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seaman ten, and the boys, or green hands, from four to eight, according to their strength and experience. In the merchant service, wages are about the same on long voyages; but on voyages to Europe, the West Indies, and the southern ports, they are considerably higher, and very fluctuating. Still, the same proportion between the classes is preserved, an ordinary seaman getting about two dollars less than an able seaman, and the boys, from nothing up to two dollars less than ordinary seamen, according to circumstances. A full-grown man must ship for boy's wages upon his first voyage. It is not unusual to see a man receiving boy's wages and rated as a boy, who is older and larger than many of the able seamen.
"The crews are not rated by the officers after they get to sea, but, both in the merchant service and in the navy each man rates himself when he ships. The shipping articles, in the merchant service, are prepared for so many of each class, and a man puts his name down and contracts for the wages and duty of a seaman, ordinary seaman, or boy, at his pleasure. Notwithstanding this license, there are very few instances of its being abused; for every man knows that if he is found incompetent to perform the duty he contracts for, his wages can not only be reduced to the grade for which he is fitted, but that something additional will be deducted for the deception practised upon all concerned, and for the loss of service and the numerous difficulties incurred, in case the fraud is not discovered until the vessel has got to sea. But, still more than this, the rest of the crew consider it a fraud upon themselves, as they are thus deprived of a man of the class the vessel required, which makes her short-handed for the voyage, and increases the duty put upon themselves. If, for instance, the articles provide for six able seamen, the men expect as many, and if one of the six turns out not to be a seaman, and is put upon inferior work, the duties which would commonly be done by seamen will fall upon the five. The difficulty is felt still more in the watches; as, in the case I have supposed, there would be in one watch only two able seamen instead of three, and if the delinquent was not a capable helmsman, the increased duty at the wheel alone would be, of itself, a serious evil. The officers also feel at liberty to punish a man who has so imposed upon all hands, and accordingly every kind of inferior and disagreeable duty is put upon him; and, as he finds no sympathy from the crew, his situation on board is made very unpleasant. Indeed, there is nothing a man can be guilty of, short of a felony, to which so little mercy is shown on board ship; for it is a deliberate act of deception, and one to which there is no temptation, except the gain of a few dollars."
We understand from a note that the average of able seamen's wages in British merchant ships may be taken at present at 50s. per calendar month, or £30, while the wages of the able seamen in the Queen's fleet is £23 8s. per annum. In the latter, however, the term is not broken into intervals, caused by the duration of voyages, and that if all things are considered, the seaman earns as much in the year in the navy as in the other service. It would not be difficult to demonstrate that in regard to regularity, comforts of a variety of kinds, discipline, and prospects, the naval is to be preferred to the mercantile branch of maritime life.
There are in the usages of the merchant service a variety of established points of honour. For example,
"In allotting the jobs among the crew, reference is always had to a man's rate and capacity; and it is considered a decided imputation upon a man to put him upon inferior work. The most difficult jobs, and those requiring the neatest work, will be given to the older and more experienced among the seamen; and of this none will complain; but to single out an able seaman and keep him at turning the spunyarn winch, knotting yarns or picking oakum, while there are boys on board, and other properly seaman's work going forward at the same time, would be looked upon as punishment, unless it were temporarily, or from necessity, or while other seamen were employed in the same manner. Also, in consideration of the superior grade of an able seaman, he is not required to sweep down the decks at night, slush the masts, &c., if there are boys on board and at hand. Not that a seaman is not obliged to do these things. There is no question but that he is, just as much as to do any other ship's work; and if there are no boys on board or at hand at the time, or from any other cause it is reasonably required of him, no good seaman would object, and it would be a refusal of duty to do so: yet if an officer were deliberately, and without necessity for it, when there were boys about decks at the time, who could do the work as well, to order an able seaman to leave his work and sweep down the decks, or slush a mast, it would be considered as punishment."
