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made some endeavors to get the better of foreign of Bonaparte, than Gustavus IV., but he was little influence, and recover his lost authority, all his able to give effect to his wishes; his judgment efforts were vain. Nothing could exceed the an- being weak, and his forces inadequate to contend archy and confusion that prevailed, encouraged and with the French, especially after the latter, by the fomented both by Russia and France, to further Treaty of Tilsit, had found means to detach and their private ends. The king is supposed to have conciliate the emperor Alexander. After this disfallen a sacrifice to these disturbances, dying wholly astrous treaty, Gustavus became not only the object dispirited in the year 1771.
of French resentment, but of Russian rapacity. He was succeeded by his eldest son Gustavus III., He was peremptorily forbidden to admit the Engtwenty-five years old at the time of his accession; a lish into his ports, and Finland was quickly wrested Swede by birth, and an active and spirited prince, from him. The Danes also attacked him. In this who was bent upon recovering what his predecessors dilemma, England would have assisted him if she had too tamely surrendered of their rights and pre- could have trusted him, but, in truth, his rashness rogatives; in which, being supported by France, he and incapacity were become too apparent to justify had the good fortune to succeed. Having found any such confidence. A revolution was almost means to conciliate the army, and to reconcile the necessary, nor was it long before a conspiracy was people to an attack upon the aristocrats, who were formed, which, in the year 1809, succeeded so far as betraying the interests of the country, he established to induce him to abdicate. His uncle, the Duke of a new constitution, 1772, with such good manage- Sudermania, being appointed Protector, and very ment and address, that the public tranquillity was soon afterwards King, by the title of Charles XIII., scarcely for a moment disturbed. This new arrange- the states carried their resentment against Gustavus ment threw great power into the hands of the king, IV. so far as to exclude his posterity also from the by leaving him the option of convening and dissolving the states, with the entire disposal of the army, Charles XIII. submitted to new restrictions on navy, and all public appointments, civil, military, the kingly authority, and having no issue, left it to and ecclesiastical. Some alterations were made in the nation to nominate an heir to the crown. Their 1789, but nothing could reconcile the party whom first choice fell upon the prince of Augustenburg, he had superseded; at least it is probable that this a Danish subject, but his death happening soon was the occasion of the catastrophe which terminated afterwards, not without suspicion of foul play, Bernathe life of the unfortunate monarch. Towards the dotte, one of Bonaparte's generals, was in a very excommencement of the French Revolution, in the traordinary manner nominated in his room by the year 1792, when he was preparing to assist Louis king, and approved by the states. As crown prince XVI. (an unpopular undertaking), he was assas- of Sweden, tempted by the offer of Norway, he sinated at a masquerade by a person encouraged, if joined the confederacy against Napoleon in 1813, not directly employed, by the discontented party of and was present at the battle of Leipsic. On the 1772.
death of Charles XIII., 1818, he succeeded to the Gustavus III. was brave, polite, well informed, crown, having, by the Treaty of Vienna, 1815, oband of a ready eloquence; but profligate in his tained Norway, and the island of Guadaloupe. He habits of life, and careless as to matters of religion. died in 1844, and was succeeded by his son Oscar, He promoted letters, agriculture, and commerce as Charles XIV. The internal history of Sweden as far as his means would enable him to do so. His
has for some years had the good fortune to be unmeasures appear to have been more arbitrary than eventful. It is impossible, however, that recent his disposition.
European transactions can have failed deeply to stir His son Gustavus IV. being only fourteen years the public mind, and to create great anxiety in the old at the time of his father's death, the Duke of
Before the eyes of Sweden a French Sudermania, brother of the deceased king, became and English force destroyed the farthest outwork regent for a short time. No monarch in Europe of that system of fortresses with which Russia armed manifested a greater zeal in the cause of the French her acquisitions from Sweden, probably as a base of royal family, or disgust at the arbitrary proceedings farther aggressions; and on the position taken by
that power it may depend whether it shall recover a one which involved the unhappy queen in inextricportion of its lost provinces and strength, or remain able difficulties, and probably hastened her death; a small and feeble power under the dictation of but which seems still to be enveloped in considerRussia.
able mystery. A German physician of the court The history of DENMARK during the eighteenth (Struensee), who had risen from rather a low station century, and the beginning of the nineteenth, is un- in life to be first minister, having rendered himself interesting, in a political point of view. Incapable extremely obnoxious by extensive reforms in all the of taking any leading or conspicuous part in the public offices of state, civil and military-reforms affairs of Europe, all that we know concerning her which, had they succeeded, might have done him relates rather to other countries, as Russia, Sweden, great credit as a statesman, was accused of intriguPrussia, France, and England; in whose friendships ing with the young queen, and by the violence of and hostilities she has been compelled, by circum- his enemies, headed and encouraged by Juliana stances, to take a part, little advantageous, if not Maria, the queen dowager, and her son Prince entirely detrimental, to her own interests.
