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presses close connection not so much of time as of causation, a sense which may be illustrated by the opposite sine. — 425. Hoc = by this; sc. arando; i. e. by this and this only, this will be enough. The common interpretation makes hoc: =on this account. Pinguem et placitam Paci seem to express the effect of nutritor; i. e. nutritor ut pinguis sit, etc. Nutritor. Gr. 537. A. & S. 267 (2).
426. Poma; the fruit by metonymy for the trees. Sensere. The metaphor seems to be taken from an adult man feeling his limbs strong under him. —427. Raptim rapide. Cf. I. 409.428. Opis. Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 213. Que couples the adverbial subst. vi with the adverbial adj. indiga. Cf. A. VI. 640, Largior Purpureo. -429. Nec minus; i. e. equally with the trees that have been named. Interea; i. e. while man is cultivating the vine, olive, etc. Nemus; used generally of the trees of the forest in their uncultivated state. -430. Inculta; emphatic. Aviaria. Gr. 317. A. & S. 100. C. 8. —431. Tondentur cytisi. See on E. I. 79. Cf. also I. 15. Taedas; of the pine; so that alta is appropriate. 432. A poetical amplification of taedas ministrat. —433. The meaning seems to be: when nature offers so much to the planter and cultivator, can man hesitate to plant and cultivate? — 434. Majora; used in contradistinction to the smaller trees which follow. Sequar. Gr. 486 and II. A. & S. 260, R. 5.-435. Illae = even they; emphatic. — 436. Satis; including plantations. Pabula melli; a poetic combination of pabula apibus and materiam melli. Cf. E. I. 54, 55.437. Cytorum. Cytorus was a mountain of Paphlagonia, near Amastris, on the southern coast of the Euxine, famous for the growth of the box-tree. -438. Naryciae Narycian; i. e. Locrian. Naryx, or Narycion, was a town of the Opuntian Locrians in Greece, and the native city of Ajax. A colony of these Locrians came into Italy and founded Locri, near which was a forest, famed for its plentiful supply of pitch. Cf. A. III. 399. Arva = terras. -439. Obnoxia. See on I. 396.440. Caucasio; referring to the mountains still known by the name. -442. Alios aliae. Gr. 459. I. A. & S. 207, R. 32 (a). Lignum. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. 443. Navigiis. Gr. 391 and 1. A, & S. 222, R. 1. Cupressosque. Gr. 663. III. 1. 4). A. & S. 304. 3 (4). — 444. Hinc refers to silvae generally. Trivere tornavere. See on I. 49. Tympana; wheels, either of solid wood or boards, shaped like a drum. — 446. Viminibus; for tying up the vines and for wickerwork. Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2 (1). Frondibus; for food for cattle.-447. The construction is: myrtus et bona bello cornus validis hastilibus; sc. fecundae. Hastilibus; not the actual spear-shafts, but the shoots as they grow on the tree. Cf. A. III. 23. 448. Ituraeos. Ituraea was a region of Palestine east of the Jordan. In
Virgil's time it was inhabited by Arabs famous for their skill in archery. — 449. Nec ... non = nec non. Torno rasile; one epithet, like bona bello. 451. Undam; sc. Padi. Gr. 371. 3. A. & S. 232 (2). — 452. Missa Pado sped down the Po. Gr. 414. A. & S. 248. Cf. IV. 373. —453. The reference is to beehives made of bark and of hollow trees. Alveo. Gr. 669. II. A. & S. 306. I. - 455. Et even. Ille furentes, &c. A's an illustration of the preceding statement he cites the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae at the marriage of Pirithous and Hippodamia, caused by the excess in wine of the former. 456. Centauros; a race inhabiting Mount Pelion, in Thessaly, represented as half men and half horses. Leto. Gr. 414. A. & S. 247. Rhoetum, Pholum, Hylaeum; individual Centauri. —457. Lapithis. The Lapithae were a savage race inhabiting the mountains of Thessaly : Pirithous was their king. Cratere keeps up the notion of a Bacchanalian fray. 458. Norint. Gr. 234. 2. A. & S. 162. 7 (a). 459. Agricolas. Gr. 381. A. & S. 238. 2. Ipsa. See on E. IV. 21, 23. Fundit. Gr. 519 and 2. A. & S. 259. — 460. Humo from her soil. Justissima; not because she repays labor, but because she gives man all he needs. — 461. Foribus. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. — 462. Mane salutantum; alluding to the morning levees which were customarily held by the rich. Cf. Sall. Cat. XXVIII. and Cic. in Cat. I. 4. 10. Aedibus. Gr. 422 and 2. A. & S. 255, R. 3 (a) and (b). —463. Varios variegated. In
hiant = over.
