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individual and therefore the man who posing cause to accidental and occupationa wants to make his way in the world for- disease, alcohol is of course evident. In swears alcohol.
a paper read at the Congress by Dr. WilAt the International Congress on Hy- liam F. Boos, this is made plain. For irgiene and Demography, Mr. E. B. Phelps stance, a German physician is quoted as of New York City read a paper in which finding that alcoholic workmen between he demonstrated the mortality from alcohol the ages of 25 and 44 have over three in the United States. The paper was d times more accidents resulting in injuries, concise summary of the result of an ef- than all the other workmen put together; fort made recently by Mr. Phelps with the and that the days of illness resulting from . co-operation of the medical directors of such injuries are nearly four times more three important American insurance com- lian those incurred by all the workmeni
. panies, to arrive at an approximation of It was also determined that if the accithe adult mortality in the United States in dents caused by the use of alcohol coull which alcohol appreciably figures as a be eliminated seven per cent. of all accicausative or contributory factor on the ba- dents would be prevented and the saving sis of the averages of entirely independent to German sick benefit societies for the percentage estimates made by the three year 1897 alone would have been 4.500.medical directors in question for each of
000 marks. 106 causes of adult death a tentative ap- A strictly sober man, all other things proximation of the probable alcoholic being equal, will be more healthy mentally adult mortality in the continental United and bodily and therefore more efficient States, was computed. The total thus ar- than the man who indulges in alcohol to rived at for an estimated population of even a small extent. 86,874,990 was 68,897 deaths, in which Without efficiency, that is putting genius alcohol might have figured as a factor, or aside, no one can make a mark in the ma5.1% of the supposed mortality at all ages, terial age. A person cannot be wholly efand 7.7% of the supposed adult mortality ficient who drinks at all and the moral to at age of 20 and upward. As a pre-dis- be derived is don't drink at all.
UNSCIENTIFIC SCIENCE. A long time before the recent meeting death obyiable. Because, if life's origin of the British Association for the Advance- were understood, at least our rich men (if ment of Science the cable brought us re
the price, like that of radium, should be peated assurances that when the associa- outrageously high) could afford it, and tion met the great riddle of the universethe origin of life-would be solved. We able, for a few certainly, if not for the
thus earthly immortality would be attain—
a all had to wait with the best possible
Had the equanimity the great day when our origin reached the ears of the socialists or anarchshould be disclosed. Of course, it would
he be demonstrated that life was no wonder, ing meetings in advance, since it is plain
ists there might have been angry protestbecause its origin, to Science (with a capi- that in no way could the monopolists have tal S, of course), must be a purely physical such perfect success as in the control of or chemical affair. Possibly we could, after sole ability to purchase the available supthe meeting, buy of the physiologist or the plies of life force. Laboratory experiments talized) by the quart or gallon or hundred
are notoriously expensive, and in Germany,
at least, their results are well patented and weight. If so, it was a comforting thought controlled. that disease would be at once curable, and
Well, the great occasion came and went,
and its president, according to promise, ries of existence, and that, speaking as the acting as the authoritative and official president of a scientific meeting, he had, spokesman for the Science named British,
with utter recklessness, called his hurried delivered his great address on the origin prejudice Science. of life. The world read it, rubbed eyes, All of which is nost unfortunate! “O looked again, and again read, became more Liberty ! Liberty !" said Madame Roland, puzzled, then glanced at a romping child, “how many crimes are committed in thy and broke into laughter. It was all a joke! name !"
" But every reactionary will now But, then, such a very foolish and puzzling paraphrase and cry out, “O Science! joke! There was not a word of evidence Science! How many crimes are committed in the pronunciamento that the creation of in thy name!" It is a grievous blunder. A life had been demonstrated. The old ex- real Science may, indeed, at some future periments as to spontaneous generation had time, even to-morroy, solve the mystery of not been reversed, and life had not really the origin of life. Perhaps the theories of been made out of the non-living. The mar- materialism, atheism and determinism may vellously intricate and million-year-long represent the facts of the universe; perhaps product and promise of life, the egg, it thie spirit of man may be proved to be of was said, had been a little influenced in physical origin; but a Science which says minor and brief ways by some needle that the trained observations of experts at pricking, chemical solution, or electrical present prove these theories to be true is stimulation, and we were assured that be- ridiculously unscientific, and the pretense fore very long the whole problem of the of such proving casts unjustifiable conmaterial and chemical origin of life would
tempt upon genuine scientific workers and be solved by materialistic Science.
truths. It flings back into doubt and dogThe deriding smile of Professor Shaefer matism many who most need the good of was only for a moment allowed to play real and helpful scientific discovery. Some upon the theory of God and any part He years ago a pseudo-scientist said he had had been supposed to have in the affair. actually weighed the soul when it left the
The farce has its profound and valuable body at death, and recently it was telesignificances. Science, to be sure, is firstly graphically reported that guinea pigs had the unprejudiced faultless observance of Leen reproduced by the injection of a salt facts, and, secondly, the logical and neces- solution. From Paris or from anywhere sary induction of laws from them. The the newspapers continually and seriously president of the association indiscreetly describe marvels as absurd. It looks as if showed that he had in advance settled the Science may sometime become quite as unfundamental question in discussion as to scientific as the unchristian unscience of the materialistic and spiritual basis or theo- Mrs. Eddy.