"Mr." is always to be prefixed to the name of an officer, whether chief or second mate. One extract more containing miscellaneous
"In well-disciplined vessels, no conversation is allowed among the men when they are employed at their work; that is to say, it is not allowed in the presence of an officer or of the master; and although, when two or more men are together aloft, or by themselves on deck, a little low conversation might not be noticed, yet if it seemed to take off their attention, or to attract the attention of others, it would be considered a misdemeanour. In this respect the practice is different in different vessels. Coasters, fishermen, or small vessels on short voyages, do not preserve the same rule; but no seaman who has been accustomed to first-class ships will object to a strictness as to conversations and laughing, while at day's work, very nearly as great as is observed in a school. While the crew are below in the forecastle, great license is given them; and the severest officer will never interfere with the noise and sport of the forecastle, unless it is a serious inconvenience to those who are on deck. In working ship, when the men are at their stations, the same silence and decorum are observed. But during the dog-watches, and when the men are together on the forecastle at night, and no work is going forward, smoking, singing, telling yarns, &c., are allowed; and, in fact, a considerable degree of noise and skylarking is permitted, unless it amounts to positive disorder and dis
"It is a good rule to enforce, that whenever a man aloft wishes anything to be done on deck, he shall hail the officer of the deck, and not call out, as is often done, to any one whom he may see about decks, or generally to have a thing done by whoever may happen to hear him. By enforcing this rule the officer knows what is requested, and may order it and see that it is done as he thinks fit; whereas, otherwise, any one about decks, perhaps a green hand, may execute the order upon his own judgment and after his own manner.
"Stations-The proper place for the seamen when they are on deck and there is no work going forward, is on the forecastle. By this is understood so much of the upper deck as is forward of the after fore-shroud. The men do not leave this to go aft or aloft unless ship's duty requires it of them. In working ship they are stationed variously, and go wherever there is work to be done. The same is the case in working upon rigging. But if a man goes aft to take the wheel, or for any other purpose which does not require him to go to windward, he will go on the lee side of the quarter-deck.
"Food, Sleep, &c.-The crew eat together in the forecastle, or on deck, if they choose, in fine weather. Their food is cooked at the galley, and they are expected to go to the galley for it and take it below or upon the forecastle. The cook puts the eatables into wooden tubs called 'kids,' and of these there are more or less, according to the number of men. The tea or coffee is served out to each man in his tin pot, which he brings to the galley. There is no table, and no knives or forks, to the forecastle; but each man helps himself, and furnishes his own eating utensils. are usually a tin pot and pan, with an iron spoon.
"The usual time for breakfast is seven bells, that is, half-past seven o'clock in the morning. Consequently, the watch below is called at seven bells, that they may get breakfast and be ready to take the deck at eight o'clock. Sometimes all hands get breakfast together at seven bells; but in bad weather, or if watch and watch is given, it is usual for the watch below to breakfast at seven bells, and the watch on deck at eight bells, after they are relieved. The dinner- hour is twelve o'clock, if all hands get dinner together. If dinner is got by the watch,' the watch below is called for dinner at seven bells (half-past eleven), and the other watch dine when they go below, at twelve.
"If all hands are kept in the afternoon, or if both watches get supper together, the usual hour is three bells, or half-past five; but if supper is got by the watch, three bells is the time for one watch, and four for the other.
"In bad weather, each watch takes its meals during the watch below, as, otherwise, the men would be liable to be called up from their meals at any moment.
"As to the time allowed for sleep; it may be said, generally, that a sailor's watch below is at his own disposal to do what he chooses in, except, of course, when all hands are called. The meal-times, and time for washing, mending, reading, writing, &c., must all come out of the watch below; since, whether there is work going forward or not, a man is considered as belonging to the ship in his watch on deck. At night, however, especially
if watch and watch is not given, it is the custom in most merchant vessels, in good weather, to allow the watch to take naps about the decks, provided one of them keeps a look-out, and the rest are so placed that they can be called instantly. This privilege is rather a thing winked at than expressly allowed; and if the man who has the look-out falls asleep, or if the rest are slow in mustering at a call, they are all obliged to keep awake. In bad weather, also, or if near land, or in the track of other vessels, this privilege should not be granted. The men in each watch usually arrange the helms and look-outs among themselves, so that a man need not have a helm and a look-out during the same watch. A man should never go below during his watch on deck, without permission: and if he merely steps down into the forecastle for an instant, as, to get his jacket, he should tell some one, who may speak to him at once, if the watch is called upon."
