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I would gather all the forces to the islands of Barbadoes and the Caribbees : they lie to the westward of all the French and Spanish colonies; the wind is always favourable to go to them at pleasure.

I humbly propose the attacking of the French first." If a war breaks out towards the spring, most of the forces being ready in the Continent of New England, I would begin, by attacking Canada by sea and land in the beginning of the summer; the conquest of it may be thoroughly perfected before the fit time of attempting any considerable action in the southern colonies.

The timing well your attempt is so very necessary, that, without it, you cannot, with any probability, succeed; yet it has been hitherto so little regarded, that all our fleets for the West Indies, in the late war, arrived always, and thought of some action, wben the hurricanes began to be feared and expected.

It was very far in June, when we attacked St. Christophers; it was the beginning of it, also, when we landed at Martinico; and it was also in June, when Willmot and Lillingston attacked Port de Paix in Hispaniola.

Had Ruiter been at Martinico any other time but June, he would have certainly taken it The Dutch committed many errors in their attack ; but the only thing, which forced them to withdraw, was, that, it being hurricane time, Ruiter, seeing great appearance of a storm, would not venture his fleet, and caused that sudden retreat.

The French, who were but few, had no other defence, but a very bad pallisado, and a narrow trench, almost filled up in many places, could not possibly have resisted a brisk attack with sword and pistol in hand. But the Dutch must neeels land in order, though they saw nobody to oppose their landing, and would not advance upon the enemy, until they had formed their battalions, as if they had been in a pitched battle; they were all this while exposed, from head to foot, to the musquets of the enemy, and the great and small guns of a man of war, which lay in the then careening place, commanded by Monsieur d'Amblimont, who died lately General for the French King in America. The same night the Dutch retreated, the French left and abandoned their fort, judging it untenable, and expecting the Dutch would have stormed it the next morning.

All things should be so ordered, that the fleet and forces may arrive where you intend to make your attack. In the beginning of October, the hurricane time is just over, and you may venture your fleet any where, during nine months, and you have then three months that the heat is but moderate, and the weather, for the most part, very clear and dry; the best time for action.

I would put the forces upon action and attack, as soon as they arrive; and so make the best use of their strength and health, and not stay until the heat of the weather, or any other cause, should pull their courage down, or they should fall sick, and be out of order.

In the West Indies, I would begin with Martinico; take that island from the French, and you will ruin them in all their colonies: there they keep all their stores for ships and land forces. It is easy to block up Fort Royal by sea and land; by falling upon the island unexpectedly, and landing near the fort of a sudden, you may binder the people from going and carrying any provisions and water into the fort; and dry weather may happen, so that there may be but little water in the cistern. One may encamp round about it very well, and commodiously, all along a river of good water: the country about it is also full of provisions.

The fort being besieged and blocked up, I would ply them night and day with bombs and carcases, in order to burn and destroy their houses, magazines, and cisterns. From some of the neighbouring hills, guns may shoot at random into the fort, and, raking along, may do much damage.

Having left people enough to maintain and continue the siege, some considerable body of forces may be sent all over the island to subdue it; which I am confident would be easy enough, especially, if his Majesty, intending the conquest of all the colonies, would give out and proclaim, that he intends to keep the island to bimself, and would receive its inhabitants into his protection as subjects, and so forbid burning and destroying of plantations and houses. Very many, if not all, would submit; and it would be easy afterwards to hanish and force away those, that should be deemed unfit to be kept there as inhabitants.

I would also take, keep, and fortify, the island of Granada ; it has an excellent large harbour; it is neser troubled with hurri. canes, And the Spanish ships, going to their western plantations, pass near and often in sight of it. That island is better than any of the English Caribbees, Barbadoes excepted. It might soon be settled, and made a profitable colony.

All the rest of the French colonies would easily be subdued. I would ruin them, and transport what I would keep of them, to Martinico, or Granada. · There are still, in the French islands, many Protestants, French and Dutch, who may be trusted and depended upon.

The taking of Martinico would discourage the French, and, I am confident, would hinder them from assisting the Spaniards in the West Indies. How could they with reason venture out thither a considerable fleet, after the loss of Martinico, the only strong hold they have, being sensible that the English can be always their superiors in those parts, whensoever they please?

All our Caribbee islands being secured by the taking and keeping Martinico, some few frigates might suffice to protect and defend them from any insult, and they may spare some of their people to help to attack the Spaniards.

The island of Cuba is that of the Spanish I would begin with. The Havannah, its chief town, is very strong on the barbour and sea-side; but would be easily enough taken, if besieged on the country and land-side; and, as we commonly say, in form, with those preparations that are requisite in sieges. You may land in many places, and the march is easy from thence to the town: tne country abounds in cattle, sheep, goats, and hogs: the bays are well stored with fish, manatees, and turtles: the country provisions very plenty every where: the Bay of Mattancas would, perbaps, be the fittest place to land in, and to preserve the fleet, some few frigates being sufficient to stop and block up the barbour's mouth, during the siege.

The taking and keeping the Havannah would soon ruin the Spaniards in the West Indies: as their ships, coming, pass near Granada ; going home, they must pass also near the Havannah, and so through the Bahamas: so that some frigates at Granada, and some at Havannah, would annoy the Spaniards going and coming

I would, by all means, keep and settle Cuba, though forced to abandon some other settlements. It may, perhaps, be done, without deserting any other place, with some people out of New-England, the least profitable of all the colonies.

