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But for birds that are truly valuable necessary adjustments, it must be and rare, such as the Chinese peacock, placed in a stove heated to 180° of pheasant, the golden oriole, the large Fahrenheit, and must remain there emerald bird of Paradise, &c., no ex- till all its moisture is evaporated; it pense should be spared that would in may then be removed, and the artifiany measure contribute to their pre-cial eyes placed in the sockets. servation. To those who have not The skins of birds, with their pluseen these rare and beautiful birds, no mage, may be preserved by tawing adequate idea can be given. The them with alum, which will give them dazzling splendour, richness, and har- all the elasticity of glove leather; and mony, of their inimitable plumage, to- if stuffed with judgment, they will have gether with their native elegance, at a very natural appearance. Most of once completely annihilates every at- our collections are only skins stuffed, tempt at description. Those, into without any preparation, which is the whose hands these beautiful birds may cause of their dry and shrivelled apcome, should, at all events, make use pearance. of æther, and in the same manner as Let the skins be taken off the birds already directed for small birds, with in the following manner: make a cut this difference only-after the first eva- from below the thighs to the rectum, poration, which for birds of a small and with a sharp knife separate the size is sufficient, a second, and even a rump from the body, leaving only as third injection of æther, should be ap- much as will secure the tail; then turn plied, according to the size of the the bird out of its skin, in the same bird.
way in which rabbits are skinned, Large land birds, viz. from the pea- leaving the legs a little above the cock to the jay, may be preserved in knees attached to the skin of the the following manner, provided they thighs: the wings must be separated have been recently killed, and are free close to the body underneath the skin, from putrefaction.-Wrap the body of and thus proceed till you come to the the bird in a broad bandage of cotton head. The head must be separated cloth, which is intended to prevent the from the neck, at the last vertebre plumage from being injured during joining the head, and the brain carethe operation. The intestines are to fully taken out. The skin, which is be drawn out at the rectum, and also now inside out, must be washed with the heart, liver, and lungs, &c.; after warm water, to separate the coaguwhich, warm water must be introduced, lated blood from its surface. The cato wash away the coagulated blood, vity of the skull may now be stuffed and other impurities. The eyes also with cotton which has been moistened are to be extracted, and the brain with the arsenic solution; in the mean scooped out at the sockets; after time, provide a strong solution of alum which, the cavity of the skull must be in water. The water should boil, and well stuffed with cotton, moistened the alum be added in a state of powwith a saturated solution of arsenic der, till the water will dissolve no in water. The neck of the bird should more. When cooled to nearly that of now be stretched out, and a piece of blood heat, the skin should be well strong wire passed down the throat, washed over every part with it. Then and brought out at the rectum. Then, take a piece of flannel, and soak it in with a piece of whalebone, force a little the alum solution, and wrap the skins cotton, previously damped with the up in it, and let them remain for half arsenic solution, in such a manner and a day, at which time they may be quantity as to give it its natural form. taken out, and partially dried. In Áfter which, proceed to stuff the body, this state, the skins will be covered taking care to make the bird appear with small crystals, which must be more plump than when alive.
The rubbed off. Then, with a sponge rectum is now to be sewed up, and wetted with the arsenic solution, wipe the bird put into its natural form. It over the whole surface of the skins, must here be observed, that the wire and allow them to dry as before. Then must be of sufficient strength to re- provide two small pieces of wood, of tain the form into which the bird must proper dimensions, suitable to the be put; by which means the neck may size of the bird, the ends of which be raised, or bent into any position wood must be fitted into the holes in which fancy may suggest. After these the thigh bones, and of sufficient
ON THE UTILITY OF THE MATHE
length to reach into the body of the cient number of data for mathematical bird, to give firmness to the attitude inquiry to proceed upon. Whether in which it may be placed. Proceed they will ever become, like most of in every respect as has been pointed the other sciences, a part in the train out before, taking care not to omit the of Mathematics, is matter of doubt; wire, as by the artfully bending of this, but Sir H. Davy, whose name, as an the character of the bird is given, authority on this point, it is quite which is peculiar to the species. enough to mention, expects they will ;
Sea-fowl of every description, from and seems to look forward to the union the albatross to the widgeon, should be as “ a consummation most devoutly to preserved by this last method, on ac- be wished.”. I am sorry, that not havcount of the large quantity of oil ing his works at hand, I am deprived which they contain, not only in their of the opportunity of giving you his muscular mass, but in their bones opinion in his own words: but your also, which becomes exceedingly ran- readers may find it somewhere near cid and offensive.
the end of Vol. I. of his “ Elements of Although I have given these various Chemical Philosophy." I now proceed methods, all of which will be found to to your correspondent's second query. answer the purpose of the naturalist; 2dly.—He asks, have these sciences yet much depends upon the fancy and any tendency to promote the cause taste of the operator. The wings may of Christianity?” The charge insinube artfully extended by concealed ated against them in this query is a wires, by which many beautiful and very serious one; and yet I intend to pleasing attitudes may be given by the say but little in reply to it. For, if judicious observer of nature.
the querist means at all to identify the cause of Christianity with the cause of general civilization and improvement, an answer to the charge, considered in
reference to this connection, has al[Concluded from col. 760.]
ready been given in the preceding obIt will perhaps surprise your corre- servations. But if, which I judge to spondent to be told, that these studies be most probable, he refers chiefly or may sometimes prove singular ser- solely to the diffusion of the doctrines vice to the ladies. But, after talking of the New Testament, and to the salso gravely on the subject, that I may vation of the human soul, I for one, not appear to be joking, I shall merely protest against this mode of trial, as refer him for satisfaction on this point, irrelevant. Or, at least, if Mathemato No. 1, of the third volume of a pe- tics are to be tried upon this question, riodical publication, entitled “ the let every art, and every employment of Leeds Correspondent, in which he life, be immediately summoned to the will be informed, “ that a considerable same tribunal. change (for the better) has taken place, The interests of Christianity, it will in one of the most genteel female cir- be said, (and very truly to a certain cles, in a certain town of Yorkshire, extent) may be promoted without the by the adoption of philosophical and study of the Mathematics; yes, and mathematical amusements in their se- so they may too without the mechanilect parties.” p. 28,
cal arts of shoemaking and weaving. It will be observed, that in the enu- And if the former are to be discarded, meration of the various branches of because the Divine Wisdom has not mixed Mathematics, no mention is been pleased to appoint them as immade of the very important and useful mediate instruments by which the sciences of electricity, galvanism, and world is to be morally renewed, let chemistry :-and an inference may per- every thing that cannot claim this hohaps be drawn from thence, in favour nour, be swept out of society along of that side of the controversy on with them. Let every art and every which it is maintained, that useful employment, that has not a direct tenknowledge is absolutely independent dency to promote the spread and inof the Mathematics. But these sci-fluence of revealed truth, and to save ences are yet comparatively in their souls from death, be banished from infancy; and their theory with respect the world, as a busy and profane into first principles, being built chiefly truder on the invention and industry on conjecture, does not supply a suffi- 1 of man. No matter, how much the
present constitution of society may | office, he has then too little time to be disorganized in consequence of study them to any purpose, and he their expulsion ; excepting only the must be content to have such an acemployments subservient to the art of quaintance with them, as amounts to a printing, and the use of such books as knowledge merely of their terms and are peculiarly adapted to the Christian definitions, together with as many of minister, together with as much of the leading propositions in each sciship-building and navigation as may ence, as may be gathered from the be sufficient for the transportation of popular compendious publications of bibles and missionaries, into distant the day. For, highly as I estimate the countries, let every thing be scouted. importance of an acquaintance with Away at once with music, and sculp- these sciences, I am very far from ture, and poetry, and painting ; away considering them as worthy, in such a with every thing else which merely case, to take the precedence of other adorns or sweetens human life; and studies. I allow, that it is not so let us descend, in the simplicity of our much the business of a Christian mihabits and engagements, as nearly as nister to know every thing, as to know we can, to a level with the beasts that those things which aim more directly perish.
at the peculiar objects of his calling; It is surely quite a sufficient apology, and I can even admit, that in some in behalf of studies which are in other cases they are to be neglected altogerepects of any service, that they do ther; particularly, when there is either not obstruct the progress of Chris- a decided aversion, a powerful tianity ; and the establishment of such bias to these studies; because in the an apology, ought to shelter them from former case they will be attended with Christian persecution. As much as very little profit, and, in the latter, the this at least, may be said in defence of mind will be in danger of a criminal Mathematics. Indeed, with respect absorption in them, and an attention to any hostile interference with each to them, inconsistent with what is due other, Christianity cares nothing about to more important avocations.
