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any number of squares, into the same duce. All things leading to the comnumber of other squares as many ways mission of criminal acts are temptaas we please. For if the number of tions; such as the desire of revenge, squares be even, they may be divided the inordinate love of the world, and into other squares by pairs, as in the the employment of unlawful means in above solution; and if the number of the acquirement of its fleeting gratifisquares be odd, they may be divided cations.” To these he adds:

envy, into pairs by leaving out the last num- hatred, malice, and uncharitableness; ber, which must be added to one of the rejoicing at another's downfall, and the new found squares, and those two our triumphs over the misfortunes of squares divided as before: hence, the our fellow-creatures." These he conmethod of extending the question to siders to originate in the temptations any number of squares, ad libitum, is of Satan, which operate on our evil sufficiently obvious.

propensities just as the soul influences the body; but he contends, that they

cannot be found detached from the NEW QUESTION.-By Mathematicus.

effects they produce. Admit the respective distances be

“ The visible effects of the temptatween Liverpool, Warrington, and tions of Satan, and the vicious propenWigan, to be the same, viz. 18 miles: sities of the heart, are one and the a messenger sets out from Wigan to same evil, under different appellations, Liverpool, and travels at the rate of when applied to different subjects. 5 miles per hour; and at the same in- If viewed in relation to the body, they stant of time, another messenger sets may with propriety be termed its naout from Warrington to Wigan, and tural propensity, the first fruits of the travels uniformly at the rate of 4 miles Devil's exertions, being engendered per hour: it is required to determine and rendered perceptible in the flesh how long they have been on their jour-only. And if viewed in their appliney when they are 12 miles asunder? cation to the soul, they may as reasonand also to determine how long they ably be considered the temptations have been on their journey when they of Satan, being in reality his allureare the nearest possible together, and ments, in the act of being offered the distance between them at that through the agency of the flesh, which time?

becomes then sensibly affected by the internal operation of his power, by

intoxicating the soul with novelty, tili, ON TEMPTATIONS, AND EVIL PROPEN

inducing it on the one hand to soothé

and appease the turbulence produced In the fourth number of the Imperial by its consciousness of guilt, by Magazine, col. 377, the following placing false constructions on the query was inserted.

“ How am I to merits of its proceedings; while on distinguish the evil propensities of my the other, it is active in the performheart from the temptations of Satan?” ance of works which are loathsome, On this query some observations and opposite to its better dictates." were made in the following number, col. 487. Since that time several articles respecting this question have been From another correspondent in Iretransmitted by our correspondents, of land, we have received the following which few only seem calculated to article on the same important subject. impart the desired information. In one paper, signed P. S. C. of Liverpool, the author turns his attention to the subject; but his observations are

SIR, preceded with so many preliminary HAVING read in your fourth number, remarks, that we can only select the col. 377, two queries proposed by a essence of his ideas.

“ Constant Reader,” I waited patiently He observes, that “ what we deno- for the appearance of the fifth, expectminate the temptations of Satan, and ing a satisfactory answer to each questhe evil propensities of the heart, are tion from some of your more expeinseparably connected with each other; rienced correspondents. I was not one being the cause, and the other the entirely disappointed. One of them effect which the soul permits it to pro- | made a few observations; and I should




have been glad if he had said more. that our adversary the Devil goeth about The substance of what I now send like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may you was in contemplation before his devour. These scriptures sufficiently answer appeared. if you judge these prove, that there exists such a being, remarks worthy of a place, in addition and that man is subject to his temptato what has been already said, they tions; while, in many instances, there are at your disposal.

are actions specified, in which he was On the second question, I have not the immediate agent. He tempted said any thing at present: I judge it Eve to eat of the forbidden fruit; prudent not to advance my ideas on caused the Sabeans and Chaldeans to it, until I have examined it more ma- kill the servants of Job, and rob bim turely. Men have frequently different of his substance; possessed and torperceptions and ideas concerning the mented many, in the days of our Lord; same questions, particularly in religion tempted him in the wilderness; put and morality. If any other of your it into the heart of Ananias and numerous readers has any thing to Sapphira to lie unto the Holy Ghost; advance, that might tend to cast addi- he has deceived the nations of the tional light upon these two very criti-world from the beginning; and when cal points, no person would be more loosed again from his prison, shall go highly gratified than

forth to deceive Gog and Magog, and Yours, &c. to gather them together again unto

