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grant to our pious King, long life, health and prosperity. Let tby providence ever guard our happy Constitution, and enable us to transmit it to our latest posterity unimpaired, and improved by our holy religion.

Bless, we beseech thee, every member of the Orange Institution, with charity, brotherly love and loyalty. Make us truly respectable here on earth, and eternally happy hereafter. These and all other blessings, we beg in the name, and through the mediation of Jesus Christ our Lord and Saviour. Amen."

We conclude with the “ Form of Prayer used at closing.-O Al. mighty God! who art a strong tower of defence unto thy servants, against the face of their enemies : we yield thee thanks for our deliverance from those great and apparent dangers wherewith we were encompassed : We acknowledge thy goodness that we were not delivered over as a prey anto them, beseeching thee still to continue such thy mercies towards us, that all the world may know thou art our Saviour and mighty deliverer, through - Jesus Christ. . Amen."

(We hope that what is here given will answer the object of I. H. G. Pimlico.-EDITOR.)



(See page 446.) The Origin of the Regal and Papal Supremacy in the Christian Church,

and their Effects respectively on the State of Society, In my Second Letter, page 262, I shewed by what means Pope Gregory VII, in the year 1073, usurped a supremacy in the Church ; and in my third, page 304, I gave some specimens of the intolerant and sanguin

ordinances which he and his successors framed, to extend and maintain their domination by a system of terror.

The removal of that salutary control which the Emperors had main. tained over the Popes, for nearly 800 years, gave a full scope to their inordinate ambition, which soon became, and continued, for many centuries, a general and unceasing source of discord and bloodshed in Europe. For more than a hundred years after Gregory's death, two, and sometimes three Popes claimed to be the true successors of St. Peter, and the city of Rome was often deluged with blood, by the factions which maintained their respective pretensions. The Romans, galled by the exactions of the Papal government, frequently rose in arms, for the purpose of restoring that state of things which existed before the Pope acquired temporal power : and, in a conflict occasioned by an attempt of this sort, Pope Lacius II lost his life, in the year 1145. Rome often exhibited such scenes

#N. B. A small edition, which contains the Rules and Regulations for England, with an elegant equestrian figure of Williama ul. Price oply 6d?

of turbulence, that there was a necessity for holding the election of Pope in other parts of Italy; and even after the election, the pontiffs were driven from that city, and were compelled to seek an asylum in a foreign country. The circumstances of their election were often attended with scenes of sanguinary strife * and disgraced by gross simony; and the frailty, and frequent wickedness of their lives, exposed to familiar observation, destroyed all reverence for them among the Roman people, even while their name and their decrees inspired with awe and terror the inhabitants of remote countries. Such scenes of discord were not confined to Italy, as the intriguing competitors for the Popedom drew most of the European States into the vortex of criminal ambition. Thus, on the death of Pope Hono. rius II, in the year 1130, a furious contest took place between Anacletus and Innocent II, in which not only the Italian States, but the Emperor, and the Kings of England and France, became partizans. Rival Popes excommunicated not only each other, but sovereign Princes, who refused to support their pretensions, or espoused the cause of their antagonists. In a little more than a century after the death of Gregory VII, the Popes excommunicated no less than eight Emperors; some of whom they deposed. Dreading the power of the Emperors, which, while it was the cause of their exaltation, had, however, kept them within the bounds of moderation. The Popes did their utmost to depress and weaken the empire, Guicciardioi therefore truly observed, that “ the Church hales Cæsar;t" and Carion complained, that “ by the wickedness of the Bishops of Rome, the empire is fallen into decay." I

When Rodolph, of Hapsburgh, was elected Emperor in the year 1273, he durst not go into Italy, which he called the lion's den ; because, though the entrance lay open, but few returning footsteps were to be seen.

During such contests for the Popedom, the son was raised in rebellion against his father, the subjects against their Sovereign, and one king was committed in warfare against another, by Papal mandates. Conrad, King of the Romans, received the benediction of Pope Pascal II, for having endeavoured to dethrone the Emperor his father, in the year 1104. Henry V rebelled against his father, and finally brought his grey hairs with sorrow to the grave. The Papal party taking advantage of this quarrel, availed

Muratori observes, “ that thirty-six of Gregory VII's successors, till their retreat to Avignon, maintained an unequal contest with the people of Rome, and were often driven from it." Vol. III. p. 1. p. 277-685.