Frederick, was brought most ignominiously to the Seven kings have occupied the throne since the scaffold. The unfortunate Queen Caroline, whose close of the seventeenth century, but it will be life was probably saved only by the spirited interponecessary to say very little of any of them. Fred- sition of the British minister, quitted Denmark after erick IV., who came to the crown in 1699, died in the execution of Struensee and his coadjutor Brandt, 1730; and was succeeded by Christian VI., a monarch and having retired to Zell, in Germany, painfully who paid great attention to the welfare of his sub- separated from her children, there ended her days, jects, in lightening the taxes, and encouraging trade May 10, 1775, in the twenty-fourth year of her age. and manufactures. He reigned sixteen years, and During the latter part of his life, Christian VII., was succeeded by his son Frederick V., in the year whose understanding had always been weak, fell 1746. Frederick trod in the footsteps of his father, into a state of mental derangement, and the govby promoting knowledge, encouraging the man- ernment was carried on by the queen dowager and ufactures, and extending the commerce of his Prince Frederick, as co-regents, with the aid of country.
Barnstoff, an able and patriotic minister. In 1773, He had nearly been embroiled with Russia during the cession of Ducal Holstein to Denmark by Russia the six months' reign of the unfortunate Peter III., took place, according to the treaty above spoken of. who, the moment he became emperor, resolved to This was a very important acquisition, as giving her revenge on the court of Denmark the injuries which the command of the whole Cimbrian peninsula, and had been committed on his ancestors of the House enabling her, by forming a canal from Kiel to conof Holstein Gottorp. In these attempts he was to nect the Baltic with the German Ocean. In the be assisted by the king of Prussia. The king of Continental wars of 1788, 1793, Denmark remained Denmark prepared to resist the attacks with which neuter, but by joining the armed neutrality, in 1800, he was threatened, but the deposition and death of she excited the suspicions and resentment of Great the emperor fortunately relieved him from all ap- Britain, and being supposed to favor not only Rusprehensions, and he was able to compromise matters sia but France, became involved in a contest, which with Catherine II., by a treaty that was not to take was attended with losses and vexations the most effect till the grand duke Paul came of age. By melancholy and deplorable. this convention, the empress ceded to Denmark, in Christian VII. died in 1788, and was succeeded the name of her son, the duchy of Sleswick, and so by his son Frederick VI., who had, a few years bemuch of Holstein as appertained to the Gottorp fore, on entering the seventeenth year of his age, branch of that family, in exchange for the provinces been admitted to his proper share in the governof Oldenburg and Dalmenhorst.
ment, having with singular moderation and pruFrederick V. died in 1766, and was succeeded by
dence succeeded in taking the administration of his son Christian VII., who in 1768 married the affairs out of the hands of the queen dowager and princess Caroline Matilda of England, sister to King
Denmark appears to have suffered George III. The principal event in this reign was greatly from the peculiarity of her situation during
the struggles arising out of the French Revolution, being continually forced into alliances contrary to her own interests, and made at last to contribute more largely than almost any other state to the establishment of peace. The cession of Norway to Sweden, which had been held out by the Allies as a boon to the latter power, to induce her to join the last confederacy against France, was a severe loss to Denmark, and very ill requitted by the transfer of Pomerania and the Isle of Rugen, which were all that she received in exchange.
After the Treaty of Vienna, the Holsteiners, Germans in their habits, language, and national
feelings, showed a strong distaste to the Danish ne
government. On the death of King Frederick in 1838, the strong patriotic feelings which made his successor Christian VIII. popular in Denmark, had the opposite effect in Holstein and Sleswick. In 1842, projects were formally discussed in Sleswick for a severance from Denmark. Christian died on the 20th of January, 1848, and his son Frederick VII. had not been many weeks on the throne when the revolutionary storm of 1848 swept by. The German portion of the Danish dominions revolted, and received assistance from the German National Assembly. The Prussian general, Wrangel, was sent with an army into the duchies, and after driving the Danes from Sleswick he marched into Jutland. A fierce contest followed. It ended in the bloody battle of Idsted, fought on the 23d of July, 1849, in which the Prussian general, Willisen, was defeated with great slaughter by the Danes under General Krogh. England interposed to terminate a war which threatened serious consequences to the peace of Europe, but the position of Prussia towards the other German powers prompted her to abandon the cause of the principalities, and acknowledge them as part of Denmark. The failure of a successor to the duchies in the direct line on the death of Frederick VII., 1863, ended, after numerous disputes, in the annexation of both by Prussia in 1867.
The NETHERLANDS, including the Dutch and Belgian states, have experienced but one event of great importance since the Treaty of Vienna. The Dutch and the Belgians were severed by language, national feeling, and especially by religion, since the Belgians were still zealous adherents of the Church of Rome. Many jealousies had been occasioned by
these elements of discord, and soon after the French Revolution of 1830, some disputes with the press helping the discontent of the Belgians, riots broke out in the streets of Brussels. Several “sympathizers" passed over from France, and by their aid, what seemed mere turbulence taking a national and political turn, men of influence joined the movement. A deputation was sent to the Hague to represent the state of Brussels to the king, and to demand the correction of certain abuses. The answers returned by his majesty were favorable, and the Prince of Orange and Prince Frederick set out for Belgium with power to settle the terms of a new convention. But they were attended by a formidable body of troops.
This alarmed and irritated the people, and the Prince of Orange was obliged to enter Brussels without a guard. He proceeded to the palace, and forth with commenced a conference with the chiefs of the party thus in arms against his father's government. The demand was then made of an entire and final separation of Belgium from Holland; but the promise was given of a loyal adherence, should the two countries be rendered independent of each other, to the reigning dynasty.
With this proposition the prince returned to the Hague. It was entertained by the king, who offered to submit it to the states-general. This was done; but Belgium, in the meantime, remained in the most frightful condition; and many of those who had engaged in revolution began to repent of the part which they had taken.
It was now,
however, too late for either side to turn back, and after some further negotiation, Prince Frederick marched against Brussels at the head of a numerous army. He entered the city on the 23d of September, and the conflict was carried on for four days, the people having commenced their resistance with apparently scarcely any means of defence, but finally triumphing against all the efforts of a regular and wellaccoutred army. At a conference of the great powers, Britain, France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, at London, it was agreed to acknowledge the independence of Belgium. The Duke of Nemours, the son of Louis Philippe, was selected as king, but there were strong political reasons against his acce tance; and the crown was conferred on Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, the widower of the Princess Charlotte, who was inaugurated at Brussels on July
21, 1831. The government of the Hague, how- 1850, by whom he had issue the crown prince Leoever, did not abandon its claims without a struggle, pold, duke of Brabant, an one other son nd and the fortifications of Antwerp were defended by daughter. He conducted himself with prudenoe, General Chassé against French and Belgian troops firmness, and moderation, with constant regard to until the winter of 1832. In that year, Leopold the principles of the Belgian constitution. He married the Princess Louise, daughter of Louis died December, 1865, and was succeeded by his son Philippe, king of the French, who died in October, Leopold II.
HE southern states of Europe under
went such extraordinary revolutions during the preponderance of the French under Bonaparte, that what happened to them during the eigh
teenth century, previously to these surprising events, seems comparatively of very little consequence; of the changes and disturbances to which they were subject through the interference of the French we have already treated.
SWITZERLAND, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, was involved in disputes between the Protestants and Catholics, which were attended with very unpleasant circumstances. These differences, however, were brought to an end by a convention in 1717, which established an equality of religious rights. Things remained very quiet in most of the cantons from this time to the French Revolution, with the exception of the towns of Geneva and Berne, and a few other places, where a disposition was manifested to limit and restrain the aristocratical governments, which only ied, at that time, to such judicious reforms as were sufficient to appease the ardor of the people. These disputes, however, may be held to have contributed to the evils which befel the country afterwards. Though the states endeavored to preserve their neutrality during the progress of the French Revolution, it was not possible, while revolutionary principles were afloat, to keep the country so free from internal disputes and
commotions, or so united as to deter the French from interfering. Geneva had already been cajoled out of her independence; but the first decisive occasion afforded to the French of taking an active part in the affairs of Switzerland, arose out of the disputes in 1798, relative to the Pays de Vaud; the gentry and citizens of which, not thinking themselves sufficiently favored by the rulers of Berne and Fribourg, began to be clamorous for a change. The peasantry of Basle also, instigated by an emissary of the French Directory, demanded a new constitution. These disputes opened the way for the introduction of French troops, first under the orders of the Directory, and afterwards under Bonaparte, as has been shown under the articles on France; and from that period to the conclusion of the war in 1815, Switzerland can scarcely be said to have known a year of repose.
Subsequently to the Treaty of Vienna this small cluster of republics, though often threatened by their powerful neighbors, remained untouched. They had many internal disputes, which, in 1847, broke into a fierce war between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic cantons, the former suppressing the monasteries, the latter throwing themselves into the hands of the Jesuits. The Roman Catholics formed a separate confederation, called the Sunderbund, and threatened a dissolution of the federal government; but in December, 1847, they submitted to a confederate army, and the scenes which