WORK MADNESS. Still remaining in our subconscious are. Unless we have big results to show minds the barbaric belief that there is for it, all this sputter about being oversome peculiar virtue in self-inflicted pun- worked is an acknowledgment of our inishment, men actually wallop themselves efficiency. We frankly declare that we with their work and thoughts of work. The have to keep our low-grade physical and
. majority of us do not rise above the hum- mental machine at its highest speed to drum and the mediocre. Few of us win
Few of us win grind out even an ordinary living, when records of more than ordinary accomplish- such a result should be accomplished easily ment. And yet we fret and fume and talk
on low gear. and complain about how hard pressed we And yet, with one of those contortions and somersaults of which the average hu- business pressure is an actual delusion. man mind is always capable, we regard With many others it may be classified unthis high-tension living—this straining and der a shorter and uglier term. Beginning sputter and broil—as something not to be with what the lad of the streets would deashamed of, but actually to brag about and scribe as "bunk" or "foreflush," it finally be proud of. Every sane man has come to becomes a pernicious habit, in which, frothrecognize that a vacation is a good invest
ing at the mouth, we run round in a circle, ment—that a period of rest will pay big barking loudly and snapping at our own dividends not only in the pleasure of liv- tail. ing, but in work accomplished—that the There is fertile field for the neurologist only legitimate excuse for not resting must
who dotes on vague terms and voluminous be one's financial inability to do so. And
classifications to be found in what, for yet the average business or professional
want of a better term, we are disposed to man will tell you with some show of pride call “work madness.” that he has not had a vacation for five
We like to feel that in this mad careeryears; that he takes ten minutes for his ing we are operating the treadmill which luncheon, and that he frequently spends his
keeps the universe whirling around, and evenings stewing and sweating in his office.
yet, after our final Autter and sputter, after On first blush we are disposed to blaine
the day of pallbearers, cotton gloves and this deplorable condition-this universal
tuberoses, this will still be a busy and prooverwork--to the high cost of living, to
ductive little world whirling merrily on as the tariff, to the trusts, to the invasion of
usual. the business world by women, and to Chi
The day will come when the admission nese cheap labor. And then, in a mood of
that one has gone vacationless for years rather caustic optimism, we wonder if the psalmist was right when he said, in his
will be regarded as prima facie evidence of haste, “All men are liars."
failure to make good or of weed-choked It isn't our work that strains us, pushes mentality. The day will come when man us, shoves us and prevents our rest. It is
will cease to brag about how he must usually our sputter and bother about our struggle to attain the commonplace; when work; our morbid delusion that we are
he will endeavor to give the impression frightfully busy. We are so busy thinking that he can fill an average man's place in about how busy we are that we have no
life without breaking out his cylinder head time for saner diversions, and often very in the effort. That day will come when little time for actual work.
intelligence is universal and a sense of neurotic persons, this sense of excessive humor pandemic.
CIVILIZATION AND DEGENERACY. The fact that civilization preserves de- and unrestrained, wherefore the degenerate fectives, who would be destroyed under surplus does not appear as it does among primitive conditions, is claimed to be evi- civilized communities. dence that civilization has produced these. The mental and physical growth of the Proportionally, primitive societies have a individual member of a family is always in much larger number of the higher defec- proportion to the moderate size of that tives, who, being fully adapted to their family. This is a law of biology, as Herenvironment, control these societies. Hence, bert Spencer long ago demonstrated. The in primitive societies lunatics and criminals lowest mammals have the greatest number often control. In primitive societies, more- of offsprings at a birth, and the greatest over, abortion and infanticide are frequent degenerates have the most frequently re
peated births. It is physically impossible they had seen a lake. They turn their eyes, for a mother to preserve her mental and and see a lake where an hour before they physical health and indulge in frequent were toiling through sand. A similar illuchild-bearing. Decrease of the family is sion seems to haunt nations through every an expression of advance, rather than of stage of the long progress from poverty degeneracy. The codfish, with its million and barbarism to the highest degree of young, is the ideal of the modern decriers opulence and civilization. of civilization, according to whom the
The ascription of degeneracy to civilizaworld has continuously been degenerating tion, in place of unhygienic conditions preThere is, as Macaulay remarks, a psycho- served from primitive times, is a lazy
, logic law by which society, constantly mov
means of dodging responsibility, too freing forward with eager speed, is as con
quent even now, despite the triumphs of stantly looking backward with tender re
Chicago now has one-quarter the death These two propensitics spring from im
and disease rate it had in the halcyon days patience with the existing conditions. The people are under a deception similar to that
of the pioneers, albeit the proportion of which misleads the traveler in the Arabian
children under five years of age is enorDesert. Beneath the caravan all is dry and
mously greater than it was then. This is bare; but far in advance, and far in the probably true of all other large cities. To rear, is the semblance of refreshing waters.
children under five years of age, unhygienic The pilgrims hasten forward, and find conditions of rural localities and of priminothing but sand where an hour before tive times are peculiarly destructive.