+ Proprium est Ecclesiæ odisse Cæsares, Lib. 4.-Henry IV, Henry V, Frederick Barbarossa, Henry VI, his brother Philip, Frederick II, Henry VII, Frederick of Austria, Lewis of Bavaria, Sigismund, and Frederick III, felt the power of a temporal sword wielded by a religious arm.

Sceleribus pontificum, hoc imperium labefactum est.

themselves of it to gain a supremacy over Sovereign Princes, and procured sentences of deposition to be pronounced against both, by two councils, held in the years 1102 and 1116.

The successors of Gregory VII. endeavoured to tread in his steps, and - to maintain all his usurpations; for Victor III, who succeeded him, in a council convened by him åt Benevento, ratified the whole of them; and an anathema was denounced against any layman who should confer, and against any Ecclesiastics who should accept from them, any benefice in the Church, by four councils; viz. one held at Rome in 1099, another in 1102, one at Vienbe the same year, and another at the Lareran ip 1116: The Popes having assumed the blasphemous and extravagant titles of Vicegerent of God, and Vicar of Christ, thought their power limited, as long as Kings and Emperors were not subject to them, even in temporals; and therefore, from the days of Gregory VII, they claimed a power of deposing Princes, of absolving subjects from their oaths of allegiance, and transferring their dominions to others.* This was easily acconiplished, as there were, always, ambitious Princes ready, for their own ends, to invade and seize the territories of a deposed Sovereign, under a religious pretence, when they had the Pope's warrant for that purpose ; and a prince thus denounced by the Sovereign Pontiff, had less reason to dread the assaults of foreign enemies, than domestic treason from his own subjects, whom the Clergy could, and were bound by oath, to raise in rebellion against him.

It would exceed my circumscribed limits to enumerate and describe all the schisms which took place between rival Popes, after the usurpation of the supremacy by Gregory VII. A concise statement of a few of them, will suffice to shew its fatal effects. In the year 1080, the peace of Christendoin was disturbed by the schism between Clement III, and Gregory VII. In the year 111s, began the schism between Gregory VIII and Gelasius II ; and the latter dying, it was continued between Gregory and Calixtus II, who was chosen in the room of Gelasius. The emperor sup.

* By the fourth Lateran Council, the Pope is empowered and commanded to do so, and to extirpate heretics. Concil. apud Binium, tom XI, pp. 148, 149. The Councils of Constance and Basil state this to be among those councils which all Popes must swear to maintain, to the least tiitle, cven to the shedding of their blood." Usque ad unum apicem servare, usque ad animum et sanguinem defensare et prædicare. Concil. Const. Sess. 39. Basil. Sess. 37.

The observance of its decrees is strictly enjoined by the Council of Trent, which declares it to be a General Council, and pronounces one of its definitions to le lke toice of the whole Church. Sess. 14, c.5. The proceedings of the Council of Trent are recommended to the Students in Divinity of Maynooth College, in the publication canituled Tractalus de Ecclesiâ Christi, written by a professor in that seminaryo

ported Gregory, but the Kings of England and France were for Calixtus ; though the English Clergy and Laity were divided in their opinions ; but Calixtus, with the assistance of a powerful army, having taken bis rival prisoner, put an end to the contest. After the death of Adrian IV, in the year 1159, a most grievous schism took place between Victor IV and Alexander H1, which, for nineteen years, disturbed the peace of Europe. During this contest, in which some of the Cardinals chose one Pope, and some the other, Alexander insisted that canonization was the peculiar pre rogative of the Roman See, and also that of conferring the regal dignity; which he presumed to bestow on Alphonso, King of Portugal; and yet he was afterwards condemned and deposed as av Anti-pope.

