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BY THOS, GISBORNE.

And scuds along the placid main,

blishment of State Lotteries; which, Without a compass for his guide. he argues, tends to cherish a spirit of But when stern Fate awakes a storm,

gaming, and to draw after it a train of And wraps his prospects up in gloom; When dire disease, that gnawing worm,

evils, which, in their effects and conProclaims his 'certain speedy doom ;

sequences, spread into numerous de

partments of domestic life. Through When conscience, flashing, ushers in

the temptation which this fascinating The thunders of God's broken laws, Pourtrays the heinousness of sin,

system holds out, many, he observes, And points to ruin's gaping jaws, –

who, in the subordinate stations of Only the grace of Christ can save;

civilized society, are entrusted with That anchor is his only care,

money, have been induced to risk the To stay his soul upon the wave,

property of their employers; and, Above the gulf of deep despair.

when they have discovered that their Whitehaven, April 11th, 1819.

foolish adventures have been unsuccessful, they have had recourse to other

crimes to escape detection; till, shut THE HOUR OF PEACE.

from every hope, they have either ab

sconded, to prey on the public, or have When groves by moonlight silence keep,

terminated their existence by suicide. And winds the vexed waves release,

Of the time unavoidabiy wasted in And fields are hush'd, and cities sleep,

contrivances to raise money to purLord ! is not this the hour of peace ?

chase tickets, and in calculating upon When infancy at ev'ning tries

the issue of the adventure, he has also

taken notice. He likewise adverts to By turns to gain each parent's knees, And, gazing, meets their raptor'd eyes,

the offices of insurance, pointing out Lord! is not this the hour of peace?

their pernicious tendencies; and finally In golden pomp, when autumn smiles,

concludes, that the whole system inAnd hill and dale its rich increase

evitably leads to demoralization. By man's full barns exulting piles,

His second subject is that of contestLord! is not this the hour of peace? ed elections; which, he contends, inWhen Mercy points where Jesus bleeds,

troduce excessive dissipation, promote And Faith beholds thine anger cease,

drunkenness and inattention to labour, And Hope to blank Despair succeeds, and give a sanction to bribery and This, Father, this alone is peace.

perjury. The principles of moral rectitude, thus wounded, soon cease to

operate in their primitive vigour; and ON THE CAUSES OF DELINQUENCY

the trained delinquent carries among

his associates the lessons he has learnSome time in the month of March, ed from those, who should have taught 1819, we were favoured, by an inha- him virtue both by their precepts and bitant of Liverpool, with an Essay, example. professing to develop the causes of His third subject is the comfortable delinquency and crime, as named in accommodations, which, through misthe title of this article. Just at that taken humanity, our common jails moment, we were laying before the afford. Detected in the commission public the substance of a pamphlet, of crimes, which he has been instructwritten in America, in which several ed to perpetrate, the offender is contopies of discussion introduced into signed to a jail, which, on examinathese

papers seemed to be anticipated. tion, he finds more comfortable than These circumstances rendered the his own habitation. Here vice reigns appearance of this article at that time in triumph among the prisoners; and comparatively unnecessary; and di- dissipation and gambling divide his rected its omission until the present. To hours. Hence, having nothing more such points as have not been particu- to fear from the loss of reputation, he larly noticed, and to others which are becomes, on his release, should he placed in a new light, we shall now pay escape with only a slight punishment, due attention ; but we find it necessary, prepared for every species of villany, for reasons already mentioned, to give for which his abilities and a jail educondensation to his remarks, selecting cation could qualify him. And being only the essence of his observations. neglected and abandoned by all, ex

The first cause of delinquency and cept those whose views are conformcrime which he mentions is, the esta- | able to his own, he again renews his No. 6.-Vol. I.

20

AND CRIME.

ETERNAL

depredations, and rather wishes for a legerdemain philosophy, which seeks jail, that he may enjoy its wretched to account for the simple phenomena of comforts, than dreads the punishment matter and motion, by introducing into which the laws may inflict. He ba- nature such fanciful agents, as innate lances the hope of escaping, against ATTRACTION,

PROJECTILE the possibility of conviction, and ha- FORCE, INHERENT REPULSION, MATzards all for the booty he attempts to TER OF HEAT, &c. &c. acquire.

