a living rat, which had made its nest in the skull !-This fact is well known at Palermo.
ON THE PERPETUITY OF MISERY.
In the eighth number of the Imperial Magazine, col. 762, a question was inserted on the subject of " Perpetual Misery." Since that query was published, the following paper has reached our hands. Its date, however, sufficiently proves that it could not have
been written with any reference to the | observations of Tyro, although it has an immediate bearing on the point of inquiry. EDITOR.
Wells, Norfolk, Oct. 20, 1819.
MR. EDITOR, I AM very glad to find that several of your correspondents have interested themselves, in the consideration of the Christ's descent into Hell. It shews that there is among them a love of biblical discussion. This, Sir, is the only way to arrive at truth. This is the only way ultimately to vanquish that monster Bigotry, which has done more harm to the cause of Christianity, than Infidelity itself. Your Magazine professes to be "slave to no sect ;" and I doubt not, that if your correspondents will regularly supply it with a portion of theological matter, many a serious and inquisitive Christian will be well pleased at seeing discussed, subjects which are dearest to his heart, as being so intimately connected with his best interests. There are very many, who have not time to give these matters a deep investigation; and there are very many others also, who, from not being acquainted with the languages in which the Scriptures were originally written, are unable to search for the real meaning of words: both classes are therefore in a manner obliged to understand the expressions of Scripture as they find them.
In our translation, we meet with many words and expressions, which cannot be understood in the sense in which they have been translated; this arises probably from the alteration in meaning, words of our language which many may have undergone since, and from the comparative deficiency of learning, especially of Oriental learning, at the time the translation was made. Why the governors of our Church do not introduce a new translation, is to me inexplicable. It certainly is of great importance, that every one who reads the Scriptures, and more particularly those of the lower classes, who have no other opportunity of knowing them than by hearing them read once a week in our Churches, should, as far as possible, understand them; and it is as certainly the duty of the governors of our Church, to have them made as intelligible as possible.
I have been led on to a greater length of exordium than I intended,
but I hope it will not be deemed foreign from my subject. The question which I wish now to submit to discussion, through your Magazine, is, Whether or not we can gather from the Scriptures, that the punishment of the wicked in a future state will be neverending? If we are guided by our transtion, and the meaning which we invariably attach to the words "eternal" and "everlasting," we must confess that it will be so; for there are many texts to that effect. But the doctrine in question must entirely depend upon another point, namely, whether the original word "άwo" will bear this sense or not.
Without going so far as to consider the signification of the substantive år, from which it is derived, and from which it must derive its true import, I shall content myself with shewing, that the English adjectives “eternal" and "everlasting," as they are used in several passages of scripture, cannot bear the sense of never-ending; and the conclusion must therefore be, that the translation of the word a cannot be uniformly correct. We read of "the land of Canaan being an everlasting possession; (a) of the priesthood of Aaron being an everlasting priesthood;" (b) of " circumcision being an everlasting covenant; (c) of "the passover being an everlasting ordinance;" (d) and of "Sodom and Gomorrah suffering the vengeance of eternal fire."(e) It requires no great degree of penetration to see, that in these passages, the adnouns everlasting" and "eternal" cannot bear the meaning which we invariably affix to them: they can only mean, tinuance for some certain period of time."
Now, let us examine a few texts which favour the doctrine of neverending punishment. "Who amongst us can dwell with everlasting burnings?"(f) " It is better to enter into life halt or maimed, than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire." (g) "Who (i. e. they that obey not the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ) shall be punished with everlasting destruction, from the presence of the Lord."(h) Why, I ask, may
(a) Gen. xvii. 8. & xlviii. 4.—(b) Exod. xl. 15. & Numb. xxv. 13.-(c) Gen. xvii. 7, 13. (d) Exod. xii. 14.-(e) Jude 7.-(f)Isaiah xxxiii. 14.-(g) Mat. xviii. 8.-(h) 2 Thes.i.9.
not" everlasting" bear the same cir- vessel. Thus, if a canister of tinned cumscribed sense in these passages, iron be used, then a certain quantity that it does in those above quoted? of heat radiates from it: if the said Indeed we must so understand the pas- vessel be covered with black paint, sage taken from the prophet Isaiah, as paper, glass, &c. it will then radiate the prophet is there evidently speak- eight times as much heat in like ciring of the distress of the Jews, upon cumstances. It appears, therefore, Jerusalem's being taken by the king that from a metallic surface, 13 parts of of Assyria. heat are conducted away by the air, and 1 part radiated; from a vitreous or paper surface, 13 parts are conducted, and 8 parts radiated, in a given time.
