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For it is not only in the name of the inhabitants of Antioch, that I appear in this place; I am come from the sovereign Lord of men and angels, to declare to you, that if you pardon men their faults, the heavenly Father will pardon yours. Call to mind, great prince, that tremendous day, when you will appear before the King of Kings, to give an account of your actions.

. You are going to pronounce your own sentence. Other embassadors used to display magnificent presents before the princes to whom they were sent : as for me, I offer nothing to your majesty but the holy book of the gospels; and I dare exhort you to imitate your Master, who does good every day to those who insult him.

He at length concludes his discourse, by assuring the emperor, that if he refused that unfortunate city the pardon she sued for, he would never return to it, nor ever consider that city as his country, which the mildest prince upon earth looks upon with indignation, and could not prevail with himself to pardon.

Theodosius was not able to resist the force of this speech. He could scarce suppress his tears; and, dissembling the emotion he was in, as much as possible, he spoke these few words to the patriarch: If Jesus Christ, God as he is, was willing to pardon thic men who crucified him, ought I to make any difficulty to pardon my subjects who have offended me; I who am but a mortal man like them, and a servant of the same Master! Upon this Flavian prostrated himself, wishing him all the prosperity he deserved for this noble action. And as that prelate expressed a desire of passing the feast of Easter at Constantinople: Go, father, says Theodosius, embracing him, and do not delay one moment the consolation which your people will receive by your return, and the assurances you will give of the pardon I grant them. I know they are still grieved and afraid. Go then, and carry the pardon of their crime for the feast of Easter. "Pray that God may bless my arms, and be assured, that, after this war, I will go in person, and comfort the city of Antioch.


The holy prelate set out immediately; and, to hasten the joy of the citizens, he dispatched a more expeditious courier than himself, who freed the city from its uneasiness and alarms.

I once more beg pardon for the length of this digression. I imagined, that the extract of this eloquent homily might be as useful to youth, as any passage

in profane authors. There would be room for many reflections, especially on two characters, which, though seemingly incompatible, are united, however, in Flavian's oration; the humility and prostrate submission of a suppliant, with the magnificence and greatness of a Bishop, but which are so modified, that they mutually support each other. We at first behold the Bishop trembling, entreating, and, as it were, lying down at the Emperor's feet. But afterwards, towards the end of the discourse, he appears invested with all the splendor and majesty of the Lord, whose minister he is. He commands, he threatens, he intimidates; but still humble in his elevation. But I will content myself with the reflection which arises naturally from the subject that gave me occasion to relate this story. In my opinion, these two discourses of Flavian and Theodosius may be proposed as an excellent model in this species of mild and tender passions. I do not pretend thereby to exclude the strong and violent ones with which they are sometimes blended; but, if I am not mistaken, the former are predominant.



THE rules I have hitherto given upon Eloquence, being for the most part borrowed from Cicero and Quintilian, who applied theinselves chiefly in forming orators for the Bar, might be sufficient for such young gentlemen as are designed for that honourable profession. I thought, however, that I was obliged to add some more particular reflections, which


may serve them as guides, to point out to them the paths they are to follow. I shall first examine what models must be proposed to form the style suitable to the Bar, and will afterwards speak of the means which youth may employ, to prepare themselves for pleading. And I shall conclude with collecting some of Quintilian's finest observations upon the manners and characters of pleaders.



THE BAR. HAD we the harangues and pleadings of the great number of able orators, who for some years have made the French Bar so famous, and of those who still appear at it with so much lustre, we should be able to find in them certain rules and perfect models of Eloquence. But the few performances we have of this kind oblige us to have recourse to the source itself; and to search in Athens and Rome for those things which the modesty of our orators (perhaps excessive in this respect) does not permit us to find at home.

Demosthenes and Cicero, by the consent of all ages, and of all the learned, have been the most distinguished for the Eloquence of the Bar; and consequently their style may be proposed to youth as a model they may safely imitate. It would be necessary, for that purpose, to make them well acquainted with it, to be careful in observing the character, and to make them sensible of the differences in it; but this cannot be done without reading and examining their works. Those of Cicero are in every one's hands, and therefore well enough known. But it is not so with Demosthenes's orations; and in anage so learned and polite as ours, it must seem astonishing, that since Greece has been alwaysconsidered as the first and most perfect school of Eloquence and good taste, we should be so careless, especially with regard to the Bar, in

consulting consulting the great masters she has given us in that kind; and [9] that in case it was not thought necessary to bestow much time upon their excellent lessons, we should not, at least, have the curiosity to take but a cursory view of them; and hear them, as it were, at a distance, in order to examine ourselves, if it be true, that the eloquence of those famous orators is as admirable as it is declared to be; and if it fully answers the reputation they have acquired.