An Irishman. battle, Rev. xx. These things being White Abbey, Sept. 6, 1819.

premised, let us bear more immedi

ately upon the point. IN answer to the first query, viz. The senses are not only the medium “ How shall I distinguish the evil through which man receives his first propensities of my heart from the ideas of extrinsic objects, but they temptations of Satan?" we may ob- really often prove inlets to temptation. serve, that man is a creature endowed He who is earnestly resisting every with various senses, passions, and allurement, would require to guard powers. He can see, hear, taste, feel, them strictly, lest they lead hiin astray. and smell. He is the subject of love It is natural, we know, for the eye to and hatred, joy and sorrow, hope and look ; and, in particular, it is attracted fear, desire and aversion, with many by all objects which are new, grand, other passions. He is also endued and beautiful; but in many cases we with understanding, memory, are equally convinced that the sight of science, imagination, and will. As such objects may be unlawful, though such, he stands connected both with the desire to see them be natural. matter and spirit, with this world and Hence, like David, we should turn our that which is invisible: and as such, eyes from beholding vanity; and, like he is a moral agent, in a state of pro- holy Job, we should make a covenant bation here, and capable of reward or with our eyes, lest they lead us into punishment hereafter. To him the for- transgression. We should act thus bidden fruit is now presented, when- with every sense, which might more ever he may happen to be by himself. immediately lead us to violate our And if we give siinple credit to the moral obligations. While we are thus Word of Truth, he is surrounded by exercised day after day, we discover, an invisible host of wily fiends, who by experience, that we are naturally oppose him in his religious efforts, excited to gratify our senses, by bringand strive to make and keep him a ing them in contact with those objects sinner. The word Devil is a noun of that are pleasing to them in all their multitude. Hence, when that spirit variety. When we therefore feel dewho possessed the man among the sires tending towards objects of sense, tombs was asked, “ What is thy and are at the same time convinced name?” he answered, My name is that the indulgence of them would be Legion, for we are many." The Apos- wrong, I see no reason why we should tle tells us, that we wrestle not against attribute these to the operations of flesh and blood, but against principali- Satan, seeing they may be fairly acties, against powers, against the rulers counted for on natural principles. of the darkness of this world, and against The man who is destitute of religion, spiritual wickedness in high places: at not having the victory over his pasthe same time St. Peter assures us, sions,is commonly found to gratify them


We are

as far as possible in sensible objects. | objects, there is reason both from Not so with him who believes in Scripture and experience to conclude, Christ with the heart unto righteous- that he generally proceeds in the above ness. By faith he has obtained the manner. best of victories-a victory over him- The Devil, according to the stateself. And though the same objects ment now made, has only been conmay now meet his senses, in which he sidered as operating on the passions formerly found gratification at the ex- of the believer: but there is another pense of his conscience, yet he yields mode in which he proceeds, and pernot to any of their bewitching allure-haps with more success. He is well ments. The simple desire to indulge convinced that man, in his present the senses, he knows is agreeable to state, knows only in part; that the the original constitution of man: but wisest and best of men are in many he is equally sure, that there is a respects but children in understanding ; boundary fixed to this gratification, and that if he can find them any how according to the eternal reason and relaxed in their application to the nature of things. Feeling no inward Fountain of wisdom, he may easily necessity to step beyond the “ allowed overcome them by his devices. Hence line,” he triumphs over the enjoy- he is styled, the subtle serpent, the ments and pleasures of the world, and deceiver of the nations, and a liar and often comes off more than conqueror, murderer from the beginning. through the blood of the Lamb. Let not left ignorant of his insinuations in him, as is often the case, triumph over this respect, nor of his mode of procesensual objects this hour, and the next dure. We have complete instances in be harassed by the same ideas, when the case of the first woman, Eve, and the senses and the objects have ceased the second man, Jesus Christ: both to be in contact ; let the impure were the subjects of his temptations. thoughts be injected instantly, forei- By his reasoning and lies he deceived bly, and repeatedly, into the mind; the one, and by the same methods he let every power and grace be called artfully strove to delude the other. forth to stem the torrent in the soul, The Lord God (says the sacred penuntil at last, after much prayer and man) made the earth to bring forth holy exercise, he is enabled again to every tree that is pleasant to the eye and triumph: to what can we attribute good for food. That the tree of knowthis, but to some invisible evil agent, ledge of good and evil was also pleawho strives to deceive and torment sant to the eye, the woman knew him? This must be acknowledged: merely by looking at it; that it was for the person under consideration good for food, she might be led to possesses dominion over his every conclude, from seeing the serpent eatpassion, and has therefore no wish to ing of it: but the desire she had for remember or indulge the forbidden the wisdom to be gained by a particithing. Yet it preys upon him without pation thereof, arose from the false intermission for a considerable time, representations of that lying spirit; and at last probably flees from him in this was the most artful manner in an instant. The Apostle, in writing which he could possibly have proto the Ephesians, uses an expression ceeded. He did not tempt her with which tends to cast considerable light great possessions, seeing she was on what has been said. “ Above all, mistress of the world already, by the (saith he,) take unto you the shield of appointment of God. No, he wrought faith, whereby you will be enabled to smoothly on that passion, the gratifiquench all the fiery darts of the wicked cation of which is perhaps still more one,” who is the Devil. From the congenial to the human mind than any figure here advanced we may infer, other ; namely, a thirst for universal that as the poisoned arrow is projected knowledge and unbounded fame. God mstantly and rapidly from the bow, so, doth know (said he) that in the day thou in the above case, the temptations of eatest thereof your eyes shall be opened, the Devil in general are abrupt, forci- and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and ble, and, if yielded to, accompanied evil. This was certainly an awful with the most infectious impurity and truth, in an experimental sense. But exaggerated guilt. When Satan there- the woman was deceived : which may fore acts upon the passions, by awaken- lead us justly to infer, that the serpent ing a secondary perception of sensible gave her to understand, by this knowledge, a something different from what A DISSERTATION ON GEOLOGY. she really afterwards knew, to her

