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Ille dolum ridens, Quo vincula nectitis ? inquit.
Solvite me, pueri ; satis est potuisse videri.
Carmina, quae voltis, cognoscite; carmina vobis,
Huic aliud mercedis erit. Simul incipit ipse.
Tum vero in numerum Faunosque ferasque videres
Ludere, tum rigidas motare cacumina quercus ;
Nec tantum Phoebo gaudet Parnasia rupes,
Nec tantum Rhodope miratur et Ismarus Orphea.
Namque canebat, uti magnum per inane coacta
Semina terrarumque animaeque marisque fuissent
Et liquidi simul ignis ; ut his exordia primis

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24.] It is difficult to decide between the Vergilianae, 8), so external authority in two possible interpretations of satis est such cases goes for little. • Orphea' is potuisse videri,' satis est quod potuisse doubtless a dissyllable; see on G. 1. 279. visi estis,' and satis est quod potui videri.' 31–40.] Silenus' song. He begins by The one is supported by A. 5. 231, “pos- describing the formation of the world from sunt quia posse videntur,” the other by the four elements, the separation of land A. 8. 604, “ videri jam poterat legio.” If and water, and of the sky from the earth, the former be true, videri’ probably would and the production of vegetable and animal mean to be seen ' rather than to seem life. This opening seems to be imitated

- it is enough to have shown your power,' from the beginning of the song of Orpheus the sense resembling that of Ov. Her. 12. in Apoll. Rh. l. 496 foll., as Ursinus re76, quoted by Wund., “ Perdere posse sat marks, though the cosmogony here is Epi. est, si quem iuvet ipsa potestas," and the curean, and the phraseology Lucretian. expression being apparently almost pro- That Virg. knew the passage is shown by verbial. The latter receives some confirma- his imitation of it in Iopas' song, A. l. tion from videre,' v. 14, and from the 742. stress laid on the privilege of beholding the 31.] •Magnum inane' and semina’ are gods unharmed (see on v. 13., 4. 15, 16., Lucretian expressions, the void and the 10. 26).

atoms which were supposed to move in it. 25.] 'Cognoscite' = 'audite.' “ Cognosce Lucretius did not allow that the four eleprooemia rixae," Juv. 3. 288.

ments were the ultimate causes of things 26.] •Incipit ipse,' A. 10. 5. Here it (1. 715), though he admitted them to be seems to have the sense of ultro,' without component parts of the universe (5. 235 further prelude'-without waiting for them foll.), so that perhaps we may be meant to to press him.'

press the meaning of semina,' the atoms 27.] 'In numerum,' Forb. Emmen. out of which air, &c. were formed. See, comp. Lucr. 2. 631, “ Ludunt in numerum. however, on v. 33. que exsultant." The usage is like that in 32.] •Animae' for .air,' is also Lucre5. 58 foll. The passage seems to be imi- tian, 1. 715, &c. tated more or less from Lucr. 4. 580 foll.

33.] 'Liquidi ignis ’ is again from Lucr. 29.] The mention of Parnassus, Rhodope, 6. 205, the èypov rūp of Aratus. Exand Ismarus is an indirect way of saying ordia' is occasionally used by Lucr. in the that the mountains as well as the oaks made sense of the atoms themselves, 2. 333, &c. demonstrations of joy, as in 5. 62.

(more commonly “primordia'); elsewhere, 30.] ‘Rhodope,' G. 4. 461. Ismarus,' however, he employs it more vaguely in the G. 2. 37. Orpheus is called • Ismarius,' sense of beginning or origin (e. g. 5. 471), Ov. Am. 3. 9. 21. Miratur' was changed and this seems to be its sense here. At the by Heins. from the Roman and other MSS. same time ex his primis' seems intended into ‘mirantur,' but Wagn. recalls the old to recall Lucr. 1. 61, “ Corpora prima, quod reading, which is perhaps more Virgilian. ex illis sunt omnia primis,” so as verbally to The substitution of plural verbs for singular favour the doctrine referred to on v. 31, as is common even in the best MSS. in pas- that which Lucr. opposes. All that can be sages where sense and grammar would said is that as usual Virg. is an artist, not a suffer by the change (see Wagn. Quaestiones philosopher, even though professedly philo

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Omnia et ipse tener mundi concreverit orbis ;
Tum durare solum et discludere Nerea ponto
Coeperit et rerum paulatim sumere formas;
Iamque novum terrae stupeant lucescere solem,
Altius atque cadant submotis nubibus imbres;
Incipiant silvae cum primum surgere, cumque
Rara per ignaros errent animalia montis.

