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629 Conversion of Prince Christopher Radziral. 630 pression, of which it is clear we made would know the reason of his derision. so little use.

A promise being made to the gentleDuring the reign of Henry 7th, the man that no harm should be done him, bright epoch of Italian art, little of he declared secretly to the prince, taste or elegance was observable in “ that in their return from Rome, he England. The meridian glory of Ra- had lost the box of relics which had phael illuminated the Roman school; been given him to keep; and that, not but our island was unblessed with daring to divulge this, for fear of puany painter of eminence. The only nishment, he had found means to get man who, at this time, could have the one like it, which he had filled with slightest claim to the title, was John the little bones of beasts, and such Mabure; but his exclusive merit was trifles as resembled the relics he had in close and high finishing.

lost: that seeing so much honour (To be continued.)

paid to that heap of filth, and that they even ascribed to it the virtue of driv

ing away devils, he had just cause to THE CONVERSION OF PRINCE CHRIS- wonder at it !” The prince believed

TOPHER RADZIVAL, OF POLAND, this story to be true; but nevertheless This gentleman being extremely sorry being desirous of getting farther light that a prince of his family had em- into this imposture, he sent for the braced the reformed religion, went to monks the very next day, and desired Rome, and paid all imaginable ho- them to inquire whether there were nours to the pope. The Roman pon- any more demoniacs, who wanted tiff, being also desirous of gratifying the assistance of his relics. A few him in a peculiar manner, gave him at days after, they brought him another his departure a box filled with relics. man possessed with an evil spirit, who Having returned to his house, and the acted the same part with him who had news of the relics being spread abroad, appeared before. The prince comcertain friars, some months after, camé manded him to be exorcised in his and told the prince, that a man was presence: but as all the exorcisms possessed with the devil, who had which are usually employed on these been exorcised to no purpose; they occasions proved ineffectual, he ordertherefore besought him, for the sake ed this man to stay in his palace the of the poor unhappy wretch, to lend next day, and bade the monks withthem the precious relics which he had draw. After they were gone, he put brought from Rome. The prince the demoniac under his Tartarian granted them very readily; upon which grooms, who, pursuant to the orders they were carried to church in solemn which had been given them, first expomp, the monks all going in proces- horted him to confess the cheat; but, sion on that occasion. At last, they as he persisted obstinately in it, still were laid on the altar; and, on the day making his furious and dreadful gesappointed, a numberless multitude of tures, six of them chastised him so people flocking to this show, after the severely with rods and scourges, that usual exorcisms, the relics were ap- he was obliged to implore the prince's plied. At that very instant, the pre- mercy; who pardoned him the instant tended evil spirit came out of the man, he had confessed the truth. with the usual postures and grimaces. The next morning, the prince sent Every one cried out, A Miracle! and for the friars; when the wretch in questhe prince lifted up his eyes and hands tion, throwing himself at his feet, proto heaven, to return thanks for bring- tested that he was not possessed, and ing home so holy a thing, which per- had never been so, but that those formed such miracles.

friars had forced him to act the part But some days after, as he was in of one who was so. The monks, at that admiration of transport and joy, first, besought the prince not

to believe and was bestowing the highest eulo- this, saying, that it was an artifice of giums on the virtue of these relics, the devil, who spoke through that he observed, that a young gentleman man's mouth. But the prince anof his household, who had the keeping swered, that if the

Tartarians bad been of that rich treasure, began to smile, able to force the devil to tell truth, and make certain "gestures; which they would also be able to extort it shewed he only laughed at his words. from the mouth of those friars. Now, The prince flew in a passion, and these monks, seeing

themselves put to

ON THE DESCENT OF CHRIST INTO

HELL,

it in this manner, confessed the im- | righteous and the wicked may both be posture, saying, that they had done in hades at the same time, though in all this with a good intention, and to distinct places: such was the case of check the progress of heresy. But Lazarus and the rich man. Even the the prince offered up his hearty thanks ancient heathens had this notion of to God, for having been so gracious as hades, or the invisible world, as apto discover such an imposture; and pears from Virgil and others. Hell, in now entertaining a suspicion of a re- its modern acceptation, implies a place ligion which was defended by such of torment, or perpetual punishment: diabolical practices, though they went but, that hades and hell (in this sense) by the name of pious frauds, said, that are quite distinct things, appears from he would no longer depend on any Rev. xx. 14. There will be no hades, person for his salvation, and therefore (or state of separation) when there began to read the scriptures with un- will be no more death: but hell (conparalleled assiduity. In six months sidered as a place of punishment) will time, all which he spent in reading exist when death and hades are no and prayer, he made a wonderful pro- more. gress in piety, and in the knowledge When I use the phrase in the Creed, of the mystery of the gospel. After or in our third Article, I annex this which, he, with his whole family, pro- idea to it: I believe our Lord departed fessed the Protestant religion.