[Continued from col. 857.] greatest sorrow. It is not making an unimplied inference, to conclude, that Objection II.-It is plainly intimated by eating of the fruit she judged she in the Bible, that all animals were should become like the gods, not only made for the use of man; and that the in wisdom, but in greatness.

various animals which were created From the preceding observations, on the fifth and sixth day were alive together with those which naturally when Adam was created. But accordarise from reading the history of our ing to your system, many generations Lord's temptations, we may easily of fishes lived and died before the properceive, that Satan considers well duction of land animals, and many the weak side of man,—the constitu- generations of land animals before the tional inclination,—the besetting sin, formation of man. Nay, this is not or what may probably be so; and thus all. If we are to believe modern makes his attacks on these grounds. Geologists, entire species, and even Is there any criterion, then, whereby entire genera, became extinct, and we may properly distinguish his temp- were succeeded by new ones. The tations in this case, as well as in the first fishes were of the most imperfect preceding? I know of no standard kind, and their genera were wbolly whatever, unless that which may be different from any which now inhabit raised from the following materials: the seas. At length fishes began to In the man who is only awakened to a appear, of which the genera were the sense of his sin and danger, the reason same as those which exist at present, and conscience not only approve of but the species were quite different. God's law, but rejoice in it, see Rom. Lastly, fishes were created of the same vii. The will is also on the same side, kind as those which dwell at present though the corrupt passions violently in our seas. The same thing took oppose. For the good that such a per- place with respect to the land animals. son would do, (or wills to do,) he finds Such is your doctrine. Now, how do no power to perform. The passions, you reconcile this with the Scripture? whether we consider them as simply Answer.-If you find it difficult to good, or in a state of moral disorder, reconcile this theory, or rather this are mere impulses, blind forces, tend- fact, with the scriptural account, it is ing, like instinct in the lower animals, owing to your having fallen into two towards their respective objects, inca- mistakes.—1. You confound together, pable of giving a reason why. As the Bible being silent on a thing, and they are therefore incapable of reason- the Bible contradicting it. Moses has ing in any manner whatever, and as certainly not given us the least hint the understanding, conscience, and that any genera or any species of will of the person in question, are fishes died before the creation of really on God's side, it is contrary to beasts; or any genera or species of every perception we have of ourselves, beasts, before the creation of man. to suppose the reasoning power would He has not said, or even hinted, that now rise up against God. When such a single individual perished. But he persons therefore perceive reasonings has not said the contrary. Moses has within, that would drown the voice of not told us that God created the angels. conscience, blind the understanding, Nevertheless, we are not only autholessen the obligation to duty, put a rized, but even bound to believe, that false gloss, and give an innocent ap- he did create them.—You will perpearance to those things which God haps reply, that the formation of anhas prohibited, they may (in my judg- gels was foreign to the subject. I ment) certainly conclude, that such grant it; but I will mention something suggestions are inspired by some which is intimately connected with his agent distinct from themselves, who subject, yea, that forms a part of bis can be no other than the Devil. I subject; and yet he has omitted it conclude, by remarking,—that if the altogether. I mean, the creation of person subject to the law of sin and insects. He particularizes the other death, may discriminate in this case; kinds of animals; fishes, birds, beasts, much more may he be able to judge, and reptiles; and yet he says not a who is made free through righteous- single syllable of insects. Towards ness by the Spirit of God.

the end of the chapter he thrice enu


Noroessensor merates the different kinds of animals, ter, that God at first created a perfect yet not one word do we read of insects. world? or even that he afterwards it were idle to say that insects are brought the various parts to perfection included in the expression, every at the same time? We are told just creeping thing wherein is life.” Moses the contrary. After God had made might have comprised all the other the earth, it was a rude, shapeless, kinds in two words, namely, all ani- chaotic mass: from this imperfect mals ; and yet he has preferred to state, it was subsequently brought speak of them severally, though he into a state of greater perfection, and had occasion to mention them three adorned with trees and plants. But times. We perceive, then, that we are even then it was in a progressive state. not only permitted, but also required, The sea and the dry land were succesto supply something at which Moses sively stocked with their proper inhahas not even hinted. The sum and bitants, but not with all their proper substance of the whole matter is this: inhabitants. At a still later period, the nature of fishes and the nature of the finishing hand was put to this fair beasts were created for the use of man. and resplendent fabric.

Man was It signifies not how many millions of formed, and the work was perfected. individuals perished; it matters not All this is evident, from the most suhow many species were swept from perficial reading of the chapter ; but existence, or how inany genera were there are one or two remarkable pasannihilated: the nature pre- sages in it which do not strike the served, and the Almighty's purpose mind at first, but which, during my was accomplished. 2. You commit meditations, have presented theman error of judgment, when you ex- selves. It is stated that God made pect a minute and circumstantial man by his own immediate act; but detail in a general account. If it had that he formed the fishes, birds, and been the will of God the Spirit, that beasts, not by his own immediate his inspired servant should write a acting, but by the agency of secondary large volume on the subject, like that causes. He commanded the sea and of Jameson, we should undoubtedly the dry land to bring forth the various have been informed of all that Jameson kinds of animals. Surely it is remarkhas told us; aye, and of infinitely able, that all the animals which we

But this was not the counsel maintain were improved and perfected of the Holy One. Further, when we by degrees, were brought forth by the consider, or rather when we endeavour operation of nature; but man, of to conceive what God is, and then whom only one species was created, remember what we are, instead of and who therefore was made perfect expecting that he should tell us every at once, was produced by the immething, we ought to feel astonished that diate actings of the Deity. There is he should have revealed so much. another peculiarity to which I would

You, doubtless, will not fail to ob- direct your attention: after the earth serve, that even granting that I have was covered with verdure, it is said, removed the chief part of the objection, “ and God saw that it was good.” there is one difficulty which lurks be- After the sea had brought forth the hind. You will say, it derogates both fishes and birds, the same thing is from the wisdom and the power of declared. After the dry land had God, to maintain that at first he cre- brought forth the beasts and reptiles, ated animals in an imperfect state; the same thing is again declared. that he next created animals of a more Now, when we are told that God saw perfect kind; and that after two or that it was good, it implies (in accomthree successive formations, he atmodation to our feeble faculties) that length brought his works to perfection. God looked upon what was made, to -I reply, that instead of reasoning ascertain whether it was good; and abstractedly on the method in which this again implies, that it might not the Deity ought to act, it would be have been perfectly good. But after wiser humbly to inquire how he has God had created man, it is not said, acted. I think I can shew from the " and God saw that it was good.” first chapter of Genesis, that this mode He made man by his own immediate of operation which you deem imper-acting: and what he made, must of fect is the very mode which the Lord necessity have been good. How cor adopted. Do we learn from this chap- rect, how accurate, is this account No. 10,- VOL. I.



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