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suited to the wants of Ireland, whose town. On being thus alarmed, I inpoor population are mostly Roman stantly repaired to the spot, where I Catholics. Parliamentary grants of found the engines playing very briskly several thousand pounds have been to extinguish the flames. It was not expended, as mentioned, in the most long, however, before one of them was judicious manner. All the articles completely deserted by the men, for printed are sold at or under first cost, no other reason than this, which they in the shop of the depositary ; together themselves assigned :—“There is no with paper, pens, slates, pencil, school whiskey for us; and we will stand it marks, &c. &c.

no longer.” I remonstrated with them As a seminary for training young on the impropriety of their conduct, men in the system, nearly 200 teachers but found them obstinately resolved to have been qualified for schools in va- quit their laudable exertion; and as rious parts of the country. The So- my single endeavours could be of no ciety gave five guineas towards their avail, i left the engine, and repaired to travelling expense and support. About another part of the building, and took 200 schools have been supplied with my stand on a small eminence. By lessons, and all other requisites; the this time, the roof and floors had fallen Model School contributing £20 to- in with a tremendous crash. wards furnishing desks and seats, on As the night was remarkably calm, the Lancaster plan, in each school not a breath of air being perceptible, which adopts that system. The West I was instantly enveloped in a cloud of of England and Wales having facili- dust and smoke. After some time, ties of intercourse with Dublin, may when this began to disperse, I obenjoy many of the advantages to schools served a man within the walls, guiding held out by this society.

the pipe of one of the engines towards the lintel of window, which was burn

ing with furious rapidity, and on BIBLE SOCIETY, DUBLIN.

which the water seemed to make but A Naval and Military Bible Society

very little impression. was instituted in Dublin, February, rience, that as soon as these timbers

Being well aware, from past expe1819, the Bishop of Elphin in the

were consumed, the walls would prochair. The meeting took place at the Charitable Institution House, Sack- bably fall, I went forward, under the

conviction, to apprize him of his situville-street, which extensive building is devoted to the use of various com

ation, creeping through an aperture in mittees of public good. Several elo- the back wall, through which the pipe

of the engine had a communication quent speeches were made, with resolutions and subscriptions ; and the best

with the power which put the machine

in motion, treading on hot bricks and effects are to be hoped from the exertions of this society, to meet the want fallen from the roof and floors.

sparkling pieces of timber, which had

At of Bibles among the Army and Navy length I reached the spot near which in Ireland.

the young man stood whom I had pre

viously discerned. This I found to be Remarkable Preservation. a person belonging to the Artillery,

then stationed in Belfast. His name was Wallis. On approaching him, I

had scarcely raised my arm to touch SIR, SHOULĐ the following incident be tention that I might warn him of his

him on the shoulder, to arrest his atjudged proper to fill a place in your danger, when a dreadful shock, remost useful and highly-esteemed Maga- sembling an earthquake, created a zine, it is at your service. W. R. GAWTHORNE.

strange agitation in the remaining

part of the building, accompanied with Belfast, July 1st, 1819.

a most tremendous gust of wind, which

blew the smoke, ashes, dust, and fire, On the night of the the third of Fe- so full in my face, and down my throat, bruary, 1813, I was alarmed by the that I was nearly suffocated. In this cries of Fire, which I soon found had condition, without being able to touch broken out in the cotton factory of Wallis, I was compelled to make a Messrs. M'Crum and Co. near this precipitate retreat, to recover my

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE.

ON THE FINE ARTS.

breath. This I effected with the utmost | these that we propose at present to difficulty, groping my way through the direct the attention of the reader. aperture which I had previously en- The important value of the sister tered.

arts has been felt and acknowledged I had scarcely passed this aperture, by the great and good in all ages: and begun to inhale the fresh air, be- traces of them are observable in the fore the front wall and part of the end most savage climes, and their progress wall gave way, with a thundering towards perfection is concurrent with noise. In this catastrophe, poor Wal- the civilization of our species. They lis, and another man, named Benjamin keep pace with and assist the best Grub, a well-known character in Bel- qualities of our nature; and wherever fast, were killed; the latter of whom virtue and knowledge have been conat that time I had not observed near spicuous, there have they been most the place. If a few moments more had fondly fostered, and most proudly preelapsed previously to my retreat, their eminent. In the best ages of Greece fate would have been mine.

and Rome, SCULPTURE and Arch]The above, Sir, is a plain statement TECTURE were at their highest elevaof facts, which I have never before tion; and had not the materials of made public; and my motive for doing PAINTING been comparatively perishit now is, that I may glorify God for able, the evidence of the coequal stahis particular providence towards me, tion of that art, would have been transhis unworthy servant; and add an mitted to us with the same certainty : other testimony to the tens of thousands Apelles and Teuxis were doubtless as of instances which appear to verify his highly gifted as Phidias or Praxitiles, Word, which says, “ The very hairs of though, unfortunately for us, their your head are numbered."

works have been swept away by the relentless and Gothic hand of Time.