HEREDITY. The English law of primogeniture has markable list of names, including Luther, been so many centuries in existence, and, Schopenhauer, Francesco d'Assisi, Cathein the main, has proved so satisfactory, that rine de Medici, Guizot, Dante, Rafael, its entire or partial agreement with the law Leonardo da Vinci, Perugino, Luigi Gonof nature must be accepted as a fact. The zago, St. Benedict, Charlemagne, Alexanpreference of males over females was the der the Great, Confucius, Heine, Goethe, rule even among the ancient Jews and La Bruyere, Ariosto, Campanella, MaGreeks, though not among the Romans. homet, D'Alembert, Shelley, Christina of First sons must have been credited natur- Sweden, Goldoni, Cantu, Buckle, Buffon, ally with some kind of preeminence, there- Talleyrand, Milton, Byron, Leopardi, Mofore, to have caused the law of primogeni- lière, Carlyle and Rossini. Among the secture to be so universally adopted and so ond sons he finds Beethoven, Michaelanlong established.
gelo, Rousseau, Cuvier, Pascal and GariIn a recent publication, Professor Axen- baldi. If mere coincidence underlies this seld notes a remarkable circumstance that remarkable list, it is at least suggestive and awakens serious reflections upon primo- leads one to inquire into the apparent sugeniture and the question of heredity. He premacy of the first child. Moreover, it observes that all men of genius are first- awakens doubt in our mind as to the justborn sons; that the second and third child ness of Lombroso's teachings that genius may acquire eminence; but that the fourth, is allied to degeneracy. Either our definififth or sixth child is rarely, if ever, a great tion of genius is at fault, and the abovelight. After the sixth child, he says, men named are not geniuses, or the first-born of talent may again appear in the family. are dangerously close to borderland of deTo support his assertions, he presents a re- generacy. The reason why such a preponderance of talent appears among first opposite temperaments beget the brightest children may be studied from two points children. Love children, therefore, have of view, namely, heredity and environ- the best chance, all other things being ment.
equal, of coming into the world with suIt is a well-known fact that the off - perior mental capacities. Erasmus and spring of real, passionate love are apt to be d'Alembert, the offspring of intense, though brighter than those whose parents are illegitimate, love may be cited in illustraunited for other reasons than affection. tion. It can hardly be doubted that a The history of the royal families of Eu- couple who have married for love only, rope reveals a striking superiority of bast- experience the greatest intensity of their ards over the children born to the same passion early in their married careers. parents in wedlock. Among many exam- Their first-born, therefore, will be love ples may be cited the sons of John of children more emphatically than those who Gaunt, John the Bastard of Orleans, James follow, and in view of what has been said. Earl of Murray, and Charles Martel. As will probably be endowed with higher mena rule, opposite temperaments are drawn tal capacities than their brothers and sisters. together by the passion of love, and it has Yet this does not explain all, nor will it from time immemorial been recognized that until we know more about heredity.
INTERDICTION OF MARRIAGE DESIRABLE.
The problem of the suppression of vice crime is by forbidding marriage between in our cities presents various perplexities, parties whose antecedents prophesy degenwhich have been met from the standpoint erate offspring. This appears to be the of the sociologist, the citizen and the law, only radical procedure, since it strikes at with ability and resourceful energy'.
the very root of the evil. The correspondchurch seems to ignore basic evils, direct
ing increase of prostitution and illegiting its activity to the redemption of the fallen and the inculcation of ethical truths.
imacy, consequent to the application of In whatever respect we consider the sub
strongest laws to the above effect, does not ject, a definite line of conduct in arresting militate against the validity and wisdom of the evil tendencies of men and women is
the scheme. Our legislators would do well difficult to establish. It is becoming more to study the matter more thoroughly, in and more a matter of certainty that the view of present inefficiency, alike of methmost efficacious method of combating ods and men.
Fast living, in the sense of such living given time. Excitement, physical or menas shortens life, is a much more common tal, is the cause of the rapid rate at which evil than is generally supposed, and we such people are living. The love of exbelieve that in the case of a very great citement is a vice, as possibly evil in itself number of persons, the rapidity of pulse as love of strong drink, or gambling or is above the normal average. Every man's licentiousness. It matters not what kind life may be measured by pulse beats. He of excitement, all excitement is fast living,
, will live, accidents excepted, to make a and begets a feeling of exhaustion in interdefinite number of these, and his life will vals of indulgence which clamors for relief be shortened in proportion to the excess from some other form of stimulant. Thus of work performed by his vital organs in a it is that the universal demand for artificial