On Mathematics, and Mathematics care this account, I can easily forgive the nothing about Christianity ; as there late Rev. Dr. Buchanan, for complainis nothing in either of them, which the ing so heavily of being obliged to other has any reason to fear, or any yield so great a share of his attention tendency to oppose. The objects they to these studies, as he was compelled respectively pursue, are somewhat dif- to do, during his residence at Camferent; but the accomplishment of the bridge. glorious designs of the one, and the 3dly.--In proposing the third query, attainment of the useful ends of the your correspondent seems to intimate, other, are perfectly compatible. I that the study of these sciences has a shall have occasion, however, to say a tendency to promote scepticism and little more upon this point in my an- infidelity. In doing this he has asswer to the third query, and shall sumed, that a great proportion out therefore leave the general question of the whole number of Mathematifor a little, to notice its bearing in one cians are found ranged beneath their particular case, the importance of standard. Now, Sir, I question the which, I hope, will be considered as a validity of this assumption; and, in sufficient apology for the digression. support of my protest against it, I in
Perhaps your correspondent, when quire-Of those who during the last he wrote the second query, wished to century have figured on the theatre of ascertain, whether or not it was ad- infidelity, how many were Mathemavisable for a Christian minister to ticians?' Tis true, there are D'Alemdevote his attention to these studies? bert, Condorcet, and a few others; but -a question which has sometimes for those who were at the same time been proposed to me. Understanding eminent Mathematicians and rank inthis to be his wish, I should reply ; If fidels, we shall find more than an in the course of early education the equal number, who were infidels too, mind has been habituated to them, so though they knew no more of Mamuch the better. But if they have thematics than they did of other been neglected till the person has ar sciences, and multitudes who knew rived almost at the period when he is nothing of the sciences at all. And if to enter on the sacred duties of his any science is to be denounced be
cause of its accidental association, in and infidel principles, are their most the case of a few individuals who study decided enemies; and the natural tenit, with principles hostile to Chris- dency of the convictions they produce tianity, alas for many other sciences upon the human mind, is highly fabesides the Mathematics! History, vourable to the authority of the great for instance, harmless as it may ap- truths of revelation. Let Quinctilian pear to be, must be forthwith excom- be heard : “ quid quod se eadem geomemunicated; for some of the most re- tria tollit ad rationem usque mundi? in markable historians of recent times qua cum siderum certos constitutosque have stood in the very foremost ranks cursus numeris docet, discimus nihil esse of infidelity, as Hume, Gibbon, Volney, inordinatum atque fortuitum."* Sciand Voltaire, of whom the names are ences that inculcate such a lesson, denot at all associated with Mathemati- serve much better of the advocates for cal science; and Metaphysics must divine revelation, than to be accused take flight along with it, for being of any alliance with the cause of infifound connected with the name of delity. And, in fact, unless the followHume. The truth is, all kinds of learn- ing absurdity can be demonstrated, viz. ing are, in this respect, equally in dis- that they are at the same time friendly grace; or rather they are all clear of and hostile to the same cause, the charge blame. They have suffered from being insinuated against them ought on this in bad company ; but the guilt of that consideration to be abandoned. mischief which has been attributed to Should any one attempt to make out them, belonged solely to the pride and the charge against them, by citing wickedness of human nature, inde- examples of those who have been Mapendently of all accidental connec- thematicians and infidels at the same tions.
time; we might oppose example to But, to meet the question fairly ;- example. Take, for instance, the illusDoes the study of the Mathematics trious Sir I. Newton, who was at the necessarily induce any tendency to in- same time the greatest of Mathemafidelity ? 'In answer to this question, ticians, and a most devout and humble I would plead in behalf of these stu- Christian ; who, though he was dies, a claim to the privilege allowed deeply involved in his abstract investito criminals in a British court of ju- gations, as not to know whether or not dicature, viz. that until the validity of he had taken his dinner,t yet made the charge insinuated against them it his practice daily to read the Bible shall be established by sufficient evi- on his knees. I dence, they be considered to be inno- The sixth number of your own Macent. Let this be granted, and their gazine supplies another example on triumph against all the open or insi- the same side, from amongst those nuated slanders of their enemies is who are now living;ş and there are perfectly secure. There are but two others very near at hand. The same ways of establishing the proof of their highly respectable individual, to whom guilt ; the first is, by demonstrating this country is indebted for the best that, according to the nature of things, treatise in our language, on the subject infidelity and Mathematics are insepa- of Mechanics, and for other matherable, which would be positive evi- matical productions, is also the author dence against them; and the second of one of the most popular modern is, by shewing that they have, in fact, publications in defence of Christianity.l! seldom been far distant from each And another, who is justly celebrated other,--an evidence which, at the best, as the author of an excellent treatise could only be considered as presumptive. No one, certainly, would attempt * This same geometry extends its researches the former; the utmost any one could to the system of the universe, from which as do in that way would be, to express it shows that the motions of the heavenly bohis suspicion under the form of an
dies are uniformly according to certain laws, it opinion: and, in defence, the friends teaches us, that there is nothing in that universe of Mathematics would oppose opinion effect of chance.