The beneficial and refining tendency

of these arts is so universally acknowThe liberal, or políte arts, are so call ledged, that little need be said on that ed, in opposition to those which are part of the subject. They speak a merely mechanical: one of the latter universal language; the rudest and class, implies the intervention of but most polished are within their influa sufficient portion of intellect to direct ence; the savage and the sage are alike the operations of the hands, as in the affected (though not in an equal procase of brewing, shoe-making, and portion) by the sight of a fine paintother occupations known by the names ing, a statue, or a temple. of trades: one of the former, demands The legitimate purpose of the arts, the presiding influence of mind, is the is in aid of virtue : thus, Alexander child of genius and imagination; its repented of his treatment of Aristonimedium is expression, and its object cas, on seeing a picture of Palamedes to delight and ameliorate our species: betrayed; and in our own, as well as such are Poetry, Painting, Sculpture, distant times, we find their influence Architecture, Music, &c. : their influ- to be equally well directed. Patriotence upon the human mind is unbound- ism, filial affection, and all the virtues ed, and, as Horace truly says,

and charities of life, have been awaPictoribus atque Poetis kened and sustained by the successful Quidlibet audendi semper fuit æqua potestas." efforts of the arts. West's painting of These arts serve mutually to assist the death of Wolfe, has lighted up and each other; as when the painter, catch- fed the flame of patriotism in a thouing the enthusiasm of the poet, em- sand bosoms: the statues and basso bodies his conception, and, by the relievo's of Flaxman and Chautery, confluence of genius, adds new lustre have often reminded us of departed to the subject: thus, the noble repre- worth, and excited a wish to emulate sentations of Dante's Ugilino, by Mi- their excellencies; and, when wanderchael Angelo and Reynolds, heighten ing amid those sacred édifices, and subliniate the original delineation “Where, thro' the long-drawn aisle and fretted of the poet.

vault, Of those which are liberal or polite, The pealing anthem swells the note of praise," three are known by the name of THE who is there but has been compelled FINE ARTS: they are, Painting, Sculp- to acknowledge the supremacy of heatúre, and Architecture; and it is to I ven, and the littleness of man? No. 7.-VOL. I.

2 S

The arts are capable of being clearly 1 ble, but as necessary as are episodes traced to Greece; she probably ac- in a poem, yet the artist must be stuquired them from Egypt, but their de- diously careful, that they do not trench scent is indistinctly marked. From upon the principal, nor lose their subGreece they were transferred to Rome, ordinate and subservient character. where they maintained due eminence, The progress of art in other coununtil the wreck of that great empire, tries is not to us so replete with interin which they, with all that was valu-est as in our own. We will therefore able, were merged. The buoyancy proceed to a slight review of the hisand vigour of the Fine Arts would not tory of the Fine Arts in our own suffer them to remain long concealed; island ; and we cannot avoid remarkand, accordingly, on the earliest revi- ing, that the present seems a time val of literature, we tind them also peculiarly fitted to such an attempt; struggling for distinction; and as ad- when our great national institution for vances were made by learning and the nurture of the Arts, has reached virtue, the Fine Arts maintained a the age of half a century: we allude similar progression. Italy, which had to The Royal Academy, which was been their grave, at length beheld founded by our present venerable and their resuscitation, their gradual re- beloved Sovereign; under whose auscovery, and eventual possession of pices, and by whom, more has been pristine maturity and vigour. Flo

done to promote the Arts than in any rence produced Leonardo da Vinci other epoch of our history. and Michael Angelo; Rome, the Architecture, which has its origin in mighty Raphael; and Venice, her the necessities of life, was, as may Tiziano, or Titian. Flanders, France, easily be imagined, the art first stuGermany, and England, caught the died in this, and probably every other, inspiration, and have each formed country: Sculpture, which soon lent schools of their own. The Fine Arts its aid to ornament buildings, followare all originally imitative; but as they ed. But we shall not give to these arts advance, the servile imitation of na- our primary attention, merely on acture is rejected, and ideal beauty count of their chronological precebecomes the study of the artist; he dency; but, yielding to custom, shall aims at a selection and just arrange- first direct our observations to the ment of all those redundant beauties rise and progress of the art of Paintwhich nature presents to him; he gives ing. loose to the powers of imagination and