I have the honour to be, The fourth topic introduced, is the

Sir, multiplication of oaths; which, he

Your obedient servant, argues, are administered on such tri

RICHARD PHILLIPS. fling occasions, as tend to destroy their Bridge-street, July 24, 1819, dignity, and to deprive them of solemnity, by which alone they become a In defence of the principles of the prebond of civil society. In favour of tended orthodox philosophy, five apwhat he asserts, he adverts to the peals have been made to credulity, Excise and Customs, and adduces which merit special exposure before I some specific instances, which unhap- conclude my personal concern in this pily prove, that, in these departments, great controversy. oaths are generally viewed by multi- The first, is an attempt to evade tudes who take them with acknow- the question, by alleging, that attracledged indifference. The late income tion and gravitation are mere names of and property taxes he considers as the effects, and that by them it is not having proved highly injurious to pub- pretended to define any cause. To lic morals, on account of the oaths this it may be replied, that to give with which they were associated, and names to effects is not the business and as having given laxity to the ties of object of genuine philosophy; and that moral obligation.

it is the bounden duty of legitimate In his last topic, he adverts to tax- philosophers, to adopt an explanation ation itself; and argues, that in the of the proximate cause of an effect, in same proportion as imposts are multi- preference to any term which may plied and heavy, they have a natural merely describe the effect; and, theretendency to generate a disposition to fore, it is not a sufficient reason for evade their application. To accom- refusing to inquire into the cause, that plish this, no subterfuge is left untried; a mere name of the effect has been geand, with many, no duplicity is thought nerally recognized. That would be a too criminal to be practised. Even despicable philosophy, which contentamong those whose names and cha- ed itself merely with giving learned racters have been celebrated for loy- names to phenomena; and any old alty, he contends, that no small num- woman, who says that a body falls to ber may be found, who have discover the earth on account of its weight, ed the art of detaching turpitude from would exhibit as profound a discrimia violation of law. This pernicious nation as any self-called philosopher, principle, he argues, when once un- who might assert that it falls owing to happily adopted, opens an easy pas- its grariiation, or owing to the preponsage to the vices which distinguish the derating attraction of the earth. present age. It separates law from The Newtonians profess to consider, justice, and reducing obedience to the by the word attraction, merely the name former as a matter of expediency, of the law or phenomenon. But when leaves the latter wholly unguarded. we apply their name or law to the se

veral phenomena, and ask them why

the planets do not fall to the sun, as TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL ! well as a stone to the earth, they then MAGAZINE.

abandon the name, as a law, and tell SIR,

us that the tendency towards the sun is HAVIAG observed in your spirited counteracted by a force, which they Miscellany some strictures, by a Mr. ' call projectile or centrifugal. Yet, as Exley, on my Essays on the proximate this counteraction is a force, surely Causes of material Phenomena, 1 send that which is counteracted must also some observations which I have drawn' be a force ; and therefore, in spite of up in reply to all such reasoners as Mr. all equivocation, the name is by themExley, and to all advocates of that selves converted into a force or ten

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dency to the centre, governed by a sarily moves towards the centre of the certain law. Here then we are at terrestrial masses, because it is the issue: I admit this law, as a result of patient of the orbicular and rotatory certain local mechanical forces, and motions of the mass, and because the which, being local, and not essentially common force, which revolves the universal, does not require the hypo- heterogeneous mass, necessarily prothesis of a counteracting projectile or duces equal momenta in every part; centrifugal force. But they assert, that and equal momenta can only result the law is a result of forces inherent from every part revolving at distances in matter, and universal as matter; from the centre, which are inversely as and then, to counteract this universal their densities: and I have also found, force, which would unite all bodies in that it is highly probable that the plaone mass, they are obliged to feign the nets move round the sun, because havexistence of a centrifugal or projectile ing no innate tendency to move in any force, which, however, is not sup- direction, and having atmospheres ported by any experiment like that of which gradually fine off, and vanish a falling stone, but is created by them into the medium of space, they are selves, for the sole purpose of recon- susceptible of being moved by the ciling another hypothesis of their own exceedingly slight' forces created by to the phenomena !

the medium of space in curvilinear This confusion arises from consider- orbits, corresponding with the circular ing the phenomena of the terrestrial motions of the sun round the centre of mass, and those of the sun and planets, the planetary system; the force of the as similar, and as results of the same impulse being measured by the relauniversal cause. A stone falls to the tive bulks of the masses concerned, earth, but a planet does not fall to the and by the law of divergency, or reci

