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In England, the tenants are in com- laborious part of the management. fortable and respectablecircumstances; Agricultural capital cannot exist with many of them are wealthy; they are in- middlemen and per centage agents. dustrious and knowing cultivators; and Where these people find any, they in respect of morals, they are scarcely speedily dissipate it; and where they equalled by any class in the community. find none, they effectually prevent any
Their own excellent morals have the from being created. In the last thirty best effects upon those of their servants. years, England has been increasing In Ireland the tenants of the absentees the size of its farms, and making imare poor and barbarous ; they are mense additions to its agricultural cawretched cultivators; and they are pital. In the same period, and with vicious and depraved. In England it nearly the same markets, Ireland has is a thing almost unknown, for the been regularly diminishing the size of tenant of a great landlord, if he only its farms and the amount of its agrioccupy a cottage, to be immoral, or to cultural capital. Were the land of be concerned in a criminal action. The England placed under middlemen and Irish papers frequently tell us, that in per centage agents, very few of our Ireland the occupiers of pretty large next generation of farmers would postracts of land are often concerned in sess sufficient capital for the cultivathose horrible outrages which almost tion of a farm of one hundred and fifty daily disgrace the sister kingdom, and that the whole country population Mr M'Culloch stated it to be his combines to screen from justice the belief, that if we had sheriff-courts perpetrators of these outrages. like those of Scotland, and if the es
Nevertheless, the Philosopher as- tates were managed by agents like sures us, that, in moral point of those who manage the estates of the view, Ireland loses very little from its Scotch absentees, England would gain landlords being absentees. Wonderful by the absence of the great proportion Philosopher ! He assures us farther, of the land proprietors. Most delicithat absenteeism is not the cause of ous intelligence this would be to you, the middlemen system ; and that the ye proud landholders of England ! number of middlemen would not be You are not merely useless-you are materially diminished if there were no an evil to your country! Richly did absentees. Of course, if a landlord you deserve the insult for bringing dwell on his estate, he will let it to a such a man before you. middleman for a trifling rent; he will England, beloved land of our facontent himself with a much smaller thers! If thy nobles and country genincome than he might obtain when tlemen leave thee to dwell constantly the cultivators will have to pay much abroad—if thy country magistrates higher rents than he would demand; consist of pennyless, pert, place-hunthe will make himself a mere cipher ing lawyers—if thy Ministry and two on his estate, and amidst his tenants ; Houses of Parliament be composed of he will suffer this middleman to parcel traders, weavers, lawyers, and philosoout and manage his land, and tyran- phers ; of such men as Alderman nize over his tenants at pleasure; he Wood, Alderman Waithman, Peter will give to this middleman the sole Moore, Joseph Hume, Sir R. Wilson, control over his estate and tenants ;- Mr Brougham, and Mr M‘Culloch, it he will do all this in preference to will cause thy interests to be far bethaving his estate and tenants entirely ter managed. If thy village population - under his management and authority. be taken from the control of generous, The most finished Cockney that Cock high-minded noblemen and gentleaigne can produce, would hardly swal- men, who are under the most powerlow such philosophy. Once more we ful restraints for exercising their insay-Wonderful Philosopher ! fluence and authority in the most be
Absenteeism, and not the want of neficial manner, and be placed under capital, is the primary cause of the that of low-bred, mercenary people, middleman system. No resident land almost wholly free from restrictions in lord will give to another person the the exercise of their despotic power, it control of his estate, and the dignity will benefit the interests and character and influence which it yields him, the of this population. If the many milmore especially as he can always pro- lions of rent which are paid to thy cure an agent to take off his hands the landholders be sent to foreign countries
to return no more to be expended in larly sent them by coach and packet in
Seriously-does it not surpass all Jand, the other in France. Every one comprehension, that a man who seems knows, that when their incomes are not to have been stark-mad—who is paid, that of the one has operated in its evidently as destitute of passion and raising, exactly like that of the other, enthusiasm as a flint-should have on the industry, &c. of the country. uttered such absurdities? They not Well, these incomes are paid in soveonly outrage common sense, but they reigns; the one takes his sovereigns to fly in the teeth of the most decisive dem his dwelling in England ; those of the monstration. A single glance from other are in effect sent him by coach Ireland to England is sufficient to cover and boat to France, for he consumes, them with derision. We thank those by his residence in France, scarcely who put questions to Mr M‘Culloch any of the few commodities which it like that touching the seven-eighths of imports from England. The one who the landed proprietors. They spurred dwells in England immediately exhim up to the very climax of nonsense ; pends his sovereigns in employing the they made him stretch the cobweb of English farmer, ploughman, miller, his philosophy, until he tore it to tat- merchant, sailor, grocer, tailor, wéaters; they constrained him to hold up ver, &c. &c. He consumes many comhis own doctrines to the ridicule of the modities that are heavily taxed; he most ignorant.