The first account of Painting in this invention, and throws off the trammels country may be traced to the reign of of the mere portraiture of nature ; an Henry 3d. ; some would carry it back employment which is at best but the

as far as the year 1228, and others, as occupation of secondary talent, and early as 1062: both these theories are unworthy the pursuit of a great and founded on imperfect materials, and creative genius, whose province it is,

the drawings to which they allude are “ to give to airy nothing so rude and tasteless, that they deA local habitation and a name.

serve no notice. Clear proof exists In the infancy of art, we always ob- that Henry 3d, gave great encourageserve a close and slavish resemblance ment to Painting; which seems to of nature ; in its maturity, we perceive prove, that although his other qualifia pictorial representation of the same cations were despicable, he had, in this objects, but they are refined, arranged, respect, some claims to the character and sublimated, by the eye and hand of a beneficent and patriotic monarch. of taste. The perfection of art is uni- From this period until the time of formly attained by simplicity and Henry 7th, the art of Painting was unity of design: whenever the arts almost entirely neglected in England. become gorgeous or complicated, they The art, during this dull era, was conarc depressed ; they are seen to most fined to painting on glass, and the advantage in naked majesty, and illustration of manuscripts. Some whatever be the sentiment to be ex- have attempted to appropriate to Bricited, whether of severe dignity, or tain, during this period, the invention voluptuous beauty, the end is best of painting in oil: but the question is gained by a simple and unbroken not deserving of disputation; nur treatment of the subject; and although would it be much credit to us to have accessorial parts are not only admissi- been the inventors of a mode of ex

THE

pression, of which it is clear we made would know the reason of his derision. so little use.

A promise being made to the gentleDuring the reign of Henry 7th, the man that no harm should be done him, bright epoch of Italian art, little of he declared secretly to the prince, taste or elegance was observable in “ that in their return from Rome, he England. The meridian glory of Ra- had lost the box of relics which had phael illuminated the Roman school; been given him to keep; and that, not but our island was unblessed with daring to divulge this, for fear of puany painter of eminence. The only nishment, he had found means to get man who, at this time, could have the one like it, which he had filled with slightest claim to the title, was John the little bones of beasts, and such Mabure; but his exclusive merit was trifles as resembled the relics he had in close and high finishing.

lost: that seeing so much honour (To be continued.)

paid to that heap of filth, and that they even ascribed to it the virtue of driv

ing away devils, he had just cause to CONVERSION OF PRINCE CHRIS- wonder at it !” The prince believed TOPHER RADZIVAL, OF POLAND. this story to be true; but nevertheless This gentleman being extremely sorry being desirous of getting farther light that a prince of his family had em- into this imposture, he sent for the braced the reformed religion, went to monks the very next day, and desired Rome, and paid all imaginable ho- them to inquire whether there were nours to the pope. The Roman pon- any more demoniacs, who wanted tiff, being also desirous of gratifying the assistance of his relics. A few him in a peculiar manner, gave him at days after, they brought him another his departure a box filled with relics. man possessed with an evil spirit, who Having returned to his house, and the acted the same part with him who had news of the relics being spread abroad, appeared before. The prince comcertain friars, some months after, came manded him to be exorcised in his and told the prince, that a man was presence : but as all the exorcisms possessed with the devil, who had which are usually employed on these been exorcised to no purpose; they occasions proved ineffectual, he ordertherefore besought him, for the sake ed this man to stay in his palace the of the poor unhappy wretch, to lend next day, and bade the monks withthem the precious relics which he had draw. After they were gone, he put brought from Rome. The prince the demoniac under his Tartarian granted them very readily; upon which grooms, who, pursuant to the orders they were carried to church in solemn which had been given them, first expomp, the monks all going in proces- horted him to confess the cheat; but, sion on that occasion. At last, they as he persisted obstinately in it, still were laid on the altar; and, on the day making his furious and dreadful gesappointed, a numberless multitude of tures, six of them chastised him so people flocking to this show, after the severely with rods and scourges, that usual exorcisms, the relics were ap- he was obliged to implore the prince's plied. At that very instant, the pre- mercy; who pardoned him the instant tended evil spirit came out of the man, he had confessed the truth. with the usual postures and grimaces. The next morning, the prince sent Every one cried out, A Miracle! and for the friars; when the wretch in questhe prince lifted up his eyes and hands tion, throwing himself at his feet, proto heaven, to return thanks for bring- tested that he was not possessed, and ing home so holy a thing, which per- had never been so, but that those formed such miracles.

