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In the very
A DISSERTATION ON GEOLOGY.
that the public works, so kindly fos- | superficial that view may be, we tered, and promoted by his predeces cannot fail of arriving at the most sor in office, will be conducted towards satisfactory conclusions. maturity, and that new ones will be threshold of our inquiries, we meet planned for the general advantage. with confirmations of the truth. In
the very commencement of our voyage, we are blessed by the most auspicious
omens ; and charmed by the preludBy H. S. Boyd, Esq.
ing hand of Science, atuning the harp To magnify the glorious name of the of Nature to the praise of Deity.* Lord God Almighty, the Creator, the
It is considered as an indisputable Ruler, and the Upholder of the Uni- fact, by all true Geognists, that this verse; to illustrate the grandeur of his globe was originally formed in a fluid; designs, and the magnificence of his that the waters stood very high above productions; to demonstrate the infal- its surface; and that the materials, of libility of his word, as well as the won which its crust is composed, were ders of his arm; to reflect from crea- held in chemical solution. Through tion's page, the commemorated truths of some mysterious, and unknown power, Revelation; and to strike the heart of the waters began to resign the treathe infidel, if not with conviction, at sures which they held: their beauteous least with surprise; these are the crystals were precipitated, and the genuine results of real Geology. But primitive rocks were formed. It is in order that He, the Alone, the In- known to all philosophers, that any comprehensible, may be glorified; in motion, communicated to water, canorder that his grandeur may be evinc- not act far beneath the surface. It ed, his magnificence displayed, his was therefore impossible, that any power manifested, his wisdom illus- other than chemical formations could trated, and his truth confirmed; in be produced, while the waters towerorder that the infidel may be amazed ed, in terrific grandeur, above the at coincidences unlooked for, and that earth. But, when the fair face of naall may be harmony, and light, and ture was newly revealed; or, perhaps, splendour in the Lord; it is needful, when at an earlier period, her watery that he who writes should possess at vail was about to be removed, meleast a general knowledge of the sub-chanical agency commenced.
At this ject. Then, may results be produced, period, the transition rocks were formcongenial to the wishes of each devout ed; deriving their origin partly from heart. Then may the holy nuptials of chemical precipitation, and partly by Divinity and Science be duly solem- mechanical deposition. By the same nized. Then may Sacred and Philo- method were the flætz rocks produced. sophical Truth be united in the golden It should however be remarked, that bonds of eternal concord, walk with as the formations went on, the ratio of undivided hearts through the bound the mechanical deposition, to the cheless realms of nature, and chaunt one mical precipitation, was greatly incommon song, to magnify one common creased. It is thus apparent, that the Father!
whole of the materials, which formed I have been led into the above re- the crust of our globe, were originally flections, by meditating on the non- held in water. sense which I have met with even in Reader, I have not been unfolding learned writers, when treating of the the dogmata of men, whose professed creation, and the deluge; especially object is to support the Scriptures. ! the latter. It is really lamentable to have been detailing the doctrine of perceive, what blunders are committed even by the most eminent scholars, * Although this Essay has not been pubwhen they enter these regions of lished until now, it was written at the latter philosophy, without a previous pre
end of the year 1817, and it has not been subparation. It is almost ludicrous
any alteration, nor received any addito hear them maintaining absolute tion, excepting two or three notes, since that impossibilities, that the phænomena of of the same nature should have been published
period. I mention this, because, if any Work nature may be made to harmonize within the last two years, and if it should conwith the Sacred Records. But when tain any ideas or arguments similar to mine, I we have acquired a correct view of might be unjustly accused of borrowing frums the structure of the earth; however others.
philosophers, who either know little, tions to the infidel. Tell me, O thou that or care little, for the word of God. deniest the inspiration of the Bible; Is it not grateful, is it not consolatory from whence did Peter derive this wonto your heart to perceive, how com- drous knowledge? How did he discopletely they agree with the sacred re- ver that the earth was formed in water, cords?
and by the agency of water ?-You wilí It is the characteristic feature of the not assert, that he learnt it from the Wernerian Geognosy, that the earth heathen philosophers; you, who reprewas formed out of water, and by the sent the Jews as utterly ignorant of agency of water.