occupies a house which pays house and After what we have said, we need window duty, and of course no small not enter into any long refutation of part of his income returns back to the the Economist's doctrine, that, if the exchequer ; he pays poor's rates, and English absentees who now dwell in thus contributes to support the poor of France, were to dwell at home, it his country. But the one who dwells would make no difference to England. in France, employs only the farmer, Here again we have practically the as- &c. &c. of France; he contributes 'sumption that we send to these absen- only to the revenue of France; his extees their incomes in precisely the com- penditure, compared with that of the modities which they consume; and, other, is so much clear gain to France, moreover, that we send them taxed and dead loss to England. Yet in the commodities our taxed wine, tea, &c. face of this, Mr M‘Culloch asserts that &c. From the prohibitory system of it makes no difference to England wheFrance, these absentees scarcely add a ther its absentees dwell at home or in shilling's worth to our exports of com- France. Many of the Economists make modities; their incomes are sent them a great uproar in favour of consumpin money, and this constantly does tion; they maintain that everything more or less injury to the trade of this possible should be done to promote it; country, looking only at the exchanges. but here is this wonderful Philosopher Many of them draw their incomes from confounding production with conour taxes; these incomes are raised in sumption, and declaring, that if nineprecisely the same way in their absence tenths of the consumption of this counthat they would be raised in should try were annihilated, it would produce they dwell at home; and they are no public evil. exclusively expended in employing Such stuff is not worthy the name French tradesmen, mechanics, and la- of paradox; it is silly nonsense, that bourers, and contributing to the French would disgrace the most ignorant hind revenue. Many of these incomes are in the country. We blush to think that practically paid in this manner. A sum it needs refutation-our cheeks burn of money is taken from our exchequer, with shame when we reflect that it has and sent to France in bills; imme- been listened to by the Parliament of diately afterwards gold has to be sent England. The present is called an ento, in effect, take up the bills. If the lightened age, and this is a portion of incomes of these absentees were regu- the light. Men like Mr M‘Culloch
are the exclusively “ enlightened;" this country, when not called from it they are the only people who have by public service. emancipated themselves from “
pre- We must now turn to the Philosojudices," and who are infallible; they pher's doctrine, that “alınost ali great are the only men who have escaped improvements in every country, have from the “ignorance and bigotry of originated among merchants and mapast ages-who have outstripped all in nufacturers.” the “ march of intellect" -and who Mr M‘Culloch and his economic have rendered themselves even too wise brethren are people who cannot possiand knowing for the times they live bly see the whole of anything. Quesin; they are the people to laugh to tion them touching a watch, and they scorn the founders of England's free will tell you that the interior works dom, prosperity, happiness, and great- are useless, and that the dial is alone ness; and to be entrusted with the sub- valuable. Ask them respecting a horse, version or alteration of everything va- and they will say that the legs and luable in the empire. Ye" thinking back are alone useful, and that the people” of England, what opinion bowels are a positive nuisance. To must be entertained of you by poste- improve machinery, they would de
stroy the moving power; to coin a farWe are not quite so much infatuated thing they would waste a guinea; to with “ economics as Mr M'Culloch, build a jolly-boat, they would pull to and therefore we must say something pieces a seventy-four; to make some more touching these English absentees, paltry canal that would scarcely float before we take our leave of them. å washing-tub, they would fill up the When men, merely for the sake of ocean. They cannot see that agriculpleasure or some trifling pecuniary ture forms part of a whole along with saring, abandon their country to dwell manufactures and commerce. Oh, no! constantly in a foreign one, we think agriculture is the nuisance-agricul. the abandonment should be mutual. ture is the pestilence by which manuWe think their country should cast factures and commerce are blasted. them off, when they cast off their Ruin the agriculturists, ye merchants country. These mongrels, who are and manufacturers-deprive them of neither fish nor flesh, who are neither the means of buying your goods and English nor French, who, instead of then you will flourish! Glorious times sympathizing with, and benefitting will ye have, ye importers, when the their country, rob and injure it, and chief part of consumption shall be anwho proclaim by their conduct that nihilated - a prodigious increase of they prefer another to it,—these per- trade ye will gain, yemanufacturers, by sons certainly ought not to be placed selling one hundred thousand pounds on a level with the resident population. worth of goods less at home, in order Some brand should be fixed upon to sell ten thousand pounds' worth them, by deprivation of privileges, or