In order to enable young people, and those who have not studied Greek, to form some idea of Demosthenes's style, I shall here transcribe several passages from his orations, which indeed will not be sufficient to exhibit that great orator in the glorious light he ought to be shewn, nor perhaps to give models of his eloquence in all its kinds; but they will contribute at least to display some part of him, and his principal characteristics. I shall add to this, some passages from the harangue which Æschines, his competitor and rival, pronounced against him, and borrow M. Tourreil's translation; I mean the last, which is much more laboured, and more correct, than the former ones. I shall, however, sometimes take the liberty to make a few small alterations, because, on one hand, there are a great number of low and trivial [r] expressions in it, and on the other, the style is sometiines.

[9] Ego idem existimavi pecudis ... Ils vous escamoteront les dix ta. esse, non hominis, cùm tantas res lens... Vous amuser de fariboles... Græci susciperent, profiterentur, Il se ménagea un prompt rapatriement. agerent ... non admovere aurem, Que si le coeur vous en dit, je nec si palàm audire eos non auderes, vous cede la tribune. ... Mais tout ne minueres apud tuos cives aucto. compté, tout rabattu. . , . Non, en ritatem tuam, subauscultando tamen dussiez vouscrever à force de l'assurer excipere voces eorum, & procul faussement... Vous vomissez des charquid narrarent, attendere. 1. de retées d'injures.... I relate these few Orat. n. 153

examples, from amongst many [r] Ce que nous demandons tous others, in order to caution those à cor & à cri. . . Le soin qu'ils ont who may read this translation, in de vous corner aux oreilles.

Si other respects a very.

valuable pervous continuez à fainéanter... Vous formance, not to impute to the vous comportez au rebours de tous les Greek orator, these and such like autres bommes.... Vous ne cessez de defects of expression. n'assassiner de clabaudéries éternelles.


too swelling and bombastic [s]; faults directly contrary to the character of Demosthenes, whose eloquence was at the same time very simple and very magnificent. M. de Maucroy has translated some of his orations. His version, though less correct in some passages, seems to be more agreeable to the genius of the Greek orator. I partly make use of it in the first extract I here give, which is taken from the first Philippic.

U] I shall quote but one place, have expressed it by these pompous taken from the third Philippic. De terms : vous vous endormez iranil arrive, que dans vos assemblées, quillement entre les bras de la volupté : au bruit flatteur d'une adulation con- which, joined to what goes before, tinuelle, vous vous endormoz trar- au bruit flatteur d'une adulation contiquillement entre les bras de la volupté: nuelle, forms a style quite opposite mais que dans les conjonctures & lans to that of Demosthenes, whose les événemens vous courez les derniers manly nervous eloquence does not périls. The original of the first part, admit of such ornaments. Luxury which alone admits of any difficulty, and the love of pleasure were not runs thus : είθ' υμίν συμβέβηκεν εκ then the character of the Athenians; τούτου εν μέν ταϊς εκκλησίαις τρυφαν and besides, what connection could By xon&tiveclun árta agès noorino they have with the public assem&xovovoiv. Wolfius translates it in blies ? It is much more natural, this manner: Unde id consequimini, ut that the Athenians, puffed up by in concionibus fastidiatis, assentationis the continual encomiums their bus deliniti, & omnia, quæ voluptati orators made them, of their great sunt ,audiatis. This is the true sense of power, their superior merit, the the words, and is accordingly fol. exploits of their ancestors, and, lowed by M. Maucroy. Vous vous long accustomed to such flatteries, rendez difficiles dans vos assemblées: did on one hand look big in their vous voulez y érre flattés, & qu'on ne assemblies, and assume haughty and vous tienne que des propos agréables. disdainful airs towards an enemy Cependant cette délicatesse vous a 2012- whom they despised ; though on the duits sur le bord du précipice. What other, they were arrived at that debas deceived M. Tourreil, is the gree of delicacy, that they would word teu pæv, which is commonly ren- not suffer their orators to tell them dered by, deliciis abundare, diffuere, the truth. For I think that tpu ar in deliciis vivere. Altho it would may admit of a twofold sense in bear this sense here, he ought not to this place.


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