into the invisible world, or state of the dead; that his human soul was separated from the body for a time; but on the third morning it reassumed or

reanimated the body; and, therefore, In the Fifth Number of the Imperial he is said to have arisen from the Magazine, (column 492) a question them that slept. I use no mental re

dead, and become the first-fruits of was inserted respecting the word Hell, as used in Scripture, and of our Lord's servation in this; I take the word hell descent into it. On this subject we

in its original signification, as imply

ing the invisible world, or state of sehave received several letters from our Correspondents ; who, while they coin- parate souls: but, that Christ descendcide in the general tendency of their ed into hell, (taking the word in its remarks, take distinct views of this If this my idea, here expressed, do not

modern sense,) I by no means believe. important article. Three of these letters we insert in this Number, resery

remove the scruples of your Bristol ing others for some future opportunity. in like manner, then let each act ac

correspondent, or others who hesitate On the Descent of Christ into Hell.

cording to his conscience; for I do not require him to use words, conveying a sense which he cannot conscientiously

receive. Sir,

The Septuagint Translators of the In answer to the inquiry of your Bris- Old Testament use the word hades, to tol correspondent, repecting the phrase render the Hebrew word sheol, which in the Creed,—" He descended into most commonly signifies the grave, or Hell;" I send you the following, if the state of the dead: and this transyou choose to insert it.

lation was chiefly used by the writers It is well known, that some words of the New Testament. But the word have changed their signification in the used by these latter to denote hell (conlapse of a few centuries ; I have known sidered as a place of punishment) was some instances of this even in half a gehenna. This term was formed from century. The word hell, according to gehinnom, the valley of Hinnom, on its Saxon or German etymology, sig- the east side of Jerusalem, where idonified hidden, concealed, or invisible; laters of old used to sacrifice their chiland was, perhaps, the best that our dren to Moloch, and caused them to language could afford to render the pass through the fire: in later times Greek word hades, when our transla- the rubbish and filth of the city was tion of the Bible was made. I con- carried there, and consumed by fires sider hades as implying a state, rather kept constantly burning. It therefore than a place ; that is, the state of sepa- was used as a symbol or type of hell

, rate souls, or the invisible world. The (considered as a place of punishment

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE,

633

Descent of Christ into Hell.

But it may

TO THE

in another world,) in allusion to the the article of the 'Creed asserts; for fires kept perpetually burning in this since he was to be made in all things valley. CLERICUS Senex.

like unto his brethren, it is natural to Aug. 4th, 1819.

conclude, that after his death his soul

was gathered to theirs. EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL likewise be proved by particular texts MAGAZINE.

of scripture; as Psalm xvi. verse 10. Respected FRIEND,

“ Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, I hand for thy perusal and approba- neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One tion the following lines, which, if not to see corruption.” A question still objectionable, and thou wilt give them remains to be considered: For what an carly insertion in thy interesting reason was this clause introduced into publication, it will oblige

the Creed ? As it stands in the Creed A Friend.

of our Church, it has not the least On looking over the Magazine for last reference to the doctrine of purgatory: month, my attention was seriously the Church of England rejects that arrested, by an inquiry from “ A tenet as unwarrantable, in her twentySearcher," on a sentence in the Apos- second Article. It was probably intles' Creed, which has often been a serted for the confirmation of the death subject of contemplation with myself, of Christ, in opposition to those who although I have never examined any asserted that he did not really die, but author, nor heard but one explanation, was merely in a trance or deliquium, which was from an eminent minister through his crucifixion. The descent of the Church establishment, who con- of Christ into hell, might therefore be sidered the words, “ He descended considered as proper to be inserted into Hell,” an incorrect translation in the Creed, as a confirmation of his from the Hebrew Testament. The death.