Having Cuba, we may easily seize Porto Bello, Chiagre, and Panama, and so command both the North and South Seas in America.

The design I propose is great, and may, perhaps, appear impossible to some people; but I am sincerely persuaded of the feasibleness of it to the English nation, so very populous, and so very strong in the West Indies.

Quod nemo promittere divum
Auderet volvenda dies certe afferet ultro.

There is nothing wanting for so great an undertaking, but a faithful, honest, hearty, and honourable disinterested mind in the commanding officers. The success of such an enterprise would inrich the English nation beyond measure, making her mistress of most of the mines of gold and silver, besides all the productions peculiar to that part of the world, as sugars, cocoa's, cotton, indigo, natto, tobacco, &c. What increase would it not bring to its navigation and shipping? All sorts of merchant-ships may be built in the northern America, or with timber brought from thence, whilst the English oak, so very excellent for building, may be kept and reserved only for building of men of war.

I am confident, and I dare maintain it, that the conquest of all the Spanish and French colonies, in America, would never cost England, what the taking of Namur did, in blood and money. It would, without doubt, make the English nation the strongest and the richest of the world : and, that it may be so, is the hearty wish of a faithful and devoted subject.







TAIN CHRISTOPHER FOGG, On a Complaint exhibited by the Judge-Advocate on Behalf of her Majesty, at

a Court-Martial, held on Board the Ship, Bredah, in Port-Royal Harbour, to Jamaica, in America, the eighth, ninth, tenth, and twelfth Days of October, 1702, for Cowardice, Neglect of Duty, Breach of Orders, and other Crimes, committed by them in a fight at Sea, commenced the Nineteenth of August, 1702, off St. Martha, in the Latitude of ten Degrees North, near the main Land of America, between the Houourable John Benbow, Esq. and Admiral Du Casse, with four French Ships of War; for which Colonel Kirkby and Captain Wade were sentenced to be shot to Death. Transmitted from two eminent Merchants at Port-Royal in Jamaica, to a Person of Quality in the City of London. From a Folio Edition, printed at London, 1703.

AT T a court-martial held on board her Majesty's ship, the Bre

dah, in Port-Royal harbour in Jamaica in America, the eighth, ninth, tenth, and twelfth days of October, 1702.

Present, The Honourable William Whiston, Esq. Rear-Admiral of her Ma.

jesty's ships for the West-India squadron, president. Samuel Vincent,

William Russel, John Hartnoll,

Barrow Harris, Christopher Fogg,

Hercules Mitchell, John Smith,

Philip Boyce, John Redman,

Charles Smith. George Walton,

Arnold Browne, Esq. Judge-Advocate. Who being all duly sworn, pursuant to the Act of Parliament

Proceeded to the tryal of John Arthur, gunner of the Defiance, on a complaint exhibited by Francis Knighton, third Lieutenant of the Defiance, and George Foster, gunner of for hiding and concealing forty-three barrels of powder in the wad-room, and covering them with wads and coins, &c. when a survey of ber Majesty's stores of ammunition after an engagement was ordered ;

• October ath.

and denying to the surveyors that there was any more powder on board, than was in the powder-room and gun-room, viz. one hundred; which upon a second survey were discovered. It was proved also, that he had two keys to the powder-room; and that, having lost or mislaid his own, he, without making any application to the commanding officer then on board, who kept the other key, prevailed with William Baker, carpenter of the said ship, to break open the door.

In mitigation of his offence, he alledged, that, examining into the powder-room, he found three barrels that had received wet, which caused his removal of the forty-three barrels ; but had little to say for his concealing them from the surveyors. . Whereupon the court adjudged, that, the said offence falling under the thirty-third article of war, the said John Arthur should be carried from ship to ship in a boat, with a halter about his neck, the provost-marshal declaring his crimes; and all his pay, as gunner, to be mulcted and forfeited to the chest at Chatham, and be rendered uncapable of serving her Majesty in any other employment.

Colonel Richard Kirkby, commander of the Defiance, was tried * before the aforesaid court (except Captain Samuel Vincent, and Captain Christopher Fogg, who appeared as witnesses for the Queen) on a complaint exhibited by the Judge-Advocate, on the behalf of her Majesty, of cowardice, neglect of duty, breach of orders, and other crimes committed by him in a fight at sea, commenced the nineteenth of August, 1702, off of St. Martha, in the latitude of ten degrees north, near the main land of America, between the Honourable John Benbow, Esq. Vice-Admiral of the blue squadron of her Majesty's fleet, and Admiral and commander in chief, &c. on board her Majesty's ship Bredah, Christopher Fogg, commander, and six other of ber Majesty's ships, viz. the Defiance, Richard Kirkby commander; the Falmouth, Samuel Vincent commander; the Windsor, John Constable commander; the Green. wich, Cooper Wade commander; the Ruby, George Walton commander; and the Pendennis, Thomas Hudson cominander; and Monsieur Du Casse, with four French ships of war: wbich con. tinued until the twenty-fourth of August, inclusive. The witnesses that were sworn in behalf of the Queen, viz.

The Honourable John Benbow, Esq. Admiral 1


8 Masters

5 Inferior officers


In all 21 Who deposed, that the said Colonel Richard Kirkby, the ran in the line of battle, the nineteenth of August, about three in the

• October 8th and 9th.

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