(men) gaze at; or it may refer to the owner and Pulchra testudine with beautiful tortoise-shell.
nect with varios. 464. Illusas couch-covers. Ephyreia aera; brass, which were of great value. Ephyra was the ancient name of Corinth. - 465. Assyrio is here used loosely for Phoenician or Tyrian. 466. Casia is here not the Italian shrub of v. 213, but the bark of an eastern aromatic tree. Liquidi = puri. Usus olivi the oil in respect to its use, the service of the oil. 467. At yet. Fallere. Gr. 552. 3. A. & S. 270, R. 1. —468. Latis; opp. to the confinement of the city. Fundis. Gr. 422 and I. A. & S. 254, R. 3.-469. Vivi natural, fresh; opp. to artificial reservoirs, of which there were many at Rome. At is merely a repetition. Tempe; the famous vale in Thessaly, through which the river Peneus flowed, here put for valleys in general. 471. Lustra ferarum; i. e. hunting.-473. Sancti patres; i. e. old age is revered.
474. Justitia. See on E. IV. 6. — 475–489. While my first wish is that the Muses would reveal to me the whole system of nature's laws, my second, should that be denied, is to lead a country life: : my heart leaps up at the thought already.
475. Ante omnia may be taken either with primum or with dulces, but the former best brings out the sense of the whole passage, which is Above all things I would be the poet of philosophy; if I cannot be that, I would be the poet of the country.-476. Sacra fero means either to carry the sacred symbols in procession, or to sacrifice as a priest. The latter is, perhaps, preferable here. — 477. Accipiant; i. e. may they receive my dedication of myself and assist me with their favors. Gr. 487. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Vias et sidera may be taken as a hendiadys for vias siderum. - 478. Defectus and labores both refer to eclipses. Cf. A. I. 742; errantem lunam solisque labores. -479. Terris. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Tumescant. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. The commentators take this of the tides; but it seems to denote something more violent and irregular, such as the sudden rise of the sea in an earthquake. -481. Oceano ...tinguere. The ancients believed that the sun, when he set, descended into the ocean. Soles hiberni... tardis noctibus; i. e. why the days are so short and the nights so long in winter. -483. Possim. Gr. 492; 499. I and 2. A. & S. 262 and R. 11.-484, Frigidus... sanguis. It was the opinion of some of the ancient philosophers that the blood about the heart was the seat of thought, and as that was warm or cold the mental powers were vigorous or obtuse. — 486. O, ubi campi =0 essem ubi sunt campi =O (that I were) where (are) the plains! Ubi and qui (v. 488) are relatives, not interrogatives. Campi Spercheusque may be taken as a hendiadys for Campi Sperchei. Cf. fagus stivaque, G. I. 173. 487. Spercheus; a river of Thessaly. Bacchata = revelled on. Gr. 221. 2. A. & S. 162. 17 (a). Lacaenis Laconian, Spartan. – 488. Taygeta (neu. plu., common Latin form Taygetus); a ridge of mountains in Laconia, terminating in the promontory Taenarum. O, qui= utinam sit, qui. Haemi. See on I. 492. —489. Sistat. Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. 6. — 491. Fatum; i. e. death, regarded as the fiat of nature. Acherontis; a river of the lower world, here put for the lower world itself. Gr. 705. III. A. & S. 324. 3. —494. Pana. See on E. IV. 58. Silvanum. See on I. 20. Nymphas. See on E. V. 75.· 495. Populi fasces; i. e. the consulate at Rome. -496. Flexit movit. Fratres is generally taken to refer to one of the domestic contests for Eastern thrones, such as that in the family of the Arsacidae between Phraates and Tiridates. See Hor. C. I. 26, Introd. — 497. Conjurato... Histro the conspiring Danube. Conjurato is applied to the Danube, by a change very common with the poets, to signify that other nations on the Danube joined the Dacians. Descendens; alluding to their position on the mountains. Dacus. See on Hor. C. I. 35. 9. - 498. Res Romanae = the Roman state. -499. Habenti diviti. 502. Tabularia:
chives.-503–512. The pursuits of ambition and avarice. — 503.