The details and directions quoted, and many others in the book are as plain and pertinent, we have no doubt, as they can be rendered briefly by the pen; and must be so especially to the beginners of a sea-faring life. There appear to be some repetitions, and perhaps the matter of the different parts is not kept sufficiently distinct. But these excellent features characterize the Treatise,-it displays not only much nautical knowledge and anxiety for the prosperity of the profession, but many and pervading are the indications it affords of good sense, clear perception, manly sentiment, and a right spirit. It is thus appropriately introduced and recommended,
"To all sea-faring persons, and especially to those commencing the sealife;to owners and insurers of vessels ;-judges and practitioners in maritime law; and to all persons interested in acquainting themselves with the laws, customs, and duties of seamen ;-this work is respectfully dedicated by
ART. X.-1. New Zealand, South Australia, and New South Wales. By R. G. JAMESON, Esq. Smith and Elder.
2. Rambles in New Zealand. By J. C. BIDWILL.
Orr and Co.
3. Hand-Book for Emigrants and others; being a History of New Zealand, &c. By John Bright. Hooper.
OUR colonies and colonial system have lately engaged an unusual degree of attention. But within a few days of that when we sit down to review the publications named at the head of this paper, an additional interest promises to attach to the subject. It is rumoured that, among other remedies for the existing distress, Government has determined upon raising a large sum by way of loan, to be applied to the purposes of emigration. Were the number of pamphlets and volumes that have recently issued from the
press relative to the British foreign settlements alone to be taken into consideration, and the hints and schemes therein urged calculated, we might well point to the present period as one of no ordinary importance in the history of colonization. Nay, were we merely to instance Polynesia, and, still further to narrow our glance, to quote New Zealand, we might confidently pronounce it to be a peculiar feature of our day, that emigration, according to principle and to science, is with something like appropriate force arresting the public mind.
The condition and prospects of our colonies are of magnitude and importance at this moment sufficient to absorb the splendid talents and the great energies of Lord Stanley. Look to whatever quarter of the globe can be mentioned,-to the East, to North America, to the African shores, or to the southern hemisphere, and you will find questions large and critical for the Colonial Secretary's legislative powers and vigilant watchfulness. We at present offer no opinion with regard to the activity and policy of the late ministry, -of Lord John Russell, or any of the diplomatists, representatives and agents that have for the last few years been employed in foreign parts, whether in China, Canada, or anywhere else. But assuredly matters of delicacy and difficulty have ripened in whatever direction. we may turn our eyes, so as to require the promptest and wisest efforts of the Peel administration, were it only in relation to the well-being and stability of our foreign possessions. The immediate interests of the colonies, however valuable and pressing, are far from furnishing all the questions and matters that deserve speedy and vigorous treatment. Behold the exigencies of the mother country; endeavour to calculate the number of our starving home population; estimate if you can the amount of domestic suffering and discontent; and then try to suggest some grand measure that will effectually and without delay operate beneficently both for the parent and offspring,-for the British Isles, and at the same time for the firmer establishment and the most desirable development of all the foreign settlements which own Queen Victoria's sway. In striving to fix upon some large and adequate scheme of relief and benevolence, it appears to us that no single measure could be adopted that promises such speedy and practical good, as that to which we have referred when naming the rumoured remedy. If undertaken with a decision and upon a scale such as it seems to us might be devised, the almost unprecedented distress of the three kingdoms, the daily accumulating bankruptcies and privations, the terrible threatenings of the winter months, might, we think, be in a great measure met. The large manufacturing towns would acquire confidence from the mere prospect of relief and of profitable investments. Irish ejectments and assassinations would decrease; Scottish destitution would be lessened; and English capital would flow