I will not assert, science; and the Apostles, as the most that Moses teaches both these facts, illiterate of the Jews ? Alas! what in the first chapter of Genesis ; but he did this poor and lowly follower of certainly announces to us the former. Jesus know of the Greek philosoSt. Peter, however, is clear and de- phers ?—If he even had looked into cided, upon both these points. In them, they would only have bewildered the third chapter of his second epistle, and confounded his untutored mind. he has a most remarkable passage. It Some of the heathen sages taught, that is ill translated in our common ver- the universe was formed from water; sion; but in the original, it is preg- others, that it owed its origin to fire; nant with a sense inestimable. As others, that it was made from air; and the Greek Testament is a book, which other opinions were propagated by may be met with in almost every other sages. Out of so many theories, house; and as I do not wish, that this how could Peter have known which to little treatise should display aught of chuse? Did he select the true one by the parade of learning; I shall con- mere chance ?-You will probably say, tent myself with a simple reference. that he took it from Moses. And The Greek scholar who shall examine where did Moses get it? Will you the original, will perceive, that the fol- tell me, that as he was skilled in all lowing is the real meaning:
the learning of the Egyptians, he pro“ The Heavens were of old; and bably derived from them this knowthe earth, being formed, (or constitut- ledge? But how did the Egyptians ed) out of water, and by means of come by it? You will not assert, that water.”+
they possessed any real knowledge of We have here the precise doctrine of Geology; much less will you maintain, the Wernerian school. Werner not that they were acquainted with all only taught, that the earth was brought which is known at present.— The conto its present form by the agency of clusion is plainly this, Moses could water; but also, that it was primarily have known it only by divine illuminamade in the water, and afterwards tion; and Peter could have known emerged from it. Thus, in whichever it only from the writings of Moses, or sense you take the preposition out of, from the same heavenly teaching.--We you will perceive, that the doctrine of see then, that in the beginning of our the saint is confirmed by the system philosophical career, Theology and of the philosopher.
Science walk hand in hand before us. And here, I would put a few ques- May they never be separated from us,
# I am aware it may be objected, that I | by Mr. Bakewell, in his elegant and ingenious take for granted the truth of the Wernerian work on Geology ; and I believe, that it is System; whereas several of the most distin-maintained by the illustrious Woollaston. Our guished Mineralogists, and Geologists, are | argument, however, is not affected by these Huttonians, believing that the crust of our discrepancies of opinion. Whether one, or globe was brought to its present state, princi- both, or neither of the rival systems, be true, pally by fire. Such for instance, are Playfair, it is a certain fact, that there was once a period, and Sir James Hall. I answer, I am not only when this earth was entirely covered with aware of this, but I am also aware, that there water, and that afterwards it emerged from the are others who hold a middle course; believe water; or, which is the same thing, that the ing that both systems are true in part, and that water receded from it. Now, the passage of both fire and water had a considerable share St. Peter, which I have translated by means of in the production of the various strata. Mr. water, may certainly be rendered in the midst of Lowry, whose profound knowledge of Mine- water; although the former version appears ralogy, has gained him almost as splendid a the best. Thus, in every case, the assertion reputation, as the excellency of bis engravings, of the Apostle, is confirmed by Geological is an advocate of this opinion. It is also held facts.
or from one another; but may they explanations, proceeds to enumerate continually guide us, through paths of the Volcanic Rocks; but it is not neceslight to regions of immortality! sary to introduce them here. I have thus pointed out one remark
(To be continued.) able confirmation of Sacred Writ; namely, the fact, that this earth was Ascent of Messrs. Livingston and formed by the agency of water. I
Sadler in a Balloon. now proceed to a second, which is On Tuesday September 28th, 1819, the more remarkable, becaus
it is more inhabitants of Liverpool, and its vicomplex: I mean, the order in which cinity, were highly gratified with this the vegetables, and the different kinds of animals, were created.-We learn of this balloon surpassed those of any
splendid spectacle. The dimensions from Scripture, that vegetables were
one hitherto constructed, its diameter formed before fishes; fishes, before measuring 32 feet, and its height 38. beasts; and beasts, before the human It contained 31,880 cubic feet of gas, race. On the third day, vegetation and its power of ascension was equal commenced on the primordial moun- to 1100 pounds. tains. Then the earth, fresh and bloom
The weather was rather unfavourable ing, as a newly wedded bride, was in the morning, but the atmosphere arrayed in its beauteous vesture of put on a more inviting aspect as the trees and plants. On the fifth day, day advanced, which the sun occathe sea was peopled. Then, the fishes sionally enlivened with his beams. leaped into life, and knew the luxury At an early hour the people began to of existence. On the sixth day, the assemble; and for some time about earth was inhabited. Then, the land noon, the principal streets poured forth animals received their portion of life, their' myriads towards the eminence and light, and happiness. Lastly, whence the balloon was expected to man was formed. The Son of God, ascend, and in that direction which communing in holy counsel with the the wind would compel it to take Father and the Spirit, prepared the when it left the earth. An accurate noblest work, for the highest pur- estimate of the number of spectators, pose. Man was formed, that Jehovah will scarcely come within the reach of might be glorified! Man was made, in conjecture. On this point several opithe semblance of the Deity !-Such nions have been given, varying from was the order of creation, if the words 80,000 to 130,000. of Moses may be credited.