Having briefly examined this side of the question, I think it my duty, (as my own mind is not made up upon the subject,) to take a cursory view of the other. The duration of the future punishment of the wicked, is also expressed in Scripture without the use of the disputed word “ ἀιωνιον,” ,""everlasting;" e. g. They shall be cast" into fire that never shall be quenched." (i) But what I consider as by far the strongest support of this doctrine is, that in the sentences which our Blessed Lord has declared will be passed upon the righteous and upon the wicked at the last day, the same adjective “ άιωνιον is used to express the duration of life or happiness, and the duration of punishment, "The wicked shall go away, is no wor; but the righteous is any wor."(k) And I humbly think, that if we understand the adjective to signify “never-ending” in the one text, we cannot put a limited construction upon it in the other. I have trespassed much upon your pages, and therefore will say no more at present, than that I shall be glad to see this (to me at least) interesting subject discussed more fully, by more able hands. I am, Sir, yours, &c.
A FRIEND TO INQUIRY. (i) Mark ix. 43 to 48.—(k) Matt. xxv. 46.
ON HEATING BY STEAM.
As Steam Heating in Mills, and other large fabrics, has now become so very general, and is daily increasing, even in small buildings, the following remarks, from actual experiments, may probably not be thought uninteresting; especially as the principles to which they refer, do not appear to have been sufficiently known, or acted upon by practical mechanics. The following are some of the principal facts, which were discovered or confirmed by Professor Leslie:
If a vessel be filled with hot water, the quantity of heat which radiates from it, depends chiefly upon the nature of the exterior surface of the No. 10. Vol. I.
The obvious consequences of this doctrine, in a practical sense, are,
In every case where heat is wanted to be retained as long as possible, the containing vessel should be constructed of metal, with a bright clear surface.
Where heat is required to be given out by a body with as much celerity as possible, the containing vessel, if of metal, ought to be painted, covered with paper, charcoal, or some animal or vegetable matter; in which case, the heat given out will be as three parts for two, from a metallic surface.
This important fact, therefore, may be made exceedingly useful, in the convenient distribution of heat, in difbe applied; as, in a long range of ferent parts of a building where it may conductors, by covering them with tin pipes, that may merely be wanted as plate, or tin foil, (or, if lapped with band, made from hay and plastered smooth,) the radiation of heat will be there will be a less condensation and greatly prevented; and, consequently, consumption of Steam.
In those parts where the most heat is required, the pipes should be covered with a coating of dead black paint; and in this way, by a proper attention to the exterior surface of the pipes, may a great saving of fuel be effected, as well as considerable convenience and comfort experienced.
Steam-pipes made of tin-plate, were much used soon after the first application of Steam Heating, in order to save expense, and from a supposition, that, from their thinness, they would emit heat more rapidly than cast-iron. Thin copper ones were also tried upon the same principle; but, contrary to expectation, it was soon found, that the same surface of cast-iron gave out much more heat, than either the tinplate or copper.
Experiments have also been made to ascertain the difference between tin
plates and cast-iron, with respect to their effects in emitting heat; and it was found, by measuring the quantity of Steam condensed in equal lengths of pipe, or, in other words, by measuring the water of condensation, that, taking the effect of tin-plate in emitting heat as one, the effect of cast-iron was equal to two and a half.
Cast-iron, has likewise been found much more durable, and convenient in its application, than any other metals which have been tried. And it appears, when durability is required, that it is the only substance which seems properly applicable to the purpose. Indeed it has been adopted in all the late cases of warming by Steam.
With regard to the thickness of pipes, it appears not to be limited, but by expense; for a thick pipe acting as a reservoir of heat, preserves a more uniform temperature than a thin one. It is usual, in order to save unnecessary expense, to make the pipes as thin as they can be conveniently cast, which varies from one-fourth to three-fourths of an inch, according to their diameter and length. The sizes now mostly in use, are four inches internal diameter, and about three-eighths of an inch in thickness.
The following fact will give some idea of the effect of Steam, in producing expansion in metallic substances. A copper steam-pipe, 160 feet long, was two inches longer when filled with steam, than when cool: and in practice, the expansion of steam-pipes of cast-iron, may be taken at about onetenth of an inch, in every ten feet of length, or one inch to thirty-three yards.
Bolton, Nov. 1819.
thu, usually written Juggernaut. SINCE the time that Dr. Buchanan published his "Christian Researches in Asia," the name of this Idol has been well known in England, associated with those bloody and indecent rites, which are inseparably connected with his abominable worship. figure of Juggernaut has also been delineated in various descriptions, but his real image has been presented only in a partial manner to the public eye. The history of this monster has also been comparatively but little known, propriety of sending Bibles and Miseven to many who affect to doubt the sionaries to India, for the purpose diffusing a knowledge of Christianity throughout those populous and extensive regions.