Freta = maria. Caeca
A. & S.
Cf. Hor. Ep. II. 78. — 505. Exscidiis. Gr. 414 and 4. Penates = 247 and 3. homes. 506. Gemma; i. e. e gemma. Sarrano Tyrian; from Sarra, a name of Tyre. — 508. Hic; the aspirant to eloquence, who is struck dumb with admiration of the successful speaker, and the applause which greets him. Rostris. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. Hunc; the aspirant (hiantem) to political greatness, who is caught and carried away (corripuit) by the applause in the theatre (per cuneos) which rewarded popular 509. Enim quidem. — 510. Gaudent; sc. alii. 511. Exsilio; i. e. the place of exile. Cf. A. III. 4. -513. Dimovit. See on I. 49.514. Labor; sc. est or venit. Parvosque Penates little homestead. The common reading is nepotes. 516. Quin... exuberet annus to the year's abounding. Gr. 498. A. & S. 262, R. 10 and N. 6. 2. - 519. Sicyonia bacca; i. e. the olive, for which Sicyon, a city near Corinth, was famous. 520. Glande. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1. Laeti isfied. — 521. Ponit = drops, yields. — 522. See on v. 377. — 524. Domus = familia; here the wife. 525. Laeto = luxuriant. 527. Ipse; sc. agricola. Agitat celebrates. — 528. Ignis; i. e. on the altar. Cratera. Gr. 93. 1. A. & S. 8o. Coronant; i. e. with a wreath of flowers. Cf. A. III. 525. The flagon containing the wine for a libation was encircled with a garland. — 529. Lenaee. See on v. 4.530. Certamina ponit = institutes contests. In ulmo. The mark was set up in or scored on an elm. — 531. Nudant; sc. pecoris magistri. — 532. Sabini; one of the most ancient and powerful of the indigenous peoples of Central Italy, and one of the few who preserved their race unmixed. — 533. Remus; the twin brother of Romulus, the reputed founder of Rome. Etruria; the country of the Etrusci or Tusci, in Central Italy, called by the Greeks Tyrrhenia.-534. Scilicet. See on I. 282.-535. Una alone; i. e. though a single city. Arces = montes, colles. — 536. Dictaei regis; i. e. Jupiter, who was said to have been born on Mount Dicte in the island of Crete. - 538. Aureus... Saturnus. See on Ov. M. I. 113.539. Etiam connects necdum with ante, as the former etiam connects ante with what precedes. 541. Spatiisin its courses, circuits; i. e. in its extent. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. See on I. 513. Aequor. Comp. on v. 105 and I. 50.
THE AENEID. BOOK I.
THE subject of the Aeneid, as propounded in the opening lines, is the settlement of Aeneas in Italy, after years of wandering, and a short but sharp final struggle. It is, however, only of the events preceding the settlement that the poet really treats, of the wanderings and the war. Accordingly, the poem divides itself into two parts, the wanderings being embraced by the first, the Italian war by the second. But the two parts naturally involve different modes of treatment, comprehending as they do periods of time widely differing in length, the one seven years, the other apparently a few days. Here the poet follows the example of Homer in the Odyssey. The long period of wanderings is taken at a point not far from its conclusion; enough is told in detail to serve as a specimen of the whole, and the hero is made to narrate the rest of his past adventures to the person whose relation to him is all the time forming one adventure more. This peculiarity of the Homeric story is noticed by Horace (A. P. 164 foll.) and recommended to epic writers generally.
The First Book of the Aeneid performs well the objects which it was no doubt intended to accomplish, — those of interesting us in the hero and introducing the story. After a brief statement of the subject, we have a view of the supernatural machinery by which it is to be worked out; and this, though imitated from Homer, is skilfully contrived so as to throw a light on the subsequent history of the Roman descendants of Aeneas, by the mention, even at that early time, of their great enemy, Carthage. Like Ulysses, Aeneas is shipwrecked in the voyage which was to have been his last, the main difference being that the Grecian hero is solitary, having long since lost all his companions, while the Trojan is still accompanied by those who followed his fortunes from Troy. The machinery by which the storm is allayed is perhaps managed more adroitly by Virgil than by Homer, as there seems to be more propriety in representing the inferior god of the winds as counteracted by the superior god of the sea, than in making a sea-nymph rescue one whom the god of the sea is seeking to destroy. The remaining incidents of the Book are mostly borrowed from Homer; but we may admire the skill with which Virgil has introduced varieties of detail, and the art with which a new impression is produced by a combination of old materials, in making the friendly power that receives Aeneas unite the blandishments of Calypso with the hospitalities of Alcinous, and so engrafting a tale of passion on a narrative of ordinary adventure.