The Balloon being inflated, the car Those who are wholly unacquainted attached, and every preparation made, with Geology, will be surprised on Messrs. Livingston and Sadler took hearing, that we are in possession of their seats, receiving the flags from the documents, by which we can ascertain hands of the Countess of Sefton and the truth, or the falsehood, of the Mrs. Blackburne. The signal-guns above narration. For the benefit of being fired, the Balloon was let loose such persons, I shall enter into a mi-about sixteen minutes past two, and, nute and circumstantial detail.
in majestic grandeur, mounted with The crust of our globe, is composed rapidity into the air, amidst the shouts of a series of stupendous rocks, which and congratulations of such a multiare piled, or built one upon another. tude as was never before convened in The most ancient of these, are deno- Liverpool. The aëronauts displayed minated Primitive. They are four- above the spectators, the utmost intreteen in number. The next in order, pidity, waving their flags, moving their are the Transition Rocks, which are five in number. To these succeed the hats, and bowing with as much comFlætz, amounting to twelve.
posure, as though their feet had rested Next
on terra firma. The direction which follow the Alluvial Rocks, and the the Balloon took was N. E. by E. number of these is seven. Professor
After remaining in sight about Jameson, 1 from whom I have taken twelve minutes, it seemed to sink bethe above list, as well as the following low the horizon, somewhat to the east
I believe, that Jameson's Work on Mi- of Everton; but shortly afterwards it neralogy, of which a new edition is now pub- reascended, and regularly took an eastJishing, is considered by the best judges, to be wardly direction. Moving with conthe most admirable work extant, on that im- siderable celerity, it speedily withdrew portant subject.
from the gaze of the speetators, dimi
nishing in magnitude as its elevation | iron broke, in consequence of which and distance increased, till, gradually the car was dashed with violence assuming a globular form, it became against some rising ground, and Mr. too diminutive for the organs of vision. Livingston much bruised. The Balloon, The whole time, from its first ascent however, was secured about 5 minutes until it totally disappeared, was about before five, nearly six miles from the thirty-five minutes.
sea, not far from Stockton-upon-Tees. The Balloon continued to travel about three hours successively, without meeting with any accident, during On the evening of Sunday the 17th inwhich time it passed to the distance of stant, about nine o'clock, the Aurora nearly 150 miles, so that Messrs. Li- Borealis shone with peculiar brilliancy vingston and Sadler must have been over Liverpool, and its vicinity. A conveyed at the astonishing rate of 50 stream of light, apparently arising miles an hour. About 25 minutes be- from the north-west horizon, reached fore four, passing near Chorley, they the zenith, assuming a variety of supposed their elevation to be about sportive forms. This phænomenon, a mile and a half. A quarter before after continuing a short season, grafour, they were near Skipton, and in dually disappeared. sight of the Humber. About five minutes past four, they thought their By a letter from New York, dated clevation to be four miles ; the ther- September 9th, 1819, we learn that mometer was then at six degrees, and the Yellow Fever rages in Baltimore. the cold intense. About ten minutes From 10 to 21 cases have been rebefore five, the sea appearing in sight, ported every day. In New York also, they prepared to descend; but unfor- a few have lately died of the same tunately, in landing, their grappling dreadful malady.
COMMERCIAL RETROSPECT, OCTOBER 22d, 1819. The complaints of the stagnation of trade are universal, and the advices from the Russian capital to the pillars of Hercules, all concur in representing the present epoch as unequalled in commerce. Great Britain must consequently largely participate in the difficulties of the times; and the late official documents evince it, in a serious defalcation of the revenue. however, inclined to believe, that many of the causes are of a temporary nature, and we look to the meeting of Parliament for the adoption of measures, which will give quiet to the manufacturing districts, and inspire confidence in the monied men to lay out their capitals. At present, purchases in most articles are made on a very small scale : to this may be traced the general paralysis in every branch, and the tendency which almost every article shews to decline. It is matter of consolation, however, that we have to face the winter with granaries well stocked, and the necessaries and even the luxuries of life at extremely low rates.
Raw Sugars, which form the most prominent feature in our Imports, still partake of the languor noticed in our last, and inferior descriptions are fully 1s. to 2s. per cwt. lower.