THE Jews acknowledge that this appellation, Jer. xxiii. 6. belongs to the Messiah: and we can easily discern in it the dignity of our Lord, as Jehovah; and the nature of his office, as our righteousness. It has often been asked, Why is the same appellation bestowed on Jerusalem? (xxxiii. 16.) ficiency, we have been induced to exTo supply in some measure this deAbraham called the mount, Jehovah-hibit a sensible representation of this jireh; Moses his altar, Jehovah-nissi;
*For a more particular acconnt of these experiments, see Leslie on Heat, Dalton's Chemical Philosophy, and Buchanan's Essays on Fuel.
Asiatic Moloch, accompanying the figure, with an outline of his history, and an account of some of those effects which result from the influence of his long established dominion.
Jugunnathu, or Juggernaut, is a dei- | have been joined by several large bodies of pilgrims, perhaps 2000 in number, who have come from various parts of Northern India. Some of them, with whom I have conversed, say, that they have been two months on their march, travelling slowly in the hottest season of the year, with their wives and children. Some old persons are among them, who wish to die at Juggernaut. Numbers of pilgrims die on the road; and their bodies generally remain unburied. On a plain by the river, near the Pilgrim's Caravansera at this place, there are more than a hundred skulls. The dogs, jackals, and vultures, seem to live here on human prey. The vultures exhibit a shocking tameness. The obscene animals will not leave the body sometimes till we come close to them. This Buddruck is a horrid place. Wherever I turn my eyes, I meet death in some shape or other. Surely Juggernaut cannot be worse than Buddruck.'
fied hero, complimented with the title of "Lord of the World," as his name signifies; he is a form of Vishnoo. The image of this god has no legs, and only stumps of arms; the head and eyes are very large. Krishnu, it seems, had accidentally been killed by a hunter, who left his body to rot under a tree; his bones, however, were collected, and kept in a box, till a pious king was directed by Vishnoo to form the image of Jugunnathu, and put into its belly these bones. Vishwukurmu, the architect of the gods, undertook to make the image; but declared, that if disturbed while he was about it, he would leave it unfinished. The king who employed him, being impatient to see the image, went to the spot, when the artist desisted from the work, and left the god without hands or feet. The king was much discouraged, but on praying to Brumha, he promised to make the image famous in its present shape. Brumha himself gave eyes and a soul to it. He has many temples; one of the most famous is in Orissa.
The annual Car Festival is the most popular; the car is in form of a tapering tower, between 50 and 60 feet in height: it has sixteen wheels, two horses, and a coachman, all of wood. The crowd draw the carriage by means of a hawser; he is supposed to pay an annual visit to his brother; and while the car remains empty near his brother's temple, immense crowds flock to gaze at the indecent pictures which are painted on it. At the end of eight days, he is drawn back again to his own temple.
Unnumbered multitudes of pilgrims, from all parts of India, attend this festival, among whom a great mortality frequently prevails; and hundreds, perhaps thousands of persons, diseased or distressed, have cast themselves under the wheels of this ponderous car, and have been crushed to death.
Dr. Buchanan, in his Christian researches, speaking of this horrid idol, this Moloch of India, has transmitted to posterity the following observations.
'Juggernaut, 14th June, 1806.
I have seen Juggernaut. The scene at Buddruck is but the vestibule of Juggernaut. No record of ancient or modern history can give, I think, an adequate idea of this valley of death; it may be truly compared with the 'valley of Hinnom.' The idol called Juggernaut, has been considered as the Moloch of the present age; and he is justly so named; for the sacrifices offered up to him by self-devotement, are not less criminal, perhaps not less numerous, than those recorded of the Moloch of Canaan. Two other idols accompany Juggernaut, namely, Boloram and Shubudra, his brother and sister; for there are three Deities worshipped here. They receive equal adoration, and sit on thrones of nearly equal height.'
This morning I viewed the Temple: a stupendous fabric, and truly commensurate with the extensive sway of the horrid king.' As other temples are usually adorned with figures emblematical of their religion, so Juggernaut has representations (numerous and varied) of that vice which constitutes the essence of his worship. The walls and gates are covered with indecent emblems, in Buddruck, in Orissa, May 30, 1806. massive and durable sculpture.—I have We know that we are approaching also visited the sand plains by the sea, Juggernaut (and yet we are more than in some places whitened with the bones fifty miles from it) by the human bones of the pilgrims; and another place a which we have seen for some days little way out of the town, called by strewed by the way. At this place we ❘ the English, the Golgotha, where the