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sophizing. The general drift of the whole 38.] The trajection of atque' is unpassage, the production of the world by the usual, and not sufficiently supported by separation of the so-called elements, is evi- Lucr. 3. 531, where Lachmann reads usdently from Lucr. 5. 416–508.

que adeo’ for atque animo;' but there 34.] Mundus’ is the whole universe, as can be no doubt that it is intended here, as in 4. 50, earth, sea and sky. “Ipse' • altius' would bave no force if joined, as is added to distinguish the formed universe Wagn. proposes, with the previous line. from the rudimental exordia.' 'Tener'is "Submotis nubibus,' as the clouds would apparently opposed to aridus,' Lucr. l. be drawn up by the sun. Virg. expresses 809, and so here it seems meant to express himself as if clouds and rain had both exthe fusile nature of an early formation, as isted in the chaotic state, creation merely contrasted with durare solum,' v. 35. implying separation-language which agrees Wagn. refers to Lucr. 5. 780,“ Mundi novi- with the Lucretian use of imber' for water, tatem et mollia terrae Arva.” This agrees 1. 715. with concreverit.'

39.] •Silvae.' In the brief description 35.] •Tum' goes with coeperit,'not of the creation, G. 2. 336 foll., which with canebat,' as Heyne thinks. Durare' should be compared with this, the woods is a transitive verb, used intransitively, a fre- are supposed to exist before the beasts are quent habit with Virg., though there appears turned into them, like the mountains here ; to be no other instance where durare' has but the language in either case is poetical, the sense of .durescere.' • Discludere' is and the remark is only important as showanother Lucretian word, 5. 438, “to shut ing that Virgil does not aim at scientific up apart in the sea,” as if Nereus were in- precision. dependent of the sea, and the sea had itself 40.] • Rara’ appears to imply that they existed before the creation. Comp. the were produced one by one, so that they personification of Nereus, Pers. 1. 94, where would not at first overrun the mountains. it is apparently intended to be ridiculous. • Ignaros' is restored by Wagn. from at

36.] Formas rerum’expresses generally least one good MS. (the Rom.) for what is developed in detail vv. 37–40. 'ignotos,' as more poetical, the strangeShapes' are opposed to the shapeless ness being supposed to be reciprocal, as in chaos ; and there may be a force too in the A. 10. 706 noie. This seems better than plural, as a characteristic of chaos was its to suppose 'ignarus’ to be used passively, uniformity.

erat toto naturae as in Sallust, Ovid, and Tacitus. At the vultus in orbe, Quem dixere Chaos," Ov. same time, as ignaros' implies 'ignotos,' M. 1. 6. Comp. also ib. vv. 87, 88, which there may be a reference, as Burmann in fact form a comment on Virgil's words, thinks, to the use of .notus' as an epithet “Sic modo quae fuerat rudis et sine imagine for the haunts of wild beasts (ņoea). The tellus Induit ignotas hominum conversa mountains are the natural home of wild figuras.”

beasts, as in Soph. Ant. 350, Onpòs ópeool37.] The sun is developed, and an atmo- Bára, Lucr. 1. 404, “montivagae ferai," sphere formed. Comp. Lucr. 5. 471 foll., 2. 1081. The whole line is probably imi. and contrast the language of the poet-philo- tated from Lucr. 5. 822, “ Terra .... ani. sopher with that of the philosophizing poet. mal prope certo tempore fudit Omne quod The words of Virg. cannot be pressed, or in magnis bacchatur montibu' passim.” we might suppose him to mean that the Hence animalia' is to be confined to sun found its place later than the earth, beasts, the creation of man being mentioned and so to contradict Lucretius. Anyhow in the next line. • solem' is the important word, the earth 41-60.] He tells of the creation and being merely brought in for the sake of early history of man, Deucalion, Saturn, poetical ornament. See note on 2. 12. and Prometheus-also of Hylas, and of

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Hinc lapides Pyrrhae iactos, Saturnia regna,
Caucasiasque refert volucres furtumque Promethei.
His adjungit, Hylan nautae quo fonte relictum
Clamassent, ut litus, Hyla, Hyla, omne sonaret ;
Et fortunatam, si numquam armenta fuissent,
Pasiphaen nivei solatur amore iuvenci.
Ah, virgo infelix, quae te dementia cepit !
Proetides inplerunt falsis mugitibus agros :
At non tam turpis pecudum tamen ulla secuta est
Concubitus, quamvis collo timuisset aratrum
Et saepe in levi quaesisset cornua fronte.
Ah, virgo infelix, tu nunc in montibus erras :
Ille, latus niveum molli fultus hyacintho,

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the song.

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Pasiphae and her passion-how she fol- tion of the fountain would not enter into lowed the bull in vain through the mountains, beseeching the wood-nymphs to in- 45.] So Dido of herself, A. 4. 657, tercept him. This mythology is a strange Felix, heu nimium felix, si litora tantum sequel to the quasi-Epicurean cosmogony: Numquam Dardaniae tetigissent nostra but there is nothing unnatural in making a carinae.” Comp. also G. 2. 458. In the cosmogony of some kind precede the present passage the meaning seems to be legendary history of the world, as in Ovid's that the existence of the bull was the Metamorphoses. There seems to be no curse of Pasiphae's life, the greatness of principle in the choice of the legends, or in the infliction being expressed by saying the different degrees of prominence given to that but for this she would indeed have each, e.g., the details about Pasiphae as been happy. Fortunatam'then is equivacompared with the brief mention of the lent to .quae fortunata fuisset,' as in Greek earlier stories.

we might have had äv with participle or 41.] The peopling of the world by adjective. Pyrrha, the reign of Saturn, and the punish- 46.] He tells how Pasiphae solaced herment and crime of Prometheus, are men- self, as in vv. 62, 3, “ circumdat . . erigit" tioned without any regard to chronological for canit ut se circumdederint et erexeorder, as the first was really the latest in rint.' Elsewhere, as in G. 4. 464, the point of time, Pyrrha being the niece and passion is the thing to be solaced : here it daughter-in-law of Prometheus (Ov. M. is itself made the solace, by a natural change 1. 390). It is very possible however that of aspect. Virgil may intend to represent Deucalion 47.] Virgo' used of other than unand Pyrrha as the actual creators of man- married women, as in Hor. 2 Od. 8. 22, kind, in which case the reign of Saturn &c. Serv. quotes a line from Calvus, on and the story of Prometheus would na. Io, “Ah virgo infelix, herbis pasceris turally follow them, either from a confu- amaris,” which Virgil would seem to have sion of his own, or on the authority of a imitated. • Quae' here, and perhaps in 2. different, series of legends. “Saturnia regna' 69, seems to mean rather how is it that is not in apposition to lapides Pyrrhae this madness has seized thee?' than what iactos,' but a distinct item in the enu- madness is this?' but it is not easy to say. meration, as Jahn rightly remarks against 48.] *The daughters of Proetus fancied Wagner.

themselves cows : yet even they did not 42.] Volucres' for the single eagle, proceed to such monstrous lengths, though which formed part of the punishment of their delusion was complete.'

• Falsis,' Prometheus. For the story see Hesiod 'counterfeited,' as 'fallere' is used, A. 1.684. and Aeschylus.

50.] • Collo,' dative, as A. 2. 130, 729. 43.] The tale of Hylas from the legend 51.] Levi,' “ humana scilicet," Serv. of the Argonauts, given by Apollonius, 53.] ‘Niveum seems to be emphatic, Theocritus, and Propertius. •Quo' for recalling the epithet in v. 46. •Fultus • quomodo' (1. 54 note), as the identifica- merely expresses .reclining,' being used

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Si

Ilice sub nigra pallentis ruminat herbas,
Aut aliquam in magno sequitur grege. Claudite, Nymphae,
Dictaeae Nymphae, nemorum iam claudite saltus, 56
qua

forte ferant oculis sese obvia nostris
Errabunda bovis vestigia ; forsitan illum,
Aut herba captum viridi, aut armenta secutum,
Perducant aliquae stabula ad Gortynia vaccae. 60
Tum canit Hesperidum miratam mala puellam;
Tum Phaethontiadas musco circumdat amarae
Corticis, atque solo proceras erigit alnos.
Tum canit, errantem Permessi ad flumina Gallum

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where no support is given by the thing the outlets be not guarded he may, get leaned against. “ Pedibus fulcire pruinas,' away from her, or with Voss to suppose Prop. 1. 8. 7; "aerumnis cor luctificabile that captum . secutum are meant to fulta,” Pers. 1. 78, like špeídeolat.

account for his wandering, and aliquae 54.] Pallentis,' though doubtless a vaccae to suggest the means of bringing translation of xwpós, is an unusual epithet him back after the facilities for escape have of grass, but a contrast was probably in- been removed. tended between the grass and the dark 61-73.] He tells next the story of Atagreen of the “ilex.' The notion of Serv., lanta and the sisters of Phaethon, and how approved by one or two later commentators, Gallus once fell in with one of the Muses, tható pallentis ' expresses the change of the who took him to the Aonian mount, where colour of the grass caused by mastication, Linus hailed him as the successor of Hesiod. need hardly be discussed.

62.] • Circumdat: see on v. 46. Phae55.] ‘Claudite: the preceding sentence thontiadas,' an extension of the patronymic had expressed the thoughts of Pasiphae: we to sisters, as Tethys in Ov. F. 5. 81, renow have her words.

ferred to by Forb., is called “Titanis,' being 56.] · Saltus,' the glades or open spaces Titan's sister. Voss makes it equivalent to in forests, where cattle pastured and wild Heliades, Phaethon being elsewhere found beasts wandered, called vacui,' G. 3. 143, as a name of the sun : but this would be 'aperti,' A. 11. 904, and so closed here, as most unseasonable here, where the story of they are hedged round in hunting by nets the younger Phaethon is alluded to. and watchers (G. 1. 140., A. 4. 121), to 63.] ‘Alnos ’ is a sort of factitive or cogprevent the animals from breaking out. nate accusative, 'raises them as alders,' or

57.] •Si qua forte,' 'in the hope that by 'into alders.' Elsewhere, as in A. 10. 190, some chance.'

“ Inde domum, si forte pe. they are said to have been turned into popdem, si forte tulisset, Me refero,” A. 2. 756. lars. The story was that they found their

58.] Whether vestigia' is put simply brother's body on the banks of the Erifor the feet, as in A. 5. 566 and elsewhere, danus, where they bewailed him for four or the footprints of the bull are sought for, months, till they were turned into riveras leading to the discovery of the bull itself trees, which would naturally suggest the (comp. 2. 12), is not clear. Strict propriety thought of alders (G.1.136.,2.110.452 note). of expression would perhaps demand the 64.] There is of course great incongruity former, as the footprints might be dis- in the introduction of this supposed intercovered even if the bull bad escaped : but view of Gallus with the Muses as part of such an argument can hardly be pressed. Silenus' legendary song: but it may very • Forsitan.

introduces a fresh well have been intended by Virgil to hope: he may have fallen in with the herd, heighten the compliment to his friend. It or cows may have come up with him as he would have been natural at this point of the was browsing, and so he may arrive at the song to tell some old story, showing how Cretan stalls (Gortyna being celebrated, ac- men in elder and better days used to be adcording to Serv., for the herds of the sun, mitted to familiar intercourse with the gods, whose daughter Pasiphae was). This seems as Ovid, e.g., introduces the tale of Philemon better than with Ruaeus to understand and Baucis (compare the concluding lines Pasiphae to be expressing her fear that if of Catullus' poem on Peleus and Thetis) ;

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vaccae

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Aonas in montis ut duxerit una sororum,
Utque viro Phoebi chorus adsurrexerit omnis;
Ut Linus haec illi, divino carmine pastor,
Floribus atque apio crinis ornatus amaro,
Dixerit: Hos tibi dant calamos, en accipe, Musae,
Ascraeo quos ante seni, quibus ille solebat
Cantando rigidas deducere montibus ornos.
His tibi Grynei nemoris dicatur origo,
Ne quis sit lucus, quo se plus iactet Apollo.
Quid loquar, aut Scyllam Nisi, quam fama secuta est

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and by recounting Gallus' experience as a games. There seems no reason for its use story of those times, Virgil in fact invests here, beyond its natural appropriateness : him with all the associations of heroic an- the epithet ‘amarum' too appears to be tiquity, which would not have been the case simply descriptive. Martyn takes ‘apium' had the mention of him been reserved to to be smallage or celery. the end, as Heyne, following Scaliger, 70.] 'Senex,' indicative not of age, but thinks it should have been. Thus the of antiquity, as it is applied to Lucilius various attempts to evade the incongruity Hor. 2 S. 25. 1. 34, to Attius and Pacuvius, by supposing that Silenus' intention is to id. 2 Ep. 1. 56, and to Aristophanes Pers. 1. describe the origin of the Grynean grove, 124. but that he is made artfully to resign the 71.] The same result is ascribed to task into the hands of Gallus, whose verses magic, A. 4. 491. See on 8. 3. It does Voss further supposes him to borrow for not seem to have been a traditional characthe remainder of the song, the story of teristic of the effect of Hesiod's poetry: Scylla (see note on v. 74), appear to be not but the image can hardly have been chosen only illusory, but founded on a misconcep- arbitrarily. tion of Virgil's meaning. The story itself 72.] The story of the origin of the grove resembles one which Hesiod tells of himself of Grynium or Grynia in Aeolia, Serv. says, at the beginning of the Theogony: and the was told in a poem by Euphorion of Chal. allusion to Hesiod, v. 70, as Gallus' prede- cis, whose works Gallus (see 10. 50) transcessor, shows that the resemblance is not lated or imitated. A serpent had been merely accidental.

killed there by Apollo; the town 65.] Una sororum' is used Prop. 4. founded by Grynus, son of Eurypylus, in 1. 37 for one of the Muses, where the consequence of an oracular response; and context sufficiently indicates what sisterhood its grove was the scene of the death of Calis meant. Here the mention of the Aonian chas after a defeat, the circumstances of mountains suggests the epithet 'Aoniae' or which are differently related, by a rival • Aonides.'

augur. 66.] Heyne comp. Il. 1. 533 foll., where 73.] Apollo is called Gryneus A. 4. 345. the gods rise at the approach of Zeus. With the language of the line comp. v. 11.

67.] Ut' comes after “ut ... utque,' It seems to be imitated from Callim. on as dum after dum ... dumque,' 5. 77, Delos v. 269, oudé tiç alın Taidwv roocomp. by Wund. • Divino carmine' with cóvòɛ Devo tepelnoetai äly. pastor,' expressing the combination of 74-86.] Lastly, he tells the two stories attributes which made Linus an appro- of Scylla, daughter of Nisus, whose lower priate hero of pastoral poetry. There seems parts were changed into those of a sea no evidence that Linus was supposed to monster, and who thus became the terror ever have been a shepherd, but it was of Ulysses' ships, and of Tereus, his bloody natural for a pastoral poet to conceive of feast, and his transformation. In short he him as such.

sings all that Phoebus used to sing to Hya68.] Parsley was a favourite material cinthus, till evening warned the shepherds for garlands, used by a shepherd in Theocr. home. 3. 22 to form a crown for his love, worn 74.] • Aut Scyllam 'is the reading of all commonly at feasts (Hor. 1 Od. 36. 16, the MSS. except the Roman, as vouched &c.), and given as a prize in the Nemean for by Pierius, which gives ut.' The latter

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