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of men. They vary with constitution, when labour is plentiful, which may go with character, and with national and to meet the privations of unfavourable local babits. Some of them lie so deeply entrenched in the weakness and 5th. Imprudent and Hasty Mardepravity of human nature, as to be riages.- This, it is believed, is a fertile altogether unassailable by mere political source of trial and poverty. regulation. They can be reached in 5th. Lotteries. The depraving nano other way, than by awakening the ture and tendency of these allurements dormant and secret energies of moral to hazard money, is generally admitted feeling
by those who have been most attentive But, with a view to bring the subject to their effects. The time spent in inquicommitted to our charge more definitely ries relative to lotteries, in frequent atbefore the Society, we have thought it tendance on lottery.offices, the feverriglit distinctly to enumerate the more ish anxiety which prevails relative to the prominent of those causes of poverty success of tickets, the association to which prevail in this city; subjoining which it leads, all contribute to divert such remarks as may appear needful.
the labourer from his employment, to Ist. Ignorance, arising either from in- weaken the tone of his morals, to conherent dulness, or from want of oppor- sume his earnings, and consequently tunities for improvement.—This ope- to increase bis poverty. But objectionrates as a restraint upon the physical able and injurious to society as we bepowers, preventing that exercise and lieve lotteries to be, we regard as more cultivation of the bodily faculties by destructive to morals, and ruinous to which skill is obtained, and the means all character and comfort, the numeof support increased. The influence rous self-erected lottery insurances, at of this cause, it is believed, is particu- which the young and old are invited to larly great among the foreign poor that spend their money, in such small pitannually accumulate in this city. tances as the poorest labourer is fre
21. İdleness.-A tendency to this evil quently able to command, under the may be more or less inherent. It is delusive expectation of gain, the chance greatly increased by other causes, and of which is as low, perhaps, as it is poswhen it becomes habitual, it is the oc- sible to conceive. The poor are thus casion of much suffering in families, cheated out of their money and their and augments, to a great amount, the time, and too often left a prey to the burden of the industrious portions of feelings of desperation; or they are imsociety.
pelled by those feelings to seek a refuge 3d. Intemperance in Drinking:- This in the temporary, but fatal oblivion of most prolific source of mischief and intoxication. misery, drags in its train almost every
7h. Pawnbrokers. — The establishspecies of suffering which afflicts the ment of these offices is considered as poor. This evil, in relation to poverty very unfavourable to the independence and vice, may be emphatically styled, and welfare of the middling and inferior the Cause of Causes. The box of Pan- classes. The artifices which are often dora is realized in each of the kegs of practised to deceive the expectations of ardent spirits that stand upon the coun- those who are induced, through actual ters of the sixteen hundred licensed distress, or by positive allurement, to grocers of this city. At a moderato trust their goods at these places; not to computation, the money spent in the mention the facilities which they afford purchase of spirituous liquors would be to the commission of theft, and the more than sufficient to keep the whole encouragement they give to a depencity constantly supplied with bread. dence on stratagem and cunning, rather Viewing the enormous devastations of than on the profits of honest industry, this evil upon the minds and morals of fairly entitle them, in the opinion of thie the people, we cannot but regard it as
committee, to a place among the causes the crying and increasing sin of the of poverty.* nation, and as loudly demanding the solemn deliberation of our legislative the individuals who sustain the characters of
* It cannot be considered as a reflection on assemblies.
4th. Want of Economy.- Prodigality Pawnbrokers, to notice, that the very nature is comparative. Among the poor it of their employment has, in some views, a prevails to a great extent, in an inatten- demoralizing tendency. Person's, who comtion to thiose small but frcquent savings mit their nightly depredations, frequently
8th. Houses of ill fame. --The dire- | many of them of decent families, who ful effects of those sinks of iniquity are here subjected to the most cruel upon the habits and morals of a nume- tyranny of their inhuman masters — rous class of young men, especially upon the females, who, hardened in of sailors and apprentices, are visible crime, are nightly sent from those dens throughout the city, Open abandon of corruption to roam through the city, ment of character, vulgarity, profanity, “ seeking whom they may devour," we &c. are among the inevitable conse- have not the inclination, nor is it our quences, as it respects our own sex, of duty to describe. Among “ the causes those places of infamous resort. Their of poverty,” those houses, where all the effects upon the several thousands of base-born passions are engendered females within this city, who are in- where the vilest profligacy receives a gulphed in those abodes of all that is forced culture-must hold an eminent vile, and all that is shocking to virtuous rank. thought, upon the miserable victims,
[To be continued.]