that is not regular, or that could be merely the to opinion. They would appeal to
+ See Life prefixed to his Principia, by Cotes. what I have already quoted as the sen- See Simpson's Plea for Religion. timents of Dr. Barrow; and would See Memoir of Mr. Exley. even shew that Mathematics, instead || D. O. Gregory. See his " Letters on the of being confederated with sceptical Christian Religion.”
on the subject of Fluxions, is well destitute of all corporeal senses, and known to be the warm friend and ad- to pray that all connection between vocate of the Bible, and proves him- our spirits and sensible matter might self to be at the same time a disciple of be eternally dissolved. The cases, in genuine science and of true religion. my judgment, are exactly parallel. In
There is indeed one way in which the the former case, it is mathematical study of the Mathematics may, like evidence that is required, where only any thing else that is good, be pervert- moral or historical evidence ought to ed to mischievous purposes, and be- be expected ; and in the latter, (as in come subservient to the cause of in the example of Thomas,) the evidence fidelity. This happens, when the mind, of the senses is demanded, as a substifrom its habituation to mathematical tute for faith. Let Mathematics and inquiries, learns to doubt of every thing our senses, then, either be retained towhich will not admit of mathematical gether, or together be expelled. They demonstration, and feels a disposition are both guilty of the same offencein consequence to reject all belief in both deserving of an equal punishthe truth and authority of Scripture. ment. I am not intending to give an opinion I feel great confidence, Sir, in the on the question, whether or not any of goodness of my cause, however inthe important truths revealed in it, are adequate my defence of it may be. I capable of such a demonstration ? but am even superstitious enough to becertainly, whether capable or not, it lieve, that God himself has stamped the ought not to be insisted on. There is mathematical sciences with the seal of enough of evidence, to establish the His own approbation, as well in other claims of the Bible to the title of a respects, as by allowing some of the divine revelation; and when the va- most important improvements in them lidity of that title is made good, the to occur contemporaneously with retruth of its contents will follow as an markable events tending to the spread inference of course.
of Christianity; by causing as it were, I do not know, however, nor do I a light from heaven to shine at the believe, that this perversion of the Ma- same time on the mathematical and thematics is very general ; but even the religious world. supposing that it is, we need not have It is no argument against this suprecourse to so desperate a remedy as position to affirm, that improvements their extinction, since it will be quite in the Mathematics have been commusufficient to remind the student of them, nicated to mankind through the methat he ought not to confound moral or dium of infidels and sceptics. It was historical evidence with mathemati- the stubbornness and ill-temper of cal; and that he must not expect the some of the Protestants, not less than latter, in cases where there is a suffi- their piety and zeal, that furthered the ciency of the former. Besides, the glorious Reformation on the continent; same objection which lies against the and the establishment of its principles study of the Mathematics, lies with in this country, was effected very equal force against the use of our cor- greatly through the caprice and wickedporeal senses. We are not more liable ness of one of the most dissolute and to confound mathematical with moral abandoned princes that ever swayed evidence, than we are to confound the the British sceptre. evidence of our senses with that of The fact is, true science is the handfaith, as may appear from the case of maid of religion. Satanic influence, Thomas, John xx. 24–28; and from and human pride, have indeed, often the frequent occurrence in Scripture, set them at variance with each other; of passages which remind us, that we and ignorance and superstition, have are to “ walk by faith, and not by in turns fomented the dissension. But sight.” And if Mathematics are to be they are beginning now to understand abandoned, because, by a perversion each other better; and the mischievous of their tendency, they may sometimes meddlers in the quarrel, to whose inmislead us, we ought, for a reason terference its continuance to the preequally as good, to wish ourselves sent period is principally to be attri
| Mr. Professor Dealtry.-See his Treatise buted, are retiring, ashamed and conon Fluxions, and its character, p. vol. 3. Dr. founded, back to their native darkHutton's Course ; and also his Defence of the ness. And as superstition gives way British and Foreign Bible Society.
on the one hand, and ignorance upon