In Cottons, the returns of each week's sales have displayed succssively a trifling depression, and the sales for the past month do not exceed 17,820 bags. This place bids fair to be a great mart for Sheep's Wool of all descriptions; we always had large imports of common Wool from the Highlands of Scotland, but of late great quantities of Wool from South America, Spain, and Portugal, have found their way here, and offer to the manufacturer a decided advantage in many respects.
The Market for Spirits exhibits unusual depression.—The stocks of Rum are very plentiful, and a better supply of Cognac Brandy and Holland Geneva, has seldom been known.
The imports of Russian Tallow are very abundant, and the prices have rather given way. Oils continue to decline. The imports of Palm Oil from Africa, are likely to continue on a large scale.
The East Company's sale of Indigo, 7000 chests, commenced on the 19th inst. The prices of the lots already sold rule 3d. to 4d. higher than in the last March sale. Here, 19 chests of Madras Indigo were sold at 45. to 4s. 4d. for Ordinary ; 45. 6d. to 4s. 10d. for Middling; and one lot at 6d. per lb.
Dyewoods may be considered lower. Fruit.-One vessel has already arrived with new Fruit from Malaga. The season in the Mediterranean and Spain, has been exceedingly favourable ; the crops have been abundant, and reported to be of fine quality. The quantity of old Fruit upon hand is considerable.
Grain.—At the Corn Exchange, each market day, prices of every description evince a decided tendency to retrograde. The averages in each Gazette are lower, and it appears that the farmers are bringing their stocks very freely forward.
In Irish Provisions very little variation can be observed, with the exception of Butters, which have yielded 3s, to 4s. per cwt.
SUNDRIES.-Liverpool, 220 Oct. HAY, old, 2011. ......1s. Id. a Os.od new.
07 0 10 STRAW, Wheat, y 201ħ. O 4 POTATOES, new, 2115.0 6 OATMEAL, sack 2401b-300 38 0 FLOUR, best, Ysk.24015.500 350
seconds........400 46 0 FRESH BUTTER, 1602...... 1 3
Average Prices of Number of Bank
Sugar. Gazette. rupts in Gazette. Sep. 22 ..358. 11d. Sep. 21.......... 5
29 ..36 6 -25..........10 Oct. 6 ..36 54 - 28.......... 8 13 ..36 114 Oct. 2..........19
9........... 9 Prices of Coal
16, 11.-19, 22 Wigan ....158.6d. Country ..10 0
Prices of Bullion. Liverpool.
.......3 13 6 New Dollars...
....050 Silver, in Bars, Standard......0 5 2
Rates of Insurance. L. pool.. Lond.
U. States of America 40 30 40
30 30 35 East Indies
63 63 Coast of Africa...... 42 +2 Gibraltar
20 20 Mediterranean.
40 25 40 France and Holland 40 Baltic
90 40 London
20 Ireland West Coast 20 15 9
East Coast.. 30 120 30
WHOLESALE.-L. pool, Oct. 22, 1819. PROVISIONS.
Beef new, uerce 05 Oa 1100 SUGAR, y cwt.
barrel 65 0 70 0 Muscovado, dry brown 53 a 66 middling 58 68
Butter, y cwt.
83 0 84 0
Cork dry 3rds. new
pickled new ands. 88 0
Newry do............. 900
Pork, Irish, brl. 88 0 96 0
Butts, 40 th ..........1 10
32 MOLASSES, British RUM, gallon, 16 O. P. 38. 2d. a 38. 3d. Dressing, 20 a 211b.... 9
Call, doz. 40 a 50lb..2 7 2 9 Leewards, common 1 2 2
Do. 4 3
30 a 35 ..22 2 4
Cottons-Minas Novas, arr. rees 6400 MAHOGANY, V foot, d. s. d.
10 a 13
Tallow, arrrobe....rees. 3300 a 3400 St. Domingo ...... 1
Hides, Buenos Ayres,.. lb. 90 96
3 Cuba ...
1 1 15
for sea. Pernambucco
tish Settlements in 36 29
East India and Africa 5 2
United States ........11 14
142 DYE WOODS, ton, £. $.
Europe and all Barwood, Angola 8 0 a 90
21st Sep. to 22d Oct. Total 288 272
75 Logwood, Campeachy 70
Jamaica.... 6 0 6 10
Honduras,.. 6 10 6 15 Liverpool Exports of British ManufacNicaragua Wood,
tures, from 220 Sep. to 21st October.
Cotton Stuffs 251874 pcs. & 941975 yds.
3704 TOBACCO, th. 8. d. s. d. Worsted do... 5112
2016 James River 0 34 a 0 8 Flannel ......
95781 stemmed. 0 54 08 Linun Cloth.. 222
191 pairs, 18104 1st, Pot, fresh, U. S. 40 0 a 41 0
Hats, 4159 doz.-Hose, 9449 doz. pairs. Montreal ... 34 0 36 0
Hardware, 6074.--Nails, 1721 cwts. American, 1st, Pearl 39 0 400
Copper, 1942.-Glass, 2773 cwt--637 crts
Lead, 315 tons.-Tinplates, 1554 boxes.
.3919 crates, &c. RICE, y cwt. American,} 338. a 36s.
350 cwts duty paid, 3
White Salt to Foreign Parts 9025 tons. East India 12 15
463 HIDES, V lb. Buenos Ayres 6d. a 9d.
Rock Salt to Foreign Parts 4023
3718 BRIMSTONE, Yton, £. s. £. 8. Coals to Foreign Parts .... 1619 chal, rough .24 0 a 24 10
2382 SHUMAC, Pcwt. s. d. s. d. Sicily 20 6 a 22 0
Liverpool Imports, from the 22d Sept. HEMP, ton,
Prices of Stoch, London, 19th Oct. Bank Stock....
2194 34 Cent Reduced 3 Cent Consols... 684 4 P Cent Consols.... 862 5 Cent Navy Annuities ..1044 Bank Long Annuities....
17 18 Omnium
..dis. Consols for Acct.... ... 694
IRISH FUNDS.-October 16.
5 cent, Government Stock, 34 V cent....
5 pcept...... Royal Canal, 4 Y cent.
AMERICAN FUNNS-Oct. 19. 3 Cents
.624 New 6 Cents
1014 (The above with Div. from October.) U.S. Bank Shares
to the 2181 October. Petersburg clean 46 0 a Riga Rhine ......48 0 49 0
Sugar, B. P. 3993 hhds. 593 tces. 132 brls. FLAX, ton,
£. $. £. s.
-E. India, 4523 bags, 34 cases.
Foreign, 183 cases, 31 chests,
Coffee, B. P. 265 casks, 922 bags.
Foreign, 380 bags.
Cotton, West India, 1096 bales, 14 bags.
American, 2304 bales.--Brazils, 7030
bags, 1552 bales, 111 serons - East PINE TIMBER,y cub ft. s. d. s. d.
India, 381 bales. American ........1 7 al 8
Corn, Wheat, 24278: Barley,371; Oats, Baltic .. 25 2 6
14978; Beans, 206; Malt, 3032; Peas, SALT PETRE, y cwt. 34 O 37 0
59: Rye, 4 qrs. GRAIN
Rum, 1181 punch. 36 hhds.-Wine,
47 hhds. 24 pipes, i butt, 16 aums. Irish & Foreign 4 0 4 9
Geneva, 95 pipes.
Tobacco, 1245 hhds. 1 bale.
Rice, 273 casks. 918 bags.
Flour, 10 bris.-Fustic, 143 tons.
Logwood, 178 tons.
Nicaragua Wood, 20 tons. Oats, Engl. y 451b. 3 4 36
Indigo, 50 cerons.
Quercitron Bark, 33 hhds.
Madders, 10 casks.
Turpentine, 1406 brls.-Tar, 567 brls.
Tallow, 4513 casks.Ashes, 1730 brls.
6 10 3 Hemp, 385 bundles. TALLOW, y 112th. s. d. 8. d.
Hides, 14084; 94 bundles. Russia Y. Candle 600 a
Iron Bars, 3886. Brazil. .66 0 67 0
Oak Bark, 145; Valonia, 75 tons.
Pimento, 1151 bags.
Ginger, 659 bags,
234 brls. Cod ......37 0
Pepper, 11 bags.- Brimstone, 187 tons.
Butter, 28235 casks, 211 kegs.-Rape-
4 2 6279 qrs.Cows, 2744.- Heifers and Tarpentiue, Pcwt.620
Oxen, 242.-Sheep, 1438.--Pigs, 1206.
LIVERPOOL DOCKS. £93 5 for 100, Aug. 4, at 5 cent, inter. payable in Lond. or L. pool halfyearly.
Wheat. Rye. Barley. Vats. | Beans. Peas. 18th Sept. 708 80 438 od 378108 268 1d 468 90 528 od
Bourdeaux, 25 60.Frank-
Course of Exchange, in London, October 19.
PRINTED BY H. FISHER, LIVERPOOL, PRINTER IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY.