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order that Swanhilde, wife of a defeated prince, be torn asunder by horses, for which Hermanrich is slain by her three brothers. According to another tradition he is said to have put an end to his life, at the age of more than a hundred years, when he saw that he was about to be attacked by the King of the Huns, Balamir.

HERMAPHRODITE (Lat. hermaphroditus, from Gk. 'Epuappódiтos, son of Hermes and Aph. rodite, from 'Epuns, Hermes, Hermes + 'Appodírn, Aphrodite, Aphrodite). An obsolete term in botany, formerly used to designate those flowers that contain both stamens and pistils, these organs then being regarded as sexual.

HERMAPH’RODITE BRIG. See BRIG. HERMAPH’RODITISM. See SEX. HER'MAPHRODI'TUS. The son of Hermes and Aphrodite, born on Mount Ida, where he was brought up by naiads. Going in his fifteenth year to Caria, he rejected the love of Salmacis, the nymph of a fountain in which he bathed. Salmacis prayed to the gods to unite her to the boy forever, and a being resulted half male and half female. The origin of the dual conception is probably to be found in the Cyprian Aphroditus, worshiped in connection with Aphrodite. The form in which Hermaphroditus is represented in art was fixed by Polyclitus. It became a favorite subject for sculpture in the late Greek and Græco-Roman period.

HER'MAS, SHEPHERD OF (Lat., from Gk. *Epuâs). The title of a work (in Greek), written by a Christian of the second century, who lived in Rome; it is included among the works of the Apostolic Fathers (q.v.). Hermas was a well-to-do freedman, and a brother of Pius, Bishop of Rome about the middle of the second century. He was an earnest, simpleminded Christian, with little education or culture, but typical, no doubt, of many in the Church of his day. Some later writers, like Jerome, confuse him with the Hermas mentioned in Rom. xvi. 14, which is not surprising in view of the fact that he refers to persons and events of the Apostolic age as if they were contemporary. Parts of The Shepherd may have been written near the beginning of the second century. but other parts are obviously later, and the work as a whole should probably be dated not long before A.D. 140.

The book takes its name from one of its principal characters, an old man in shepherd's garb, who appears at the close of the first part, and thereafter attends Hermas as a sort of guardian, committing to his charge certain divine commands. The general theme is repentance and the duty of moral strenuousness. The book is divided into (1) five 'Visions,' which form the introduction; (2) twelve Mandates,' or commandments respecting the Christian life, and (3) ten 'Similitudes,' or parables, which picture among other things the progress of the Church. The whole forms an important source for our knowledge of second-century Christianity in Rome. Here and there it shows close resemblances to the Epistle of James. Visions and revelations play such an important part in the book that it is properly classed among early Christian apocalypses. A few recent critics hold that it was originally a Jewish book which received Christian revision and enlargement.

For some time after it was written opinion

was divided as to whether The Shepherd deserved to be classed among the 'Scriptures,' that is, among what we call the canonical books of the New Testament. Irenæus cites from it as 'Scripture,' and Clement of Alexandria and Origen esteemed it highly. It was often read in public worship. Tertullian, on the other hand, speaks slightingly of its moral teaching. In the fourth century it was still held in honor, as Eusebius and Jerome testify, but there was no longer any

doubt that it stood outside the sacred canon.

The Greek text, with English translation, has been published by Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, edited by Harmon (London, 1893). An English translation is given in volume i. of the American edition of Ante-Nicene Fathers, edited by Roberts and Donaldson (Buffalo, 1886). In general consult: Cruttwell, Literary History of Early Christianity, vol. ii. (London, 1893); Krüger, History of Early Christian Literature (New York, 1897); Taylor, The Shepherd of Hermas (New York, 1901).

HERMENEGILD, her'me-ne-gild (c.560c.610). Son of Leovigild, King of the Visigoths, and centre of a Catholic legend. In 580 he rebelled against his father to induce him to become a Catholic, says the story, although there is no evidence that Hermenegild was a Catholic apart from the fact that he married Ingunthis, daughter of Sigibert and Brunhilde, who was orthodox. The son was defeated by his father and driven into exile. The legend makes him martyred by his father, whose second wife was an Arian. He was canonized by Pope Sixtus.


HERMENGYLD, her'men-gild. The constable's wife, in Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale. Constance is falsely accused of her murder.

HERMES, her'mēz. See MERCURY.

HERMES, her'měs, GEORG (1775-1831). A German Roman Catholic theologian and philosopher, born in Dreyerwalde, Westphalia. His student life was passed in Münster, where he afterwards taught at the gymnasium (1798-1807), and lectured with marked success at the Academy (1807-19). In 1799 he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1819 he was called to the University of Bonn, where he spent the remainder of his life. As a professor of theology Hermes achieved the distinction of being the founder of a 'school,' known after him as the Hermesians. It was not long before all his colleagues at Bonn recognized him as their leader. It is said that his influence was sufficient to prevent the appointment of Möhler and Döllinger to professorships there. In Breslau, too, he gained many adherents. Spiegel, Archbishop of Cologne, was an active and powerful supporter of the new movement, and until his death (1836) the Hermesians were in high favor throughout the provinces of the lower Rhine. There seems to have been no doubt of their orthodoxy or of their loyalty to Catholi cism, and so long as Hermes lived hardly a sign of opposition appeared. He died in 1831, at peace with the Church, and generally recog nized as one of the foremost leaders of German Catholicism.

Four years later (1835), to the astonishment of the Hermesian party, Pope Gregory XVI. issued a brief. condemning Hermes's teaching and prohibiting his writings. The brief declared that

many complaints had reached the ears of the Pontiff, and that after careful examination Hermes's works had been found erroneous, scandalous, and injurious to faith. The sections especially objectionable related to the nature of faith and of divine revelation, the authority of Scripture and tradition, the necessity of grace, the evidence of God's existence, and the idea that through reason men could gain a knowledge of supernatural truth. Such teaching was declared to lead toward skepticism and indifference.

Since the year 1832 the party had had an organ, the Zeitschrift für Philosophie und katholische Theologie. In its columns and elsewhere defenses at once began to appear. The Hermesians declared that the Pope had been misinformed by persons who were ignorant of philosophy and theology alike. It was freely admitted that the doctrines specified in the Papal brief were heterodox, but it was alleged that these were not the doctrines of Hermes; that neither he nor his school had ever held or taught them. At this point the similarity of their defense to that adopted long before by the Jansenists should be noticed. So confident were they that the Pope was wrong that two of the Bonn professors (Braun and Elvenich) undertook a mission to Rome to persuade him to withdraw the brief. They found, how ever, that their hopes were baseless, and they were forced to return without having accomplished anything. About 1838 philosophical criticism began to add its strength to the opposition which had already developed in other quarters, and the decline of Hermesianism was rapid. The two Bonn professors, Braun and Achterfeldt, who had been most active in defense of Hermes's memory, retired in 1844. They were not subjected, however, to any ecclesiastical censure. Before the middle of the century the whole movement had become a matter of history.

Hermes's writings are few. Their titles are: Ueber die Wahrheit des Christentums, which appeared in 1805; Einleitung in die christkatholische Theologie, in two parts (1819 and 1829); Christkatholische Dogmatik (1834) published posthumously under the editorship of Achterfeldt. In general consult: Niedner, Philosophiæ Hermesii Explicatio (Leipzig, 1838); Braun and Elvenich, Acta Romana (Hanover, 1838); Werner, Geschichte der katholischen Theologic (Munich, 1866); Lichtenberger, History of German Theology in the Nineteenth Century (Edinburgh, 1889).

HERMES, hērʼmēz, or MERCURY REPOSING. A life-size bronze statue found at Hercu

laneum, now in the Museo Nazionale at Naples. It represents the youthful messenger of the gods seated and leaning forward with limbs relaxed. The attitude is life-like, and the statue is one of the most famous extant representations of the god.

HERMES CARRYING THE INFANT BAC'CHUS. A masterpiece of Praxiteles, found in 1877 at Olympia, and now preserved in the museum there. The figure of the god is the most perfect example extant of the Greek conception of youthful masculine beauty. Hermes stands leaning his left arm, draped with a cloak, on a tree-stump, and holding the infant god of wine. His right arm is missing, but evidently the raised hand held some object for the babe's amusement.

HER'MESI'ANAX ('Epμnolávaž). A Greek elegiac poet, who lived in the time of Alexander the Great, and was a native of Colophon, in Asia Minor. His chief work was Λεόντιον, an elegiac poem in three books, addressed to his mistress, Leontium. The fragment of ninetyeight lines of the third book preserved by Athenæus (lib. xiii.) describes, in a somewhat disconnected though not ungraceful style, the love-stories of the poets and sages from Orpheus down to Philetas. Consult the editions by Bailey (London, 1839); by G. Hermann in his Opuscula (Leipzig, 1828); and by Bergk, in his Anthologia Lyrica (2d ed., Leipzig, 1868); also Bergk, De Hermesianactis Elegia (Marburg, 1845); and Susemihl, Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur in der Alexandrinerzeit (Leipzig, 1892).

HERME/SIANISM. See HERMES, GEORG. HERMES OF AN'DROS. A statue in the National Museum at Athens, wrongly so called. It does not represent the god, but is a portrait statue belonging to a tomb, and is considered the best example of this class of statues. It dates from the fourth century B.C.

HERMES, OR A PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRY CONCERNING UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR. A technical work by James Harris, much influenced by Aristotle. It was published in 1751, and was translated by Thurot in 1796 by order of the French Directory. HERMES TRIS MEGIS'TUS.



HERMETIC (ML. Hermeticus, relating to Hermes, from Hermes, Gk. 'Epuns, Hermes). The ancient Egyptians considered the god Dhouti, or Thoth, identified by the Greeks with their god Hermes, as the patron of literature, and the scribe of the gods. Therefore, several magical and religious texts, partly embodied in the Book of the Dead (q.v.), were reputed to have been written by this god with his own hands. As such writings could claim the most direct inspiration, the word Hermetic was applied, in Greek times, to writings of the highest degree of sanctity, and served in a general way to designate all inspired books. Clemens of Alexandria states that the Egyptian priests had to study fortytwo (i.e. the number of assessors of Osiris) sacred or Hermetic books, divided into six subjects: sacred law, ritual, science, astrology, hym nology, and medicine. It is questionable if such a canon existed throughout Egypt. The claim that the great medical papyrus discovered by Ebers was one of these Hermetic books has not been substantiated. In early Christian times it magical and gnostic writings in Greek to Hermes was customary to ascribe a certain type of Trismegistus, who lost his divine personality more and more, and came to be regarded as a These pseudographs often great magician. claimed to have been translated from the Egyptian, although they bear a thoroughly Greek character and mostly exhibit un-Egyptian ideas of Jewish, Neo-Platonic, etc., origin. They may, however, have been written in Egypt. The most noticeable product among them is Hermes Trismegistus (most recent edition by Parthey, Berlin, 1854). These writings exercised a strong influence upon the various secret sciences; hence the term Hermetic became very popular in alchemy and astrology, and some medieval writings claim the title of Hermetic books. Hermetic

medicine meant the most mysterious and powerful medicine, and the expression 'hermetic sealing,' for the most complete, air-tight closure, has survived to our own day. Consult Dufresnoy, Histoire de la philosophie hermétique (Paris, 1742); Baumgarten-Crusius, De Librorum Her meticorum Origine atque Indole (Jena, 1827); Hilger, De Hermetis Trismegisti Poëmandro (Leipzig, 1855); Ménard, Hermès Trismegiste (Paris, 1866); Pietschmann, Hermes Trismegistus (Leipzig, 1875).

HERMIA, hĕr'mi-ȧ. An Athenian lady in Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream. She is the daughter of Egeus, and is enamored of Lysander.

HERMI'AS (Lat., from Gk. 'Epulas, Hermias, or 'Epuelas, Hermeias). A slave of Eubulus, tyrant of Atarneus, in Mysia, Asia Minor, whom he subsequently succeeded on the throne (B.C. 347). At Athens he made the acquaintance of Plato and Aristotle. The latter spent some years at the Court of Hermias, but fled when Artaxerxes III. captured the tyrant and put him to death. The philosopher, who was married to one of the relatives of Hermias, erected a statue in his honor.

HERMINJARD, ar'me'nyär', AIME LOUIS (1817-). A Swiss author, born at Vevey, Vaud. He was a teacher, and practiced his profession in Russia, Germany, and France, before going to Geneva, where he became a friend of Amiel. His great work, the Correspondance des réformateurs dans les pays de langue française, began to appear in 1866 (vol. ix., covering the period 1543-44, in 1897).

HERMIONE, hĕr-mi'ô-nē. (1) The beautiful daughter of Menelaus and Helen, married against her will to Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus), the son of Achilles, in performance of a promise made by her father. According to late tradition, she was carried off by Neoptolemus, who was killed by Orestes, to whom she had already been promised. (2) The much-injured wife of Leontes, the madly jealous King of Sicily, in Shakespeare's Winter's Tale. The character is taken from Bellaria, in Greene's Pandosto. (3) The scornful love of Pyrrhus and loving mother of Astyanax, in Racine's Andromaque. After Andromache has persuaded Orestes to murder Pyrrhus, in the act of ascending the altar with Hermione, the latter becomes Regent of Epirus.

HERMI'ONES, or HERMIN'ONES. One of the three great divisions of the German peoples, so named from their mythical progenitor Irminus. They were the oldest, best, and most-powerful of the West-Germanic stock, and their eastern boundary was the Vistula and the Carpathians. Among the nations to whom the name Hermiones applied were the Suevi, the Hermunduri, the Lombardi, the Vandali, the Heruli, and the Quadi. Their early home was about the basin of the Elbe and the Main. Consult Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, ch. 1, 6th ed. (Oxford, 1897).

HERMIP/PUS OF SMYRNA (Gk. 'EpμlπTOS, Hermippus). A Greek philosopher who lived about B.C. 200. A disciple of Callimachus of Alexandria, he was called & Ka22páxɛios, the Callimachean. He was the author of Blot, a work containing the biographies of all the Greek philosophers, historians, and poets. Though it is

repeatedly referred to by later writers, only frag ments have been preserved. Consult Müller, Historicorum Græcorum Fragmenta (Paris, 1868-83).

HERMIT (from OF. hermite, ermite, from Lat. eremita, from Gk. pnuirns, erēmités, hermit, from pnula, eremia, desert, from puos, eremos, quiet; connected with Gk. pépa, érema, quietly, Goth. rimis, quiet, Skt. ram, to rest). One of the names given in the early ages, and still more in the later Church, to a class of solitary ascetics, who, with a view to more complete freedom from the cares, temptations, and business of the world, withdrew from the ordinary intercourse of life and took up their abode in natural caverns or rudely formed huts in deserts, forests, mountains, and other solitary places. The hermits of the Middle Ages, like the primitive anchorites, often lived in complete solitude; but the Church, more important form of the institute a much more common, and, in its influence on was that of a community of hermits, each possessing his separate hermitage, but all meeting at stated times for mass, prayer, religious instruction, and other common exercises. The various hermits of this class are regarded as constituting religious orders, and although never attaining to the popularity which distinguished the Franciscans, Dominicans, and other active orders, they have formed, nevertheless, a numerous and not uninfluential element in the spiritual life of the Roman Catholic Church. It would be impossible to enumerate the many small associations of this kind. For some of the more important, see AUGUSTINIANS; CELESTINES; HIERONYMITES; PAULITES.

HERMITAGE, THE. (1) A celebrated palace and museum at Saint Petersburg (q.v.). (2) A garden on the side of a hill overlooking Moscow, Russia, which has become a noted fashionable resort. (3) The name given to Rousseau's retreat in the valley of Montmorency, France. It was built for the philosopher by Madame d'Epinay, and was occupied by him from 1751 to 1757. La nouvelle Héloïse, Le discours sur l'inégalité des conditions, and a part of the Dictionary of Music were written here. In 1813 Grétry died in this place. (4) An old house near Nashville, Tenn., where Andrew Jackson resided for a great part of his life, and near which he was buried. The mansion is now owned by the State.

HERMIT CRAB. One of a large group of small crabs (q.v.) of the family Paguridæ, having the abdominal or tail segments much more largely developed than in true crabs, but undefended by hard plates, and not forming an organ for swimming. The soft and tender tail requires a protective covering, which the instinct of the hermit crabs leads them to find in some coiled shell of a suitable size. On the slightest alarm the hermit crab retires backward into the shell, guarding the aperture of it with one claw, which is much larger than the other, the hard points of the feet also projecting a little. The whole structure of the animal is adapted to such a habitation. The part which in the lobster becomes a finlike expansion at the end of the abdomen, becomes in the hermit crab an appendage for firmly holding in the shell; and so well does the hermit crab hold that it may be pulled to pieces, but cannot be pulled out. Some species have suckers to render the hold more perfect. They

often remain in a single shell for a long time, so that colonies of Hydractinia and other hydroids grow over a large part of it. Often seaanemones attach themselves to the shells in which hermit crabs live, and thus get the benefit of free and rapid transportation. (See COMMENSALISM.) A Chinese species is said to carry an anemone on its claw, so that when withdrawn into its shell the anemone forms an effectual stopper to the opening. Increase of size, however, renders it necessary for hermit crabs to relinquish their shells and seek new ones from time to time, and when thus engaged they are very interesting animals to watch. They try on shell after shell before finding one that suits them, and they are constantly quarreling savagely over their houses; yet in fact they are great cowards. Hermit crabs are very interesting inmates of the aquarium, but their locomotive habits and their voracity make them unsuitable for an aquarium stocked with valuable animals. They feed on mollusks and other crustaceans, and all the animal garbage of the seashore.

The most common American species (Pagurus longicarpus) is an interesting object to every visitor of the seashore, and may be found in abundance wherever little pools are left by the tide on a rocky or shelving coast, from Massachusetts Bay to South Carolina.

This species never reaches a large size, and is usually under an inch in length. It is very gregarious, and large numbers are usually found together. A closely related larger species is Eupagurus pollicaris, which is found in shallow water from Massachusetts to Florida, inhabiting the shells of Natica and other gastropods. The common European species, Eupagurus Bernhardus, is also found in somewhat deeper water off the northeastern coast of America. In the tropics some interesting forms occur, including one or two of large size. One of the most interesting is the Diogenes crab (Cœnobita Diogenes), which is several inches long when fully extended. It lives on land, and is found in the driest places, as active as other forms are in the sea. Allied to the hermit crabs are the palm or robber crabs (Birgus latro) of the East Indies, which live in holes in the ground at the foot of cocoanut palms, on the fruit of which they feed. They do not carry a shell with them. See LAND-CRAB.

While the shallow-water hermit crabs are symmetrical behind the thorax, in certain deep-sea forms the abdomen is symmetrical, showing that the ancestors of the ordinary hermit crabs were all symmetrical. Polycheles Agassizii of the West Indian seas lives in straight tubes of compacted sand, the abdomen being symmetrical. This also is the case with Xylopagurus rectus, living in open tubes of wood or bamboo stem. Tylaspis anomala, inhabiting the South Pacific at a depth of 2375 fathoms, has a shortened but symmetrical abdomen, with distinct segments and symmetrical legs. Another form (Chonopagurus) takes refuge in a sheet or blanket formed by the cœnosare of a colony of polyps. It also is symmetrical. The polyp (Zoanthus) is tucked by the crab under its telson by one end and pulled over its back by the other, and the two animals, crab and polyp, seem incapable of independent existence. (See COMMENSALISM.) Hermit crabs have rarely been found in a fossil state, and then only their claws are found preserved. These

have been obtained in the Eocene rocks of Hungary.

Consult: Emerton, Life on the Seashore (Salem, 1880); Verrill, Invertebrates of Vineyard Sound (Washington, 1874); Arnold, Sea Beach at Ebb Tide (New York, 1901); MilneEdwards et Bouvier, "Description des crustacés de la famille des Pagurieus pendant l'Expédition de la Blake" (Memoirs Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 1893).

HERMITE, âr'mêt', CHARLES (1822-1901). One of the best-known French mathematicians of the nineteenth century. He was born at Dieuze, Meurthe, and received his early education in the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. He entered the Ecole Polytechnique in 1842, but left at the end of the year, in order to devote his attention exclusively to mathematics., From 1848 to 1876 he was connected with the Ecole Polytechnique in various capacities, and from 1862 to 1873 was maitre de conférences in the Ecole Normale Supérieure. From 1876 until his death he gave his time to the university, where he held the chair of higher algebra (1869-97). He was a member of the Academy of Sciences, and a grand officer of the Legion of Honor (1892). His work was chiefly along the line of theory of functions, in which subject he was for many years the leader in France. His first great work, the one which secured for him his election to the Academy of Sciences, was Sur la théorie de la transformation des fonctions abéliennes (Comptes rendus, 1855). At about the same time begin his discoveries in the new theory of algebraic forms and in the theory of numbers. His most remarkable memoirs, twenty-six in number, Sur quelques applications de la théorie des fonctions elliptiques, appeared in the Comptes rendus (1877-82). His memoir, Sur l'équation du 5ème degré (1866), may be said to have finally settled the great question of the solubility of the quintic equation to the entire satisfaction of the mathematical world. His memoir Sur la fonction exponentielle (1874), in which he proved the incommensurability of e, paved the way for Lindemann's proof (1882) of the incommensurability of. Hermite was a very prolific writer. A substantially complete list of his memoirs may be found in the Catalogue of Scientific Papers of the Royal Society of London, vols. iii. and vii. Besides his memoirs, which contain his most valuable contributions, he published a Cours d'analyse de l'Ecole Polytechnique (1873; 2d ed. 1894), and assisted Serret in editing Lacroix's calculus (9th ed., Paris, 1881, 2 vols.). Consult articles by Mittag-Leffler and Picard in Acta Mathematica, vols. xxiii., xxiv. (Stockholm, 1901-02).

HERMIT HUMMING-BIRD. A name given to a group of humming-birds which agree in having the beaks much curved, and the edge of the mandibles not serrated. The 'true' hermits are of the genus Phaethornis, whose sixteen species are found from Mexico to Southern Brazil, mostly in the hot lowlands. The 'sickle-billed' hermits of the genus Eutoxeres have the beak greatly bent downward, sometimes describing a full half-circle. The whole group keep themselves secluded in dense forest, whence the name.


HERMIT KINGDOM. A popular name given to Korea (q.v.).


HERMOCRATES (Lat., from Gk. 'EpμoKрáτns, Hermokrates) (c.460-407 B.C.). A Syracusan politician and statesman, son of Hermon. His great work was the union of the Siceliots (424), which made possible Syracuse's success when attacked by the great fleet from Athens (415). He was at the head of the aristocratic party, and was opposed by the demagogue Athenagoras. In B.C. 412 he went with a large Syra cusan fleet to join the Spartans off the western coast of Asia Minor. Here he was very successful for a time, but lost the battle of Cyzicus, and for this was removed from command and exiled. He then fought against Carthage, and died in his attempt to reinstate himself in Syracuse. His daughter was married to Dionysius in 405.


HER'MODACTYL (from Gk. épμodáктulos, hermodaktylos, hermodactyl, from 'Epuns, Hermes, Hermes + dáкTUλos, daktylos, finger). name of a medicine that had a high repute among the later Greek and the Arabian physicians as a remedy for gout and rheumatism. It is mentioned by Alexander of Tralles, who flourished A.D. 560; by Paulus Ægineta, who lived a century later; by Avicenna, Serapion, and others. By some of the old writers it was termed anima articulorum, or the soul of the joints. It is impossible now to speak with certainty of the nature of hermodactyl. Corms, probably of several species of colchicum, are still sold in Greece and in the East under the name of hermodactyls. Different botanists and pharmacologists have referred the corms to Colchicum illyricum, Colchi cum autumnale, Colchicum variegatum, Colchicum bulbocodiodes, etc. See COLCHICUM.

HERMOGENES, her-mõj'ê-nēz (Lat., from Gk. 'Epμoyevns). A Greek rhetorician, who flourished about A.D. 170, born at Tarsus. His ability as a lecturer won him the favorable notice of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, who appointed him a public teacher of oratory when he was only seventeen years of age. Between the ages of eighteen and twenty he published his famous Rhetoric (Texvη 'Pηropɩký,) which was for centuries regarded as a standard and became the subject of extensive commentaries. At the age of twenty-five his faculties gave way, and he spent the remainder of his life in a state of intellectual impotency. A large part of the Rhetoric has survived, and was published by Walz, Rhetores Græci (Stuttgart, 1832-36), and by Spengel (Leipzig, 1853-56).

HER MON. A lofty mountain of Syria, the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon Range, from which it is separated, however, by a deep ravine (Map: Palestine, D 1). It rises to the height

of 9166 feet above the level of the sea.


crown is divided into three distinct peaks, the western one a little lower than the northern and the southern, which are of the same height. These peaks are always covered with ice and snow, and can be seen as far south as the Sea of Galilee. The lower part of the mountain is clothed with forests and a specially rich vegetation, due to the numerous rivulets caused by the melting snow. Hermon was a sacred mountain, and is therefore encircled with ruins of ancient temples, most of which were consecrated to the Baal-worship. It is often referred to in Hebrew poetry. It is also held by tradition to have been the Mount of Transfiguration. It is now called Jebel-esh-Sheikh ('the mountain of the

old man'), or Jebel-eth-Thel ('the snow mountain').

HERMON THIS (Lat., from Gk. "Epuwvois). A city of ancient Egypt on the left bank of the Nile, a little above Thