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der,

83

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Regider of the Weather for Aug. 74 Ər Ĝirtanner on İrritability, cons
State of the dead Bodies in the sidered as a vital principle in
Cemetery of the Innocents at organized Bodies,

10$ Paris in 1986 and 17872 75 Account of fuch. Stones found in : General defcription of the Roads

Scotland as are fit for ornament and mode of travelling in Swan

al Architecture,

114 .

88 Memoirs of the Life of the late Sir

. On the Origin and Formation of

Coal, Alexander Dick, Bart. of Prefa

119

Of a King's behaviour in indiffet. tonfield, Sketches of the Life of Soame

ent things : By King James the

• VI. Jenýns, Esq; 85

12 1 Memoirs of the late Sir John

of the late Sir Toba? An Interview mith Fali an AbyfLockbart Rifs, Bart.

91 finian Uhier : from Druces On the Origin of the German

Travels,

128 Towns, and of the German No. Review of Dr Erfkine's Sketches

of Church Hiftory and TheoAccount of some extraordinary

logical Controversy, , 133 Stru&ures on the tops of Hills. Gyron the Courteous : A Tale, in the Highlands, . 96 (concluded), Account of the Progress of Bo.: Poetry,

143 tady in Scotland, . 104 Monthly Regifters? .. i Vas. XII. No. 68. K

State

bility,

94

.

137

+ Situated in what is called the Garrioch, a diftrid celebrated in remote timics for the Feuds carried on betwixt the Farboles, Lelies, &c

Siste of the BAROMETER in inches and decimals, and of Farenheit's TALK

MOMETER in the open air, taken in the morning before sun-rise, and at noon; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from the 30th July 1790, to the 30th of August, near the foot of Arthur's Seat.

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59

Rain and thunders
Rain.
Showers.
Ditto.
Kain.
Clear.
Rain.
Ditto.
Showershe
Clear.
Rain.
Clear.
Ditto.

59

Rain.

No. :

| 29.2 251 0.16

29.53 0.1
29.425 0.04
29.25 0.03
29.575 0.07
29.7
79.275

0.29
29.535

0.11
29.2125 0.03
29.55 1
29.775. I
29.825
29.8125
29.775

0.42
29.65 0.19
29.575

0.11 29.76.. 0.75 29.8125

0.04
29.5

0.04
29.489.
29.45

. 0.05
29.5
29.475 0:35
29.3

0.07
29.425
29.5
29.625
29.675

29.5

| 29.65 1 I 011 58 | 29.65 | 0.04

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Barom.

12. 68 greatest heat at noon. ago 45 leaft ditto, morning.

6.
8.

29.87 greatest elevation. 29.21 lcast ditto.

In the Different Stutes of the Dead Bodies found in the Cemetery of the In::ocents at Paris in 1786 and 1787. Read at the Royal Academy of Scientes ; By M. de. Fourcroy.

T HE spontaneous decomposition the place they occupied, and their

1 of animal matters buried in difpofition with respect to one anoheaps in the earth has presented to ther. The oldest exhibited nothing us results as Gingular as unexpected. but portions of bones p'aced irreguWe could not have furetold the con- larly in the soil, which had been oftents of a foil surcharged for centu- ten removed in consequence of the ries with bodies undergoing putre. frequent turning up of the ground in faction, although we might well so vast a cemetery : it was difficult to have imagined that such a foil would ascertain exactly the time of the inbe very different from that of com. bumation, and we could only examine mon burying places, where each the difference berween them and hucorpse has its own space, in which man bones that had never been innature may, and does separate the terred. elements with ease and promptitude. It was on the state of the soft parts The ideas of naturalists with respect particularly, situated between the skin to the period of the entire deitrudion and the bones, including the tegu. of bodies, which according to some ments, that we had occalion to ob. Was six years at the utmost, could not serve two general differences whicha indeed be applicable to the soil of the aztracted our attention; in some bou cemetery of a great city, in which se. dies which were always found fin;le veral successive generations of its in- and detached, the skin, the muscls, habitants had been deposited for more tendons, and aponeuroses were dry, than three centuries, but nothing brittle, hard, of a colour more or less could have made it be presumed that grey, and like what are called muinthe entire decomposition did not cake mies in some vaults where this change place for forty years, aor could it has been observed, such as the calahave been suspected what a singular combs of Rome, and the vaults of difference nature presents between the Cordeliers at Toulouse. the deftruction of bodies deposited in The third, and most fingular ftare heaps in fubterraneous cavities, and of those sofc parts was observed in that of bodies placed afunder in the the corpses accumulated in the conie ground. It was also impollible to mon pits. These are cavities of divine the nature of a tratum of earth thirty feet in depth, and twenty in several fathoms thick, perpetually length and breadth, which are dug in exposed to putrid exhalations, and the cemetery of the Innocents, and saturated as it were with animal eflu- contain the bodies of the poorer peovia ; or what influence such a foil ple in their coffins in very close rows. would have on a body newly placed The necessity of crowding a great in it. These were the objects of our number together, obliged the people inquiries, and the source of the dif- employed in this business to place iho coveries which prompted them. coffins so near one another, that a

The remains of the bodies depo- perfon may conceive these pits as one sited in the Cemetery of the Innocents, mass of carcaffes, from a thousand to were found in three different states fifteen hundred in num'er, separate a according to the time they had lain, only by a board of hai: in inch thick K 2

Wica . * Aonales de Chymie. Tom.c.sme.

When thesepits were full, a covering of whotestified po repugnance at touching carthone toor in thicknesswas laid over it) had not encouraged us, the novel to close them, and a new one dug at ty and fingularity of the Spectacle. fome distance. It took about three would have removed from us all idea years to fill such a pit, during all of fear or disgust; and we therefore which time it remained open. The endeavoured to acquire the necessary fame pits were opened again at lon. information with regard to this code ger or shorter intervals ; these inter- verfion. We learnt from the grave. Vals were from fifteen wo thirty years, diggers, that this fubitance they cala according to the neceflity ariling from led grease, was hardly ever found in the proportion of deaths to the ex. bodies buried by themselves; but only tent of the cemetery. Experience had in those heaped together in the pits. taught the grave diggers that these We paid particular attention to a periods were pot fufficient for the en, great number of bodies in this ftare ; tire deftruation of the bodies ; and we found that all were not equally had made them acquainted with the advanced in this fpecies of conversion; alteration I am about to mention. in many, portions of the muscles were

The firft cur which we ordered 10 ftill visible by their fibrous ftructure be made in a pit that had been filled and reddila colour. From an atiege and closed up for fifteen years lħew tive examination of bodies entirely, ed us this change; we found the cof. converted into this greasy matier, we fins preserved, but a little funk down faw that the masses enveloping the upon one another; the wood was bones were all of the fame oniform found and ringed with yellow. Up- substance, that is, a greyish mass geon lifting the lid we faw the body nerally fuft and ductile, sometimes lying upon the bottom, having thrunk dry, always easily separable into pod to fome distance from the upper rous fragments, pierced with boles, board, and so flat that it seemed to and the wing no traces of membranes, have suffered a strong compreffon, muscles, tendons, 'veffels, or perves ; The linen in which it was wrapped one would have said at first look that adhered strongly to the body, and these whitish maffes were only cellu. being removed, shewed nothing but lar subftance which they very much re. irregular masses of a faft matter, duc sembled ; and accordingly fome of us rile, and of a whitish grey colour'; fupposed that the rete mucosum was these masses enveloped the bones the true basis of this fingular fubitance round and round; they had no foli. Following this white matter thro dity, and broke with a quick press the different regions of the body, we sure. The appearance of this mat- were convinced that the cellular subter, its texture, and softnefs, made us ftance of the skio always suffered at first compare it to common white this change ; that the ligamentous cheese ; the juftness of this comparis and tendinous parts which connect fon ftruck us, especially from the and retain the bones no longer exift. marks or prints which the cross ed, or at least, having lost their tcxthreads of the linen had formed on ture and tenacity, they left the artiits surface. This white substance culations without support, and the yielded to the finger, and grew soft bones to their own weight, so that upon being rubbed a little." there was now among these nothing

These carcases thus changed had but a juxta-position, and accordingly no very disagreeable smell; even the least couch was fufficient to fepa. though the grave-diggers (who had rated them, as the grave-diggers. been long acquainted with this fub- knew, who, in order to remove there Hance which they called grease, and bodies from the pits we wanted to

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