Nevertheless, the Newtonians procal square of the distance; and the assert, that the planets have a tenden- areas of the medium of space, moved cy to fall to the sun, though they do not by the action and re-action of the same fall! They assert that of which they forces, or described by the radiushave no proof in any fact; and then, vector, must always be necessarily upon this assertion, they found a sys- equal. tem of physics ! A stone falls to the The assertion, therefore, that physiearth; and, from this fact, they de- cal philosophy is perfect, without conduce the monstrous conclusion, that sidering the true mechanical cause of the planets also have a tendency to fall the action and re-action of distant unto the sun; though it is notorious they connected bodies on one another, is a do not fall, and never evince any dis- mere pretence to cover inadvertency, position to fall! But, the analogy prejudice, or pride. between the force which impels a The second assertion of the defendstone to the earth, and that which re- ers of the pretended orthodox princitains the planets in their orbits, is, in ples of philosophy, is, that they accord truth, confirmed by no fact: it is, with geometry, and are confirmed by therefore, evident, that the analogy is the researches of the most profound gratuitous, and highly probable that it mathematicians ; and therefore ought is utterly false.

not to be disturbed. In considering It does not follow, because a stone the assumptions of this piece of arrant moves towards the centre of the earth, sophistry, I appeal to every one who and the planets move in orbits round has applied geometry to the Keplerian the sun, that therefore the proximate law, whether that science takes, or causes of motions so dissimilar, and affects to take, any cognizance whatin such contrary directions, are the ever of the source of that law? It is

I should rather infer, that the the same thing to geometry, whether proximate causes are altogether differ- it is assumed as analogous to emanaent; and, instead of saying that they tions, on the whimsical hypothesis of were the same, and then inventing a new emanating gravific particles; whether force to explain the difference, I should it was a false analogy deduced from rather search for appropriate and ex-Galileo's law of falling bodies; wheisting motions of nature, calculated ther it was an astrological harmony by themselves to produce the peculiar of Kepler's; or whether it was ascribmotions. And having made this search, ed to attraction by Hooke; the

geomeI have discovered, that a stone neces- trician acts merely on the abstract law,

same.

ETERNAL

PROJECTILE

depredations, and rather wishes for a legerdemain philosophy, which seeks jail, that he may enjoy its wretched to account for the simple phenomena of comforts, than dreads the punishment matter and motion, by introducing into which the laws may inflict. He ba- nature such fanciful agents, as INNATE lances the hope of escaping, against | ATTRACTION, the possibility of conviction, and ha- FORCE, INHERENT REPULSION, MATzards all for the booty he attempts to TER OF HEAT, &c. &c. acquire.

I have the honour to be, The fourth topic introduced, is the

Sir, multiplication of oaths; which, he

Your obedient servant, argues, are administered on such tri

RICHARD PHILLIPS. fling occasions, as tend to destroy their Bridge-street, July 24, 1819. dignity, and to deprive them of solemnity, by which alone they become a In defence of the principles of the prebond of civil society. In favour of tended orthodox philosophy, five apwhat he asserts, he adverts to the peals have been made to credulity, Excise and Customs, and adduces which merit special exposure before I some specific instances, which unhap- conclude my personal concern in this pily prove, that, in these departments, great controversy. oaths are generally viewed by multi- The first, is an attempt to evade tudes who take them with acknow- the question, by alleging, that attracledged indifference. The late income tion and gravitation are mere names of and property taxes he considers as the effects, and that by them it is not having proved highly injurious to pub- pretended to define any cause. To lic morals, on account of the oaths this it may be replied, that to give with which they were associated, and names to effects is not the business and as having given laxity to the ties of object of genuine philosophy; and that moral obligation.

it is the bounden duty of legitimate In his last topic, he adverts to tax- philosophers, to adopt an explanation ation itself; and argues, that in the of the proximate cause of an effect, in same proportion as imposts are multi- preference to any term which may plied and heavy, they have a natural merely describe the effect; and, theretendency to generate a disposition to fore, it is not a sufficient reason for evade their application. To accom- refusing to inquire into the cause, that plish this, no subterfuge is left untried; a mere name of the effect has been geand, with many, no duplicity is thought nerally recognized. That would be a too criminal to be practised. Even despicable philosophy, which contentamong those whose names and cha- ed itself merely with giving learned racters have been celebrated for loy- names to phenomena; and any old alty, he contends, that no small num- woman, who says that a body falls to ber may be found, who have discover the earth on account of its weight, ed the art of detaching turpitude from would exhibit as profound a discrimia violation of law. This pernicious nation as any self-called philosopher, principle, he argues, when once un- who might assert that it falls owing to happily adopted, opens an easy pas- its gravitation, or owing to the preponsage to the vices which distinguish the derating attraction of the earth. present age. It separates law from The Newtonians profess to consider, justice, and reducing obedience to the by the word attraction, merely the name former as a matter of expediency, of the law or phenomenon. But when leaves the latter wholly unguarded. we apply their name or law to the se

