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HOSPITAL SCENE IN PORTUGAL.
with, the best feelings of the heart.
The people see that there is no bar, (Extracted from the Journal of a British gain for these moral qualities with officer, in a series of Letters to a friend.) them, more than with the horses or the threshing machine. Of course all The French army had long suffered the virtues of the former generation terrible privations. We all knew that come to be gradually obliterated ; like Massena could not much longer rea the plow-share, that has been forgotten tain his position, and the “Great on the fallow field, they are left to Lord,” (so the Spaniards call Welrust and be corroded away.
lington) allowed famine to do the What is to be the consequence of work of a charge of bayonets. Our all this, said I, and where is the army was weary of the lines. It felt remedy to come from? Legislative as if cooped up by an enemy it yet interference would be in vain, and despised, and would have gladly marchyet it were well if any obstruction ed out to storm the formidable French could be thrown in the way of the in- encampment; and such was the first creasing evil.
idea that struck many of us, when, “ The evil, like all other evils, will on the 5th of March, the army was work its own cure, or it will be pro- put in motion, and the animating duetive of good in some way or other, music of the regimental bands rang that we had not yet foreseen ; when through the rocky ridges of Torwe have no former example to direct res Vedras. But it was soon univerour judgment, perhaps we may be as- sally understood, that the French sisteà in our conjectures by attending were in full retreat; there was now no to analogy. The feudal state of so- hope of a great pitched battle, and all ciety has been compared to a tree; that I could expect was, that as our the old connexions of master and ser- regiment formed part of the advance, vant, that we have seen broken asun- we might now and then have a brush der before our eyes, were the terminate with the rear-guard of the French, ing branches ; they had ceased to shoot which was, you know, composed of and grow, but they still continued to the flower of the army, and commandbear leaves, and sometimes a little ed by Michael Ney, the “ bravest of fruit. The filial affection, generosity, the brave." and self-devotion of the clans are no I will give you, in another letter, more; but neither is their individual an account of the most striking scenes helplessness, indolence, and servility. I witnessed during the pursuit after Men value themselves more as indi- our ferocious enemy. They had been viduals, and they feel their own powers cheated out of a victory over us (so more, and they exert them; they are they said, and so in Gallic presumpmore selfish, but they are more in- tion they probably felt), when, some dustrious and manly. The clans of months before, Massena beheld that people we have been considering have army, which he threatened to drive no doubt degenerated greatly in some into the sea, frowning on him from respects, but they by no means re- impregnable heights, all bristling with mained stationary during the late ra- cannon. Instead of battle, and con, pid diffusion of knowledge. This, the quest, and triumph, they had long greatest good that they can enjoy, and remained in hopeless inactivity, and the foundation of all others, may be at last, their convoys being intercepmisused likewise, but in time it will ted by the Guerillas, they had endurperhaps produce better feelings; the ed all the intensest miseries of famine. rural labourers will learn to disdain Accordingly, when they broke up, the to be compelled to work, and to be soul of the French army was in a overlooked like slaves, lest they cheat burning fever of savage wrath. The their employer. Those who have most consummate skill of their leaders, and industry and proper pride will begin the unmitigated severity of their disto prefer piece-work, and those who cipline, kept the troops in firm and , do their work conscientiously will be regular order; and certainly, on all best employed, and best paid, and La- occasions, when I had an opportunity bour, as she has no doubt been intend- of seeing the rear-guard, its moveed for it, will come at last to be the ments were most beautiful. I could Schoolmistress of Virtue.
not help admiring the mass moving A COUNTRY MINISTER. slowly away, like a multitude of des
mons, all obeying the signs of one of madness; but her deportment was master spirit. Call mé not illiberal in quiet and rational, and she was evithus speaking of our foe. Wait till dently of the middle rank of society, you have heard from me a detailed though her dress was faded and squaaccount of their merciless butcheries, lid. She told me (without being quesand then you will admit, that a true tioned) in broken English, that I knight violates not the laws of chiv- would find comfortable accommodation alry in uttering his abhorrence of in an old convent that stood at some blood-thirsty barbarians. The ditches distance among a grove of cork-trees : were often literally filled with clotted pointing to them at the same time, and coagulated blood, as with mire with her long shrivelled hand and the bodies of peasants, put to death arm, and giving a sort of hysterical like dogs, were lying there horribly laugh. You will find, said she, nomangled-- little naked infants, of a body there to disturb you. year old, or less, were found besmear- I followed her advice with a kind of ed in the mud of the road, transfixed superstitious acquiescence. There was with bayonet wounds-and in one in- no reason to anticipate any adventure stance, a child, of about a month old, or danger in the convent; yet the I myself saw with the bayonet left still wild eyes, and the wilder voice of the sticking in its neck-young women and old crone powerfully affected me ; and matrons were found lying dead with though, after all, she was only such cruel and shameful wounds; and, as an old woman as one may see any if some general law to that effect had where, I really began to invest her been promulgated to the army, the with many most imposing qualities, priests were hanged upon trees by the till I found, that in a sort of reverie, road-side. But no more of this at I had walked up a pretty long flight present.
of steps, and was standing at the enI wish now to give you some idea of a trance to the cloisters of the convent. scene I witnessed at Miranda de Cervo, I then saw something that made me on the ninth day of our pursait. Yet speedily forget the old woman, though I fear that a sight so terrible cannot what it was I did see, I could not, in be shadowed out, except in the me- the first moments of my amazement mory of him who beheld it. I en- and horror, very distinctly compretered the town about dusk. It had hend. been a black, grim, and gloomy sort Above a hundred dead bodies lay of a day--at one time fierce blasts of and sat before my eyes, all of them wind, and at another perfect stillness, apparently in the very attitude or poswith far-off thunder. Altogether there ture in which they had died. I looked was a wild adaptation of the weather at them for at least a minute, before I and the day to the retreat of a great knew that they were all corpses. army. Huge masses of clouds lay Something in the mortal silence of the motionless on the sky before us; and place told me that I alone was alive then they would break up suddenly, in this dreadful company. A despeas with a whirlwind, and roll off in the rate courage enabled me then to look red and bloody distance. I felt my- stedfastly at the scene before me. The self, towards the fall of the evening, bodies were mostly clothed in mats, in a state of strange excitement. My and rugs, and tattered great-coats ; imagination got the better entirely of some of them merely wrapped round all my other faculties, and I was like about with girdles of straw; and two a man in a grand but terrific dream, or three perfectly naked. Every face who never thinks of questioning any had a different expression, but all thing he sees or hears, but believes painful, horrid, agonized, bloodless. all the phantasms around with a Many glazed eyes were wide open ; strength of belief seemingly propor- and perhaps this was the most shocktioned to their utter dissimilarity to the ing thing in the whole spectacle. So objects of the real world of nature.
many eyes that saw not, all seemingly Just as I was passing the great fixed upon different objects ; some cast Cross in the principal street, I met up to Heaven, some looking straight an old haggard-looking wretch,--a forward, and some with the white orbs woman, who seemed to have in her turned round, and deep sunk in the hollow eyes an unaccountable ex- sockets. pression of cruelty--a glance like that It was a sort of Hospital. These
wretched Beings were mostly all des- place as this ! What had been in that perately or mortally wounded; and heart, now still, perhaps only a few after having been stripped by their hours before? I knew not. It is comrades, they had been left there possible, love strong as death, --love, dead and to die. Such were they, guilty, abandoned, depraved, and linked who, as the old Hag said, would not by vice unto misery,--but still love, trouble me.
that perished but with the last throb, I had begun to view this ghastly and yearned in the last convulsion tosight with some composure, when I wards some one of these grim dead saw, at the remotest part of the hos- bodies. I think some such idea as pital, a gigantic figure sitting, covered this came across me at the time; or with blood and almost naked, upon a has it now only arisen? rude bedstead, with his back leaning Near this corpse lay that of a peragainst the wall, and his eyes fixed fect boy, certainly not more than seva directly on mine. I thought he was enteen years of age. There was a litalive, and shuddered ; but he was tle copper figure of the Virgin Mary stone dead. In the last agonies he round his neck, suspended by a chain had bitten his under lip almost en- of hair. It was of little value, else it tirely off, and his long black beard had not been suffered to remain there. was drenched in clotted gore, that In his hand was a letter. I saw enough likewise lay in large blots on his to know that it was from his mother, shaggy bosom. One
of his hands had -Mon chere fils, &c. It was a terriconvulsively grasped the wood-work ble place to think of mother-of home of the bedstead, which had been of any social human ties. Have crushed in the grasp. I recognised these ghastly things parents, brothers, the corpse. He was a sergeant in a sisters, lovers ? Were they once all grenadier regiment, and, during the happy in peaceful homes ? Did these retreat, distinguished for acts of sav- convulsed, and bloody, and mangled age valour. One day he killed, with bodies once lie in undisturbed beds ? his own hand, Harry Warburton, the Did those clutched hands once press right-hand man of my own company, in infancy a mother's breast ? Now perhaps the finest made and most all was loathsome, terrible, ghostlike. powerful man in the British army. Human nature itself seemed here to My soldiers had nicknamed him with be debased and brutified. Will such a very coarse appellation, and I really creatures, I thought, ever live again? felt as if he and I were acquaint- Why should they? Robbers, ravish
There he sat, as if frozen to ers, incendiaries, murderers, suicides death. I went up to the body, and (for a dragoon lay with a pistol in his raising up the giant's muscular arm, hand, and his skull shattered to pieit fell down again with a hollow sound ces), heroes! The only two powers against the bloody side of the corpse. that reigned here, were agony and
My eyes unconsciously wandered death. Whatever might have been along the walls. They were covered their characters when alive, all faces with grotesque figures and caricatures were now alike. I could not, in those of the English absolutely drawn in fixed contortions, tell what was pain blood. Horrid blasphemies, and the from what was anger-misery from most shocking obscenities in the shape wickedness. of songs, were in like manner written It was now almost dark, and the there; and you may guess what an night was setting in stormier than the effect they had upon me, when the day. A strong Hash of lightning sudwretches who had conceived them lay denly illuminated this hold of death, all dead corpses around my feet. I and for a moment shewed me more saw two books lying on the floor. I distinctly the terrible array. A loud lifted them up.
One seemed to be squall of wind came round about the full of the most hideous obscenity; building, and the old window-casethe other was the Bible! It is im- ment gave way, and fell with a shivera possible to tell you the horror pro- ing crash in upon the floor. Someduced in me by this circumstance. thing rose up with an angry growl The books fell from my hand. They from among the dead bodies. It was fell upon the breast of one of the a huge dark-coloured wolf-dog, with bodies. It was a woman's breast. A a spiked collar round his neck; and woman had lived and died in such a seeing me, he leaped forwards with VOL. III.
DIALOGUES ON NATURAL RELIGION.
gaunt and boney limbs. I am confi- Travelling in splendour, whose array dent that his jaws were bloody. I had
Is red, but not with wine ?
7. instinctively moved backwards towards
“ Blest be the herald of our King, the door. The surly savage returned
That comes to set us free! growling to his lair; and, in a state of the dwellers of the rock shall sing, stupefaction, I found myself in the
And utter praise to thee ! open air. A bugle was playing, and Tabor and Hermon yet shall see the light-infantry company of my own
Their glories glow again, regiment was entering the village, And blossoms spring on field and tree, with loud shouts and hurras.
That ever shall remain.
Shall frolic with delight;
The lamb shall round the leopard play,
And all in love unite; 4 Hebrew Melody, by the Ettrick Shepherd. The dove on Zion's
hill shall light, 1.
That all the world must see. On Carmel's brow the wreathy vine
Hail to the Journeyer, in his might, Had all its honours shed,
That comes to set us free !”
A sickly paleness spread ;
[The Editor has had committed to his Into that shadowy region sped,
charge two Dialogues on Natural and Re. To muse on distant time.
vealed Religion, written by an admirer, 2.
but certainly no disciple, of David Hume. He saw the valleys far and wide,
They are obviously formed on the model of But sight of joy was none;
that philosopher's celebrated Dialogues on He looked o'er many a mountain's side, Natural Religion, and the argument is carBut silence reigned alone ;
ried on by the same interlocutors. It seems Save that a boding voice sung on
to have been the intention of the author By wave and waterfall,
(who died in youth, not without high dis:- As still, in harsh and heavy tone,
tinction among his most distinguished con. Deep unto deep did call.
temporaries) to bring forward such views of 3.
the evidences of religion, both natural and On Kison's strand and Ephratah
revealed, as might have the best chance to The hamlets thick did lie;
meet the minds of those who have been No wayfarer between he saw,
somewhat spoiled by scepticism. Very posNo Asherite passed by;
sibly, with this view, he may not always No maiden at her task did ply,
have selected the best grounds of defence, Nor sportive child was seen ;
but may both have hazarded positions that The lonely dog barked wearily
are not quite tenable, and have kept back Where dwellers once had been.
truths which, in a more regular treatise, it 4.
would have been his duty to enforce. The Oh! beauteous were the palaces
Editor however trusts, that, with all their On Jordan wont to be,
defects, these Dialogues will be found serAnd still they glimmered to the breeze,
viceable to the interests of religion, having Like stars beneath the sea !
received a written assurance to that effect But vultures held their jubilee
from a Divine of the Church of England, Where harp and cymbal rung ;
no less distinguished for his erudition and And there, as if in mockery,
philosophical genius, than for the high rank The baleful satyr sung.
which they adorn. In the original MS. 5.
the two Dialogues are divided each into six But who had seen that Prophet's eye, parts. No farther liberty shall be taken On Carmel that reclined !
with them, than to make a few verbal alter. It looked not on the times gone by, ations, connecting the different parts with But those that were behind :
each other. They shall be continued regu. His gray
hair streamed upon the wind, larly through twelve Numbers of the MaHis hands were raised on high,
gazine. Pamphilus sends to Hermippus As, mirror'd, on his mystic mind
an account of the Dialogues ; and they are Arose futurity
supposed to have taken place after several 6.
years had elapsed since the date of those He saw the feast in Bozrah spread,
former Dialogues between the same interloPrepared in ancient day;
cutors, given by Mr Hume.] Eastward, away the angel sped,
And all the birds of prey. * Who's this,” he cried, “ comes by the way Philo had succeeded to a pleasant Of Edom, all divine,
property, which he was now employed
in improving and adorning. We found experience, if I was ever to acquire that he was greatly esteemed by his any thing like settled and serious opineighbours, and beloved by his de- nions. I have reflected with somependants; and he seemed to be wholly what more care than I used to do, and occupied with the desire of rendering have become more studious of finding himself useful in the sphere in which truth, than of exercising ingenuity. he moved. He received Cleanthes “ Seriousness,” said Cleanthes, and me with the utmost cordiality, have always approved of; but there and expressed himself highly gratified are some opinions which are really with the renewal of old remembrances narrow and contracted, while they which our arrival had occasioned. seem to be the fruits of grave 'reflec
“ I know not, Cleanthes,” said he tion. I hope my once lively friend one morning, as we were walking with has not lost the gayety of his heart, him in one of his favourite retreats, with that versatility of fancy which “ whether any hours in the decline of led him often into sallies that wisdom life are so agreeable as those which could not approve, but which were yet unexpectedly revive the feelings of our accompanied with so much good huearly years, and bring friends together mour, that philosophy could scarcely after a long absence, recalling all the condemn them. If you have become grateful emotions which they formerly serious, I hope it is the seriousness experienced in the society of each not of a bigot, but of a philosopher.” other. They may have changed, per- “ I am willing," said Philo, “ since haps, in many particulars, in the in- we seem to be coming on the subject tervening season, yet they almost for- of a former conversation, to state my get, when they meet as we do now, opinions as unreservedly now as I did that they are not in every respect the then; and you shall yourselves judge same characters as at the time of their whether they are become, in any refirst intimacy. I am not one of those,” spect, contracted and illiberal.” “Nosaid Cleanthes, “ who are inclined to thing,” said I, can give me more quarrel with the effects of age. The satisfaction (and I may say
the same progress of time, in many respects, for Cleanthes) than such a proposal. makes us wiser; and although most I beg also, Philo, that you will renew people, in the course of their lives, the discussion from the outset, and have been guilty of follies which they first point out to us the greater grounds look back upon with regret, yet no of assurance which natural reason has man who possesses the principles of afforded you on the sublime subject of probity and prudence, does not feel religion, before you speak of a higher himself, towards the close of his life, source of instruction, to which, I unhappier, on the whole, than in his first derstand, you have at length submitted outset. It is pleasing to recollect the a mind that seemed incapable of yieldlively hopes and warm feelings of ing to any authority.” youth; but a wise man recollects « Cleanthes will recollect," said them without any serious regret that Philo, “ that on the proofs of religion they are past."
from reason, he and I did not in fact “ I find, my friend,” said Philo, differ very materially. We both ad“ that you still retain the even and mitted the same principles, and we philosophical tone of your character, differed only concerning the degree of and I imagine that you have changed weight which was to be allowed them. less than either Pamphilus or myself, On the fundamental point, for inin the intervening period of our sepa- stance, of the existence of the Deity, ration." “ For myself,” said I, we both acquiesced in the supposition, perience has taught me some rude that the proof is the result of an arguunmethodical lessons, in the hurry of ment from analogy, which, from the a life which called upon me to act, resemblance of the universe to the while it left me little leisure for known works of design among men, thought; but now that I have re- infers that design was employed in its turned to the society of my first in- formation. To this argument Cleanstructors, I am really much inclined thes ascribed more weight than it to resume all the simple and docile seemed to me to possess, yet I could dispositions of youth. “ But pray, not be so blind as to overlook its force, Philo,” said Cleanthes, “what changes and I confessed that the instances of have befallen
you None,” replied design in nature were so numerous, Philo,“ but what it was full time to there was no avoiding the supposition