more abroad. other means, to hold up their want of The antipathy of the Economists to English feeling to the scorn of the na- the landed interest does not, however, tion. Many of them, we believe, hold proceed altogether from a wish to becommissions in the army and navy. nefit manufactures and commerce. Now we ask if a man, who has from The country gentlemen keep the machoice dwelt many years in France, or gistracy from the hands of philosophic any other foreign country; who has lawyers; the farmers and husbandry from choice been for these years cut off labourers cannot well be reached to be from all personal intercourse with his filled with “ liberal ideas.” The landcountrymen, be a fit and proper per- ed interest weighs very heavily in Parson to hold authority in a ship of war liament against the new philosophy; or in the army? We ask if such a man it forms a mighty impediment to the can be expected to have that love of “ liberalizing," or, in other words, to country-those genuine British feels the subverting of our laws and instiings which are essential in all who tutions. Its consent is necessary, and wear the British uniform ? It ought it will not give it, to enable the Philoto be a condition with all who draw sophers to pull to pieces the monarchy. their incomes from the public purse, Here is the sore. Here is the cause that they should dwell constantly in why it is so desirable for the landholders to dwell out of the country, country were made to it during the and why agriculture is so worthless, war-by the agriculturists, when nocompared with commerce and manu- thing could be employed to prevent factures.
the latter from equalling the trading With regard to improvements, let classes in profits. Neither this counus glance at the history of this coun- try, nor any other, was ever rich, when try. We apprehend that in respect to its landed interest was regularly poor; wealth, as well as other things, it is and, in spite of the merchants and very necessary for a nation to have a manufacturers, if our landed interest good constitution, and good laws. Now be plunged into poverty, we shall soon with whom did our constitution and cease to be a rich nation. It is ridi. laws originate—with the landed inte- culous to ascribe the chief part of rest, or the merchants and manufaca public wealth to those things which turers ? Who shed their blood like cannot exist without a landed interest, water to found the glorious structure and which can scarcely contribute a under which we live? The owners and shilling to this wealth without its ascultivators of the soil, or history is only sistance. fable. We read of the worthy traders
Let us now look at other matters. of London and other parts being in Who have always been the chief paformer times amazingly obsequious to trons of literature and the arts? The the government, but not of their sa- great landholders. Who have always crificing life and property for law and marched at the head of civilization and freedom. Once indeed the trading in- refinement? The great landholders. terests of this country did in a great Who, by their profuse expenditure, degree get up a revolution in opposihave given the greatest stimulants to tion to the landed interest; they tri- inventions and discoveries of every dea: umphed, and what then? They'esta, scription ? The great landholders. blished a military despotism. We are Reasoning on the question seems to indebted principally to the landed in- be very useless when we look at Ireterest for our constitution and laws. land. Here is a country, a large part
When we look at other nations, we of which has not in reality what is cannot see that any of them has been understood by the term, a landed inindebted to its traders for a good sys- terest. The landlords dwell abroad, tem of government. The revolutions and a very few of the cultivators are of France, Spain, &c. got up as they worthy of being called farmers. This chiefly were by the inhabitants of part of Ireland is, to a very great exs towns, were neither wise in principle, tent, without commerce and manufacnor fruitful of benefit. In the Ame- tures, and it is poor, barvarous, and ricas, the brunt of the struggle seems depraved : had it practically possessed to have been borne by the men of the a landed interest, the case would unsoil.
doubtedly have been perfectly diffeCommerce and manufactures owe rent. their origin to the landed interest, and We say this in favour of the agrithey cannot exist without it. Whats culturists, merely on the defensive : ever wealth they may. accumulate, they far be it froin us to undervalue the draw from it the chief portion. Why merchants and manufacturers. When do not the agriculturists accumulate we defend the former we likewise de. large fortunes like the merchants and fend the latter. The three form a manufacturers ? Are they less indus- whole ; their joint exertions as a trious, less frugal, or less able in bu- whole, and not the separate ones of siness? No such thing. The merchant any of the parts, have rendered the and manufacturer are allowed to ob- country what it is.
One of the parts tain the highest profit in their power, may, however, be more valuable than while the agriculturist is bound down the others; as a man's head, although to the lowest possible. If accident it forms a part of his body, may be of raise him to a level with them, laws more worth than his legs or arms. are instantly resorted to, to bring him Valuable as commerce and manufacdown again. They may charge him tures unquestionably are, agriculture what they please, but he must charge is still more valuable. That is no new them only what the government may doctrine ; for it has hitherto been held suffer The greatest additions that by all the first authorities of the were ever made to the wealth of this country. To ruin agriculture for the
benefit of commerce and manufactures nerally pays higher wages. The farmwould be the same, in our judgment, er, who is a great consumer, benefits as to cut off a man's head for the bene- the revenue infinitely beyond the fit of his legs and arms. And yet no- amount of duty which is paid by what thing less in these days is spoken of. he consumes. He employs the vil. If commerce and manufactures suffer lage blacksmith, carpenter, tailor, &c.; such men as Mr M‘Culloch to divide he employs the producers and distrithem from, and array them against butors of the commodities, and he their parent, they will soon bitterly thereby enables them to consume. lament it!
In the examination, Scotland was We will now proceed to the ques- brought into contrast with Ireland. tion touching the revenue of Ireland. Now, how stands the case with Scot
Why is the land of Ireland exemptó land ? Its land is not overrented, or ed from direct taxation ? It has two overloaded with occupiers. The farmor three distinct landlords to support, ers are good consumers of taxed comand then it is overloaded in the most modities, and by this they create a fearful manner with cultivators. It vast number of other consumers. has so many mouths and purses to Ireland, unlike England and Scota provide for, that it cannot contribute land, exports a large portion of its anything to the Exchequer. Why is agricultural produce ; its exports, to it in this condition ? It is placed in a great extent, consist of such proit by absenteeism-by the very thing duce which, as we have shown, causes that the Philosopher asserts produces the most trifling consumption of taxed no evil to Ireland. If it had only its commodities in its raising and shipowners, and the number of cultivators ment. The exports of Scotland conrequisite for its proper culture to sup- sist chiefly of manufactured goods. port, it could then pay taxes like that These exports employ the agricultuof England. This might have been rists, who are in proportion far greater the case with it, had it been under the consumers of taxed commodities than management of its owners during the the Irish agriculturists, and in addi.
The high prices would have tion they employ the manufacturers, given capital to the tenant, and the traders, &c. who are very great congreat demand for labour, and high sumers of such commodities. The exwages in this country, would have ports of Ireland, to a large extent, taken off the surplus hands.
employ the agriculturists alone. Now, Let us now turn to indirect taxa- if Ireland were like Scotland-if its tion. A vast portion of the Irish cul- land were not over-rented, and had no tivators, from the extortions of their more than the requisite number of various landlords, and the small. cultivators to maintain-and if it had ness of their allotments of land, can a sufficient number of manufacturers, neither consume taxed cominodic traders, &c. to consume the whole, or ties, nor employ those who do con- nearly the whole of its agricultural sume them. "Let any man place be- produce how would this operate on fore him two English farmers—the the matter before us? The agriculone paying a rackrent, and the other turists, though greatly diminished in a very moderate one--and mark the number, would consume about as difference between them in consump- many taxed commodities as they contion. The consumption of the one in sume at present, and there would be utensils is almost double that of the an immense host of manufacturers, other. The one keeps his family well . traders, &c. created to join them in and respectably clothed; the other such consumption. Ireland might then expends nothing in the clothing of stand on a par with Scotland in its his family beyond what is wrung from contributions to the revenue. him by necessity. The one often has If the Irish peasantry should dwell friends to visit him ; he consumes in decent houses built by the regular much taxed liquor, tea, sugar, cur.
builders-should have these houses rants, spices, &c.: the other rarely decently furnished by the regular mahas visitors; he lives principally on kers of furniture-should keep themthe plainest produce of his farm, and selves decently clad, in clothing suphe expends the least possible in taxed plied by the regular manufacturers and commodities. The one employs more makers-should regularly burn coals labourers than the other, and he ge- should regularly consume tea, suVoL, XIX.