friars had forced him to act the part But some days after, as he was in of one who was so. The monks, at that admiration of transport and joy, first, besought the prince not to believe and was bestowing the highest eulo- this, saying, that it was an artifice of giums on the virtue of these relics, the devil, who spoke through that he observed, that a young gentleman man's mouth. But the prince anof his household, who had the keeping swered, that if the Tartarians had been of that rich treasure, began to smile, able to force the devil to tell truth, and make certain gestures; which they would also be able to extort it shewed he only laughed at his words. from the mouth of those friars. Now, The prince flew in a passion, and these monks, seeing themselves put to

ON THE DESCENT OF CHRIST INTO

HELL.

it in this manner, confessed the im- | righteous and the wicked may both be posture, saying, that they had done in hades at the same time, though in all this with a good intention, and to distinct places: such was the case of check the progress of heresy. But Lazarus and the rich man. Even the the prince offered up his hearty thanks ancient heathens had this notion of to God, for having been so gracious as hades, or the invisible world, as apto discover such an imposture; and pears from Virgil and others. Hell, in now entertaining a suspicion of a re- its modern acceptation, implies a place ligion which was defended by such of torment, or perpetual punishment: diabolical practices, though they went but, that hades and hell (in this sense) by the name of pious frauds, said, that are quite distinct things, appears from he would no longer depend on any Rev. xx. 14. There will be no hades, person for his salvation, and therefore (or state of separation) when there began to read the scriptures with un- will be no more death: but hell (conparalleled assiduity. In six months sidered as a place of punishment) will time, all which he spent in reading exist when death and hades are no and prayer, he made a wonderful pro- more. gress in piety, and in the knowledge When I use the phrase in the Creed, of the mystery of the gospel. After or in our third Article, I annex this which, he, with his whole family, pro- idea to it: I believe our Lord departed fessed the Protestant religion.

into the invisible world, or state of the dead; that his human soul was separated from the body for a time; but on the third morning it reassumed or

reanimated the body; and, therefore, In the Fifth Number of the Imperial he is said to have arisen from the Magazine, (column 492) a question dead, and become the first-fruits of was inserted respecting the word Hell, as used in Scripture, and of our Lord's servation in this; I take the word hell descent into it. On this subject we

in its original signification, as imply

ing the invisible world, or state of sehave received several letters from our Correspondents ; who, while they coin- parate souls : but, that Christ descendcide in the general tendency of their ed into hell, (taking the word in its remarks, take distinct views of this modern sense,) I by no means believe. important article. Three of these let

If this my idea, here expressed, do not .ters we insert in this Number, reserv

remove the scruples of your Bristol ing others for some future opportunity. correspondent, or others who hesitate

in like manner, then let each act acOn the Descent of Christ into Hell.

cording to his conscience; for I do not

require him to use words, conveying a TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL sense which he cannot conscientiously

receive. SIR,

The Septuagint Translators of the In answer to the inquiry of your Bris- Old Testament use the word hades, to tol correspondent, repecting the phrase render the Hebrew word sheol, which in the Creed,—" He descended into most commonly signifies the grave, or Hell;" I send you the following, if the state of the dead : and this transyou choose to insert it.

lation was chiefly used by the writers It is well known, that some words of the New Testament. But the word have changed their signification in the used by these latter to denote hell (conlapse of a few centuries ; I have known sidered as a place of punishment) was some instances of this even in half a gehenna. This term was formed from century. The word hell, according to gehinnom, the valley of Hinnom, on its Saxon or German etymology, sig- the east side of Jerusalem, where idonified hidden, concealed, or invisible ; laters of old used to sacrifice their chiland was, perhaps, the best that our dren to Moloch, and caused them to language could afford to render the pass through the fire: in later times Greek word hades, when our transla- the rubbish and filth of the city was tion of the Bible was made. I con- carried there, and consumed by fires sider hades as implying a state, rather kept constantly burning. It therefore than a place ; that is, the state of sepa- was used as a symbol or type of hell

, rate souls, or the invisible world. The (considered as a place of punishment

MAGAZINE.

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