But the most grievous schism of all, was that which began in the year 1378, between Urban VI, and Clement VII, Urban kept his court at Rome, Clement at Avignon. The Germans, Hungarians, English, and some nations in Italy, supported the former, the Spaniards and French the latter. Urban created fifty-four Cardinals, and Clement thirty-six. This schism lasted about fifty years; or according to others, (who account the schism of Felix against Eugenius as part of it, because it sprung from it) seventy years ; during all which time, except the interval between Clement and Felix IV, there were two opposite lines of succession to St. Peter's chair, derived from two antagonist infallible Pontiffs ; till Felix, whom the council at Basil set up against Clement, on the earnest intreaty of the Emperor, surrendered his pretensions to the Popedom, and left Nicholas V, successor to the line of Urban, sole Pontiff in the Holy See. During the continuance of this schism, there were sometimes three competitors for the Popedom.

Of all sects of Christians, Roman Catholics should be the least inclined 10 upbraid the Church of England with schism ; for the line of succession has been so often broken by it, that it would be difficult, if not impassible, to determine which of two or three Popes was the true successor of St. Peter, supposing that Apostle to have been Bishop of Rome. Platina, ap eminent historian of the Roman Catholic persuasion who wrote the lives of the Popes, in the 15th century, observes, * “ the Papacy was come to that pitch, that he who exceeded, not in piety and learning, bui in corruption and ambition, obtained that dignity; good men being rejected and oppressed; which custom, would to God, our age had not sometimes retained.” It must be allowed, that there were contests for the Popedom, previous to the usurpation of Gregory VII, but they were of short continuance, as the Emperors speedily put an end to them, by the salutary control of

• Plat, in vita Sylvestri III.

their supremacy; of which I gave unquestionable proofs in my first letter,

Page 216.


my third letter, page 304, I gave copious extracts from the General Councils and Canon Law of the Romish Church. I shall now mention The Popes who were chiefly concerned in framing the latter. Gratian, a Monk of the 12th century, collected a body of decretals, called “ Con'cordia discordantium Canonum;" and Alexander III, who gave it the sanction of law, was, as I have already siated, deposed, as a schismatic. The rest were Gregory IX, Boniface VIII, Clement V, and Joho XXII,* all sanguinary and ambitious, traitors to their Princes, and butchers of Christendom, by the destructive wars which they raised. Then come " the Clementines and Extravagants ;" all those laws contained in a book called “ Collectio diversarum Constitutionum et Literarum Romanorum Pontificum ;" and in one called “ Epistolæ Decretales Sammorum Pontificum," in three volumes ; also in another, called “ Eclogæ Bullarum & Motcom propriorum." We may add to these, the "Summa Pontificum," the 7th book of the Decretals, and the Penitentiary Taxes of the Romish Chancery.t

The excellent Doctor Jeremiah Taylor, Bishop of Drongore, justly observes on this mass of blasphemous and discordant canons :-" That a Christian Bishop should impose, and a council of Christian Bishops and Priests should tie upon the consciences of men, such burdens which they can never reckon, never tell over, never know, never understand ; and that they should do it then, when a Christian Emperor had given advice, that the decrees and canons should be reduced to a less number, and made to conform to the laws of God, is so sad a story, so unlike the spirit of Christ, and to Government Apostolical, that it represents the happiness of Christendom, that they are not obliged to such laws, and the unhappiness that would be upon them, if the Pope had the rule and real obligations of the consciences of Christendom."! How different are the sentiments of Doctors Troy and Milner, and the Plowdens on this subject? In my third letter, pp. 308, 309, I have quoted their own words, in which they insist that the Decretals and Ecclesiastical mandates of the Pope, are os infallible as General Councils, and that they are to be received as coming from

He was the scandal and shame of human nature, and was deposed for his crimes, a catalogue of which would make a volume. It is truly ridiculous that the word “ holiness" should be applied to such monsters.

+ An edition of it, published in the year 1715 in London, was reprinted in 1809, an! is to be found, in an octavo volume, entitled “ Occasional Essays on various Subjects," printed by Robert Wilks, Chancery Lane, for John White, Fleet Strecs. See Pror. Ads. p. 457, and p. 474.

of the power of the Church in canons and censures, p. 299.

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