veral phenomena, and ask them why

the planets do not fall to the sun, as or the IMPERIAL well as a stone to the earth, they then

abandon the name, as a law, and tell SIR,

us that the tendency towards the sun is Having observed in your spirited counteracted by a force, which they Miscellany some strictures, by a Mr. call projectile or centrifugal. Yet, as EXLEY, on my Essuys on the proximate this counteraction is a force, surely Causes of material Phenomena, I send that which is counteracted must also some observations which I have drawn be a force ; and therefore, in spite of up in reply to all such reasoners as Mr. all equivocation, the name is by themExley, and to all advocates of that selves converted into a force or ten

8

TO

THE

EDITOR

MAGAZINE.

sun.

dency to the centre, governed by a sarily moves towards the centre of the certain law. Here then we are at terrestrial masses, because it is the issue: I admit this law, as a result of patient of the orbicular and rotatory certain local mechanical forces, and motions of the mass, and because the which, being local, and not essentially common force, which revolves the universal, does not require the hypo- heterogeneous mass, necessarily prothesis of a counteracting projectile or duces equal momenta in every part; centrifugal force. But they assert, that and equal momenta can only result the law is a result of forces inherent from every part revolving at distances in matter, and universal as matter; from the centre, which are inversely as and then, to counteract this universal their densities: and I have also found, force, which would unite all bodies in that it is highly probable that the plaone mass, they are obliged to feign the nets move round the sun, because havexistence of a centrifugal or projectile ing no innate tendency to move in any force, which, however, is not sup- direction, and having atmospheres ported by any experiment like that of which gradually fine off, and vanish a falling stone, but is created by them into the medium of space, they are selves, for the sole purpose of recon- susceptible of being moved by the ciling another hypothesis of their own exceedingly slight' forces created by to the phenomena!

the medium of space in curvilinear This confusion arises from consider-orbits, corresponding with the circular ing the phenomena of the terrestrial motions of the sun round the centre of mass, and those of the sun and planets, the planetary system; the force of the as similar, and as results of the same impulse being measured by the relauniversal cause. A stone falls to the tive bulks of the masses concerned, earth, but a planet does not fall to the and by the law of divergency, or reci

Nevertheless, the Newtonians procal square of the distance; and the assert, that the planets have a tenden- areas of the medium of space, moved cy to fall to the sun, though they do not by the action and re-action of the same fall! They assert that of which they forces, or described by the radiushave no proof in any fact; and then, vector, must always be necessarily upon this assertion, they found a sys- equal. tem of physics ! A stone falls to the The assertion, therefore, that physiearth; and, from this fact, they de- cal philosophy is perfect, without conduce the monstrous conclusion, that sidering the true mechanical cause of the planets also have a tendency to fall the action and re-action of distant unto the sun ; though it is notorious they connected bodies on one another, is a do not fall, and never evince any dis- mere pretence to cover inadvertency, position to fall! But, the analogy prejudice, or pride. between the force which impels a The second assertion of the defendstone to the earth, and that which re- ers of the pretended orthodox princitains the planets in their orbits, is, in ples of philosophy, is, that they accord truth, confirmed by no fact: it is, with geometry, and are confirmed by therefore, evident, that the analogy is the researches of the most profound gratuitous, and highly probable that it mathematicians; and therefore ght is utterly false.

not to be disturbed. In considering It does not follow, because a stone the assumptions of this piece of arrant moves towards the centre of the earth, sophistry, I appeal to every one who and the planets move in orbits round has applied geometry to the Keplerian the sun, that therefore the proximate law, whether that science takes, or causes of motions so dissimilar, and affects to take, any cognizance whatin such contrary directions, are the ever of the source of that law? It is

I should rather infer, that the the same thing to geometry, whether proximate causes are altogether differ- it is assumed as analogous to emanaent; and, instead of saying that they tions, on the whimsical hypothesis of were the same, and then inventing a new emanating gravific particles; whether force to explain the difference, I should it was a false analogy deduced from rather search for appropriate and ex- Galileo's law of falling bodies; wheisting motions of nature, calculated ther it was an astrological harmony by themselves to produce the peculiar of Kepler's; or whether it was ascribmotions. And having made this search, ed to attraction by Hooke; I have discovered, that a stono neces- I trician acts merely on the abstract law,

same.

the geome

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