Bishop Pearson observes, conscientious motive that influenced“ We have already shewn the submy unknown friend in refusing to read stance of this article to consist in this; that, or any other part of the Church that the soul of Christ really separated Liturgy in which he could not fully from his body by death, did truly pass believe, exactly coincides with my into the place below, where the souls own judgment,--that we should in all of men departed were ; and I concases avoid every thing likely to de- ceive the end for which he did so was, lude our minds, or introduce it into that he might undergo the condition of an erroneous belief. Having reviewed a dead man, as well as of a living. this subject very closely, I feel desir- Thus, for these purposes, may every ous to lay before “A Searcher” a short Christian say, I believe that Christ account that has (since reading his descended into hell.Bishop Horsley lines) fallen under my notice: think- has shewn the importance of our Lord's ing they might be satisfactorily re- descent into hell, as a point of Chrisceived, I feel reluctant to withhold tian doctrine; its great use he obthem.

“ He descended in Hell.By serves is this : “ That it is a clear conthe word hell in this place, is not to be futation of the dismal notion of death, understood the seat of the devil and as a temporary extinction of the life his angels, commonly called by that of the whole man; or, what is no less

but the place of separate souls. gloomy, the notion of the sleep of the We are told it is a Saxon word, which soul, in the interval between death and was formerly used in this sense; the the resurrection.

Christ's soul surnatural and original signification of it vived his body; therefore shall the is “

an unseen or covered place.” In soul of every believer survive the the English Bible, although the term body's death. Christ's disembodied is so frequently used to signify the soul descended into hell; thither shall place of the damned, that it generally the soul of every believer in Christ conveys that idea to the minds of unin- descend. Christ's soul was not left in formed people; yet there are many hell; neither shall the souls of his serpassages in which it only signifies the vants be left, but for a season. The invisible world, or state of the dead : appointed time will come, when the for instance, Rev. i. verse 18. “ I am Redeemer shall set open the doors of he that liveth, and was dead.” That the prison-houses, and say to his reour Lord went into the invisible re- deemed, Go forth.” See Horsley's gion of departed spirits, is that which / Sermon on Christ's Descent into Hell.

name ;

Perhaps I may be allowed to add : In | literal and grammatical sense :" It the prophecies of the Messiah it is follows then, that the belief of Christ's thus expressed, “ An honourable se- having descended into hell, is as much pulchre was provided for him, and the doctrine of our Church as the bethere his sacred body ‘rested in hope;' lief of his having died and being buried. in the mean time, his disembodied And it is presumed to be the doctrine spirit took its abode in that place of of other churches also, it being very separation assigned to the souls of common for popular dissenting minisdeparted spirits, generally called hades ters to declare from the pulpit, that or hell, awaiting the resurrection, and the doctrines taught by them are exactfully assured he should not long re- ly conformable to the Articles and Ho. main there. * Thou wilt not leave my milies of the Church of England : and soul in hell.' What amazing conde- in the Declaration of King Charles scension is here! to what a state of the First, above cited, it is said, that humiliation did our Saviour stoop! Men of all sorts take the Articles of Let us not be unwilling to follow Him the Church of England to be for them ; to the grave. Jesus Christ rose again which is an argument, that none of from the dead : other parts of the Old them intend any desertion of the ArTestament, beside the Psalm before ticles established.” If the authority us, predicted this event; and our Lord of the Church, (of which your correshimself, repeatedly declared, that thus pondent says “ I have the honour to only could the scriptures be fulfilled. be a member,”) and the concurring He also fixed the precise period, the testimony of those who dissent from third day ;' thus we are taught to her communion, will not prove conexpect a general resurrection both of clusive in removing his doubts upon the just and unjust.”

."-A London Cler- this subject, additional information gyman.

from any of your worthy correspondBristol, 8th month, 14th, 1819. ents, will not only be acceptable to him,

but will also particularly oblige TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

A CONSTANT READER. MAGAZINE. Sir, Guernsey, 23d August, 1819. In reply to your worthy correspondent Criticisms on Grammar. relative to Christ's descent into Hell, as contained“ in what is denominated the Apostles' Creed, as well as that of St. Athanasius,” I beg to observe, that SIR, whatever scruples he might feel in re- I have perused with interest, the critipeating this part of the Creed, the cisms of your correspondent A. B. col. doctrine is clearly and explicitly avow- 419 and 420 of your valuable work, ed by our Church in her Articles, vide and would beg leave to say, that whilst Article 3d. As Christ died for us, with him I cheerfully subscribe to the and was buried, so also is it to be be- general merits of Lindley Murray's lieved that he went down into hell ;” and justly celebrated English Grammar, I in the Declaration of King Charles must, with him, dissent from it in certhe First, concerning the Articles of tain particulars. the Church of England, it is said, A. B. observes, that this phraseology “ That the Articles of the Church of “ the cause of my not receiving it,” is

, England do contain the true doctrine according to Murray, (notes and obof the Church of England, agreeable servations under Rule 14. Syntax,) into God's word, which we do therefore correct, and ought to be “ the cause of ratify and confirm; requiring all our my not receiving of it;” and conceives, loving subjects to continue in the uni- that how much soever the additional form profession thereof, and prohibit of may improve the grammatical acing the least difference from the said curacy of the sentence, it adds nothing Articles.” And again, “ Noman shall to its harmony. either print or preach, to draw the Ar- In this opinion I so far concur, as to ticle aside any way, but shall submit dispute its adding either to one or the to it, in the plain and full meaning other, unless it be made appear that thereof, and shall not put his own the active participle is, because of the sense or comment to be the meaning possessive pronoun which precedes it, of the Article, but shall take it in the purely a noun, and does not at all par

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE.

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637

Criticisms on Grammar.-Modesty.

638

66

ticipate the properties of a verb. The parsing, and given more satisfaction action implied by it, however, evident- to his readers in general. His merely ly gives it these properties; and, that classing the former (the conjunctive) such should be the case, is agreeable with adjective pronouns, and his obto Mr. Murray's own definition of the serving that the variations of mine from participle, and his examples of its my, thine from thy, &c. are, in fact, use, as quoted by A. B.

the possessive case of the personal But Mr. Murray does not appear to pronoun;" after calling my, thy, &c. be so confident of the accuracy of his possessive pronouns, are not, at all, a observation, as to pronounce it unobjec- clear description of this case of the tionable, for he qualifies it by admit- pronoun. Myself, thyself, &c. would ting that his substitution of the pos- have been properly called compound sessive noun “ Tyro's," instead of the pronouns, (applicable, as well as the possessive pronoun their,” to make absolute possessives mine, thine, &c. the rule more clear, (a distinction, in both to the nominative and the objecmy opinion, without any radical differ- tive cases,) as consisting of the proence,) causes the construction to sound nouns my, thy, &c. and the substantive rather harshly, and therefore says, “it pronoun self, as I did it myself,” “I would, in general, be better to use did it in my own person, and not by some other form, as the rule's being ob- the agency of another.” served, its being neglected;" from which, I was glad to see the citicisms of then, naturally follows (passively) its A. B. on this subject, because I had being received by me; (actively) my hav- myself considered it with some attening received it, or my receiving it; and tion: there are, however, many other (negatively) my not receiving it. If points, besides the above, in which these remarks be correct, the of does Lindley Murray, with all his industry not improve the grammatical accu- as a grammarian, appears to be either racy; neither can that which forms no erroneous or defective; and, perhaps, constituent part belong to harmony. if I should not see them noticed by

Mr. M, contends for the correctness some other, and these remarks should of other modes of expression, in dif- meet your approbation, I may advert ferent parts of his grammar, which he to some of them at a future opportuadmits are not always the most eligible, nity. on account of their unpleasant sound ; I am, with great respect, Sir, thus, himself denying their melody, as Your most obedient Servant, he does also of those which are ques

GAMMA DELTA. tionable in their accuracy, and, conse- London Road, West-Derby, quently, in their harmony. Quere- 18th August, 1819. Can that which is correctly adapted to its use, be strictly ineligible to it? It is allowed that many things are lawful, which are not expedient; but It may be thought an immodest comthese, I think, are two very different mencement to assert, that this is a axioms.

I also materially disagree virtue, not less valuable than rare and with Mr. M. in what he calls the best uncommon. But as my notions of position of the genitive case, page 171, Modesty widely differ from that false one of the references he gives in the delicacy which actuates the conduct observation above referred to.

and movements of the generality of Whilst upon this subject, I would mankind, I feel no hesitation in haobserve, that I do not think the two zarding the proposition. Indeed, a kinds of possessive pronouns are very cursory view of men and manners either fully described, or properly de- is sufficient to convince us, that the signated by Mr. Murray.

Had he virtues of our ancestors are very made some such distinction between faintly reflected in the persons of their them as this,—" Of the possessive descendants, and none more so than pronouns the following, viz. my, thy, that of Modesty. In our days, the dehis, her, our, your, their, are conjunctive, cline of life is too frequently marked as applicable to the nominative case; with a total disregard of its injuncand mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, tions; and the juvenile part of the theirs, are absolute, as applicable to community are making great progress the objective case," he had prevented in their endeavour to extirpate this (in much uncertainty to the student in their eyes) unnecessary accompani

ON MODESTY.

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