repair to these offices, and deposit as pledges
A traffic thus carried on cannot but, in various articles which they would hardly process of time, turn to the advantage of the attempt to sell, lest the immediate effort pawnbroker. Goods that have been stolen are to dispose of them entirely, should excite rarely redeemed; and when they are sold, all suspicion. But, by carrying them to a the surplus money is real profit. A pawnbropawnbroker, an air of secrecy, which arti- ker is therefore peculiarly interested in the ficial modesty supplies, conceals the transac- issues of these bargains; and should bis attach. tions which take place, so that villany finds a ment to moral principle be rajher languid, retreat in the arms of delicacy.
a temptation is thrown in his way, to connive As pawnbrokers are always careful not to at deeds which he may comprehend tolerably advance a sụm that shall exceed one half the well, without bearing an active part in the value of the article deposited, the appearance transaction, or becoming an accomplice in of honesty in the person who pawns, serves to guilt. It is obvious, therefore, that in prothrow another mantle over his deeds of dark-portion as this mutual, but silent understandness; since it may be fairly inferred, that he ing becomes general, the pawnbroker is sanchas an intention to redeem bis pledge. But, tioned by law to encourage the thief, who, in baving obtained a given sum, the article is for return, rewards him with a portion of his ever abandoned, lest an inquiry after it should spoils.-EDITOR. lead to detection.
MORAL BAROMETER OF PARIS. Account of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, in the city of Paris, during the year
1817. Sent to the French Board of Longitude, by the Prefecture of the Department.
Boys.... 2,216 )
S Boys. 148
Girls...: 2;958 } 4,618
In Hos- In Houses
at Home. pitals,
S Males.... 1,073
Fenales .. 3,434 S
In private | Males..
5,805 Houses. | Females.
6,379 In Hos- | Males..
3.911 pitals. | Females
4,072 > 21,124
5,171 Bachelors and Widows ....
6,382 Widowers and Maids.
605 Widowers and Widows
251 We translate this list of Births, for we farther learn from this report, Deaths, and Marriages, from the “. An- that, out of the 9,047 natural children, nales de Chimie et de Physique,” for no fewer than 6937, nearly seven-ninths Nov. 1818, (where it is given without a of the number, are ABANDONED by their single observation either of astonishi- criminal and unnatural parents. That ment or of apology,) for the purpose of such a horrible state of things should predrawing the attention of English readers vail in the French metropolis, and that to such singular facts as it presents. the French Board of Longitude should
Out of 23,759 births in the compass present it to the public in a dry detail, of one year, there are 9,047 natural without a single reflection, exhibits a children! There are persons, we are more striking proof of the immorality aware, who, if such an awful fact were of France, and of that bluntness of mentioned to them, would reply," True, moral perception and humane feeling “ but then you know, though the per- which immorality infallibly produces,
sons are not actually married, they than any thing else which we have yet “ live together as man and wife, and heard or read. Happy Britain! where “ take care of their children, of course. the merc announcement of such partiThis, however, is evidently not, the case; 'culars excites astonishment and pity!
SINGULAR EXPERIMENT ON GAL
which are now filled with names of illustrious characters, that posterity, as well
as ourselves, must venerate, would have When sciences of any description are presented nothing more than a dreary in their infancy, they have always a blank. host of difficulties to encounter; and The man who discovers a new power many discoveries have no doubt been or principle in nature, whether simple crushed in their birth, which, if che- in itself, or resulting from a combinarished only for a short season, might tion of causes, is entitled to the thanks have proved highly beneficial to man- of his country, even though his efforts kind. That genius, time, and talent to turn it to any useful purpose should have been wasted in researches which finally prove unsuccessful. Sciences, have finally proved abortive, is a truth, like men, require m
time to ripen which every one will be ready to admit; them to perfection. In both cases their but why this should be urged as a rea- growth is progressive; and he who will son for laying an embargo on the vigor- not cherish an infant, never deserves to ous exertions of an active spirit, which, behold a man. We have been led into Columbus-like, explores unknown re- these reflections by the term which gions in search of undiscovered worlds, stands at the head of this article; and we have not yet been able to learn. A the account of some experiments which single discovery of importance, will have lately been made, will, we hope, amply compensate for a multitude of sanction the observations which we have disappointments. In chemistry, and in introduced. various branches of naturally philoso- The term Galvanism is derived from phy, we found our knowledge of esta- Galvani, a professor of anatomy at Boblished facts, upon the concurring logna, who, not many years since, disresults of repeated experiments. But, covered a certain influence, by which if all the arts and sciences had been animal bodies were strangely affected abandoned when experiment proved by applications of metallic substances to unsuccessful, the pages of our history, particular parts of the nervous system.
The word itself, like most arbitrary in their degrees of influence in the order terms, is in the abstract nearly destitute in which they are here placed. 1. Zinc; of meaning; and all the ideas with which 2. Tin; 3. Lead : in conjunction with, it is now associated, have been derived 1. Gold; 2. Silver; 3. Molybdena; 4. from those particular effects which this Steel ; 5. Copper: but as the science is influence has produced by repeated still in a state of infancy, on the degrees experiments. By Galvani, and others, of influence, philosophers are not yet this strange influence was denominated agreed ; and nothing but time and exanimal electricity; time and obser- periment can fully ascertain the fact. vation have long since shewn, that these Among the numerous experiments terms could not properly express the which have lately been made, very few ideas which were occasionally excited have been more singular in their effects, by the various phænomena of this myste- than those which were produced on the rious property in nature. By some, 4th of November last, in Glasgow, by who have made this subject their par- Dr. Ure, on the body of a man named ticular study, the electric fluid, without Clydesdale, who had been executed for any distinguishing epithet, has been murder. These effects were produced considered as its primary cause ; but by a Voltaic battery of 270 pair of fourthe doubtful circumstances under which inch plates, of which the results were the Galvanic phenomena sometimes ap- terrible. In the first experiment, on pear, have rendered this assumption moving the rod from the thigh to the rather questionable. Of this uncertainty heel, the leg was thrown forward with another department of science has taken so much violence, as nearly to overturn the advantage; and several contend, one of the assistants. In the second that what has been ascribed to Galvan- experiment, the rod was applied to the ism, is nothing more than the effect of phrenic nerve in the neck, when labochemical oxidation. From these con- rious breathing commenced; the chest flicting opinions, one point, however, heaved and fell; the belly was protrudseems to be obvious; namely, that ex-ed and collapsed with the relaxing and periment has not hitherto been able to retiring diaphragm; and it was thought trace this principle, with precision, to a that nothing but the loss of blood prespecific source in the classifications of vented pulsation from being restored. science. We must therefore be con- In the third experiment, the supra orbitent to wait, until time, and a combina- tal nerve was touched, when the mus. tion of incidents, shall discover those cles of the face were thrown into frightboundaries, beyond which it ceases to ful action and contortions.
The scene operate, to learn its cause with indubit- was hideous; and many spectators left able assurance.
the room; and one gentleman nearly The experiments which have hitherto fainted, either from terror, or from the been made by philosophers upon animal momentary sickness which the scene bodies, may be reduced nearly to a sin- occasioned. In the fourth experiment, gle point; the statement of which will from meeting the electric power from suffice to give the reader a general idea the spinal marrow to the elbow, the of the subject. Lay bare any principal fingers were put in motion, and the arm nerve, which leads immediately to some was agitated in such a manner, that it great limb or muscle. When this is seemed to point to some spectators, who done, let that part of the nerve which is were dreadfully terrified, from an apexposed, and which is farthest from the prehension that the body was actually limb or muscle, be brought into contact coming to life. From these experiwith a piece of zinc. While in this ments, Dr. Ure seemed to be of opinion, state, let the zinc be touched by a piece that had not incisions been made in the of silver, while another part of the blood-vessels of the neck, and the spinal silver touches the naked nerve, if not marrow been lacerated, the body of the dry; or the muscle to which it leads, criminal might have been restored to whether dry or not. In this state, vio- life. lent contractions will be produced in To what extent these experiments the limb or muscle, but not in any mus- may hereafter be carried, and to what cle on the other side of the zinc. Al- beneficial purposes they may be applied, most any two metals, which are suscep- it is impossible to say. The principle tible of different degrees of oxidation, which has been discovered, is confesswill produce a movement; but the most edly powerful; but the laws by which it powerful are the following, descending is guided are yet, in a great measu" No, I.--VOL. I.
unknown. From the various observa. In most other respects, besides those tions which have been made on the which relate to manure, it would be experiments thus far tried, it appears folly to hold up the Chinese as examto be a principle which is closely con- ples; but in these their farmers are nected with animal life. It seems to be worthy of imitation. They keep their capable of reaching all the vital func dung in vats, or in deep trenches, tions; and we may possibly learn here- which are securely lined, and always after, from the increasing light which it preserve it in a liquid state; constantly is constantly imparting, something of recruiting the mass with urine, when it animation which has hitherto eluded can be procured; but when this fails, our researches.
they substitute water. They also steep their seed-corn in liquid manure, a short
time before they deposit it in the earth; ON THE IMPORTANCE OF PREPARING
sometimes adding a given quantity of MANURE.
nitrate of potash. This they have found, Few maxims are more evident than by long experience, tends considerably this, that “ truth cannot be impaired to promote the fecundity of their grain. by age;” though it must be confessed, there is a strange propensity in human nature, to be more captivated
THE ARCHBISHOP OF JERUSALEM. with the recommendations of novelty, The Syrian archbishop, Gregorio Pietro than to be instructed by the result of Giarve, has lately paid a visit to this repeated experiments. This is an error country, and he now resides in Frithwhich many will be ready to acknow street, Soho, where his singular appearledge, but which few only will be for- ance excites the notice of numerous ward to rectify.
spectators. His person is highly venerIn a letter of Mr. Dinsdale to the able, and his costume tends to render editor of the “ Annals of Philosophy,” him dignified. He appears in the blue he complains much of the improper dress of the Apostle James. His beard manner in which a majority of our is long, and white; he has a blue turfarmers manage their manure. Their ban; and a splendid robe covers his general method is, either to suffer the inner garments. His business to this dung to lie scattered over the yard, country is to make himself acquainted while the more valuable particles are with the machinery of the Printing continually exhaling; or, if they collect Press, as he intends establishing one at it together, they form a promiscuous Mount Lebanon, for printing a correct heap in some corner, where they let it edition of the sacred Scriptures in the remain uncovered, and carelessly per- Syriac language. Although Mount Lemit the liquid and most important parts banon is under a Christian prince, to be drained away; while they suffer nearly all Syria is governed and inhaannoyances from the exhalations, which, bited by Turks. Many of these have though they would prove beneficial to embraced Christianity; and he gives it the soil, are insalubrious to themselves, as his opinion, that multitudes more their families, and their cattle. At would follow their example, if Bibles other times, they carry the dung, in were to be procured in their language. a raw and unfermented state, into their But this has hitherto been rendered fields, and deposit it in small heaps, impracticable. Bibles printed in the exposed to the action of the sun and East, and sent to the Syrian Turks, are wind, until all its goodness is nearly said to have been found incorrect. None exhausted.
but a Syrian can correct a Syriac press. The remedy which he proposes is, A single error in the placing of a point that they pay strict attention to the fer- inverts the order of the sentence, and mentative state of their dunghills, to frequently makes it becoine ridiculous. stir and turn them frequently, and to The Archbishop undertakes to become keep them covered with sods or sward, the corrector of the edition which he is that the juices may not suffer exhaus- meditating, and having heard much of tion by the air. Dung managed in this the liberality of the English Christians, manner, Mr. Dinsdale asserts, will he is come hither to solicit that assistprove more beneficial to vegetation, ance, which we hope he will not ask in than all the boasted powers of common vain. salt, though dignified with the name of As the account which is here given of muriate of soda.
the professed occasion of this patriarchal