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each individual, but by grouping the men together. On beginning to use candles in the shop in the fall of the year, it is not unusual for the master to bestow a considerable sum for drink, called a way-goose,* the men often adding thereto themselves; on ceasing to use lights in the spring, it is usual in some shops for the men to club together for a drink. When a man comes to work with a dirty shirt on Monday morning, he incurs a drink fine.

I have above stated a division of drinking usages hitherto considered, into two heads-the usages connected with trades and business, and the domestic usages. We shall have occasion to attend to a new or third series of usages, viz. those established in the regulations of trades clubs or unions. The rules of the two former classes may be said to contain the common law on the subject; the new series is a species of statute law, more particularly put in practice of late years, since the disputes between capital and labour in regard to wages have begun to prevail. Leaving any further account of this new series of usages for future examination, I shall just state, that in the carpenter trade, if the apprentice be the son of a journeyman carpenter, he is held as liable to all the trades union or club fines, to which his father is subjected by the rules of the trade. Thus, for working under wages, working along with those who do so, working later than ordinary hours, working more constantly than the worst man in the shop, if he tells his employer what materials he uses in the week, or gives a return of what he has done during the week; if he is warned to leave his employer and does not; in all these cases he incurs a fine. About three-fourths of those fines go to drink.

The committee of this trade sit in a public-house twice a week, for the purpose of receiving information with regard to offences committed against union rules; those who are suspected, are summoned to attend on these evenings. Each man pays 2s. a month into the funds, the greater part of which is drunk. The sum reported to me as levied for such fines and other amercements, under the union regulations, is very large; but as I have no means at present of demonstrating its amount statistically, I shall refrain from stating it. It forms no part of this essay to interfere in the slightest degree with the plans which operatives adopt, in order to sustain the interests of this class against the encroachments of the capitalist and employer, further than to suggest, that it seems a funda

* Way-goose, or wayz-goose, a stubble goose, an entertainment given to journeymen at the beginning of winter.-Bailey's Dict. 3d edit.

mental error to connect the regulation fines of the clubs and unions, and the committee meetings, and other procedure, with the use of liquor; and the best friends of the operative class are those who would wish to dissolve the connexion between business and liquor altogether.

Cabinet-makers.-These have the footings of journeymen and apprentices. The last of these who has paid his entry, is denominated the "constable." He retains his office till a new hand arrives and pays entry: his duty is to make the claim on the new hand, and arrange the matter with him. The apprentice footing is 17. 1s.; the other men are bound to add to this. It is the apprentice's duty to watch the fire of the workshop, and to keep the glue warm: in case of neglect he is fined 6d. If he omit to extinguish the fire and candles at night he is fined 2s. 6d.; all such amercements are gathered up once a month for the purpose of a "bouse." When an apprentice comes to be able for man's work, he is set to a bench and assumes the apron; on this occasion he is fined 1s. for drink: when his apprenticeship expires he pays 10s. 6d., which is called "washing him out." When the apprentice remains in the same shop, he is "washed in," by 10s. 6d. of a journeyman's footing. For the first new job he is set to perform, which he has never done before, he pays ls. for drink; thus for his first chair, bedstead, or veneer work, and this for each new job. When married, a cabinet-maker pays 10s. for drink. Having a child produces a quart of whisky. At each fall of the year there is a way-goose. Teaching any part of the business that is new to the scholar, requires 1s. of a drink premium: this is severe on the boys. A clever workman, who loves drink, adapts the amount of his contribution of instruction to the quantity he is treated with. In spring, at putting out candles, the men treat the employers if they choose to come; if not, they treat themselves to an abundant drink. The men pay 1s. 6d. a-piece, boys 6d. When a poor boy is unable to pay these demands, and his friends are backward in advancing him the needful funds, he is put under severe discipline; besides being taunted and jeered at continually, he is subjected to a process of coercion denominated "cabbing," which is so administered as to make it impossible to discover the perpetrators. A favourable opportunity is watched; the lad is approached behind by a man having the cloth that covers finished furniture in his hand; this is dexterously thrown entirely over the head and shoulders; several spring upon him, and by their help the cloth is wound round

the culprit's head in such a way as to prevent sight: his hands are then tied, and he is laid on his face along a bench; his shoes are taken off, and he is sharply beat on the soles of the feet with a flat board. After this bastinado, he is partially loosed, and permitted to disengage himself the best way he can. No one can be proved to have done it: he remains after this the object of unrelenting abuse and spite; any person who would inform of the circumstances of the "cabbing," is fined 5s., and the unfortunate martyr is finally sent to "Coventry." All this usage is very severe upon boys, and it is evident that to stand out against it, is not to be expected from human nature. It is wonderful that there are any sober men in the mechanic class at all, when such perpetual drinking tyranny domineers over them. One informant states, that what with footings, fines, and other occasions, he did not pay less than 97. sterling during his apprenticeship. Boys at first are shy of taking drink, and seem to dislike it, but before they are half out of their time, they generally acquire the usual relish for stimulation, and are eager to subject new comers to the same exercise which was so disagreeable to themselves. Thus cruelty and drunkenness are perpetuated, and the foundation of all evil habits laid in the very social constitution.


When tools are not kept in the right place, there is 3d. or 6d. charged as a drink fine; 6d. for a long beard, or dirty shirt. Wetting of new clothes;" this is a cant phrase for a libation of liquor on obtaining anything new. The new occupation of a favourite bench costs a quart of whisky at least; sometimes more, for the highest bidder gets the prize: this may be a station near the window, or otherwise particularly convenient. At mahogany sales there is a dinner and drink; at auctions of wood, bread and cheese and drink. All these rules are so binding, that they keep many individuals from joining the Temperance Associations; and even those who do join are apt to be tempted to withdraw, from the difficulty of living in society without accommodating in some respects to these or other drinking usages.

Gluing the pockets, and tying things to coats, are also tricks imposed on recusants of the usages. At union meetings 2d. a-piece is drunk in lieu of room rent; at New-year's day, the landlord of the room they meet in gives the union a supper, and they give the landlord another in return.

In some cases the meetings of the unions are commenced and ended with prayer. One informant has seen many not

able to stand up at the last prayer, in consequence of the drink previously taken. In the central parts of Ireland, the same system of drinking usage prevails among cabinet-makers. To the footings and marriage drinks, the other men add, so that the contribution is general, and affects the whole establishment. The fines are much the same as those already stated : there is 2d. for leaving a window open; 1d. for leaving the hone or rubstone hollow, not plain. These are duly collected, recorded, and spent in drink. Speaking ill of a shopmate in a public-house, incurs a fine. That all fines may be duly enforced, proceedings of the nature of process or action at law, are established. The oldest hand is styled the father of the shop; he presides in the judgment and infliction of these fines. The case is regularly stated, the accused afterwards makes his defence, he is then sent out, and a decision is come to. I have understood that occasionally there is an extraordinary exhibition of native talent at these opportunities. To ring the holdfast is to strike a tool that will emit a sound, in order to convene a court. It is rung three times on a charge against any man. If the charge be not substantiated by the accuser, he is fined 14d. for drink.

Wages are generally paid or divided in public-houses. We shall reserve remark on this Python of the drinking usages to another opportunity. Among the penalties inflicted on those who refuse to pay the drinking usage money, or who hold back and are dilatory, may be mentioned the following:-they will be annoyed at work in every way that ingenuity can prompt, when instigated by the stimulation of a vitiated and craving appetite, and fear of an avowed system being broken in upon or destroyed, which subsists only by regularity of mposition and universality of submission. Joint-work at which the non-conformist is employed, will be anointed with candle grease, to prevent it from gluing; the edge of his tools will be secretly notched and gapped: one informant mentions a young lad losing two days while employed in putting his tools in order after such a vexatious annoyance. If a drink fine be not paid immediately, and the time that is given for the purpose elapse, the amount is added to, according to certain rules. One man has known an original fine of 7d. raised in this way, in no great time, to 4s. 7d. He has seen a lump of wood and a bucket of water let fall on purpose, on a man while going down a ladder; also a trap-board left for the individual in fault to fall into; and has witnessed all the other men agreeing to do such things in their turn, whenever opportunity

offered, and becoming bound not to inform who should do so. If any one leaves a company where others are drinking on a regular occasion, in conformity to drinking usage rules, he is, for this act of prudence, subjected to a fine. It is difficult to conceive a harder case than this. Such a law put into general execution, would not leave one victim untouched among the operative classes: I have, however, met with no other instance in reland of its being laid down as a positive rule; though no doubt great offence is given by one man declining to drink his share in any company. When sending to "Coventry," and annoying in a variety of methods, fails to force a compliance with the rules, the parties proceed to a very decided step indeed, which is no other than to get hold of the tools or clothes of the defaulter, coat, hat, handkerchief, or cloak, and secretly carry them to the broker's shop, and lay them under pawn for the regulation amount of the usage. An informant has seen men make a very awkward figure in going home without part of their dress. The pawn ticket is then returned by being laid on the bench, or some place where the individual concerned may readily obtain it. This is called in cant language, "sending the articles to my uncle," or "putting them up the spout. Much as I had been prepared by former experience to believe, to almost any extent, the possibility of a man's pawning his own goods for drink, yet I confess, on hearing of articles being pawned by others, I conceived that there must be some great mistake on this point; and I could not credit that drinking usage would extend to such an act of monstrous and outrageous injustice as this. Here is property taken from a man without his consent, and without the adjudication of any court of justice, on the same principle that the robber boasts that he takes from the rich to give to the poor. Here is the avowed practice, not of one or two individuals, but of organized and associated masses throughout the whole empire, which goes to the root of the principle of property, and would leave all that a man has at the mercy of a profligate law, instituted under the influence of one of the most pernicious elements of vitiated human nature. I say, I could not believe this to be a fact, when it was first mentioned to me. But the universality of the evidence on all hands, soon made it quite conclusive; I then took another view of the subject, and without much consideration supposed, that as there exists in Ireland a great, and as it were, national propensity to contravene the laws, so it might be expected in this part of the empire, that the impatient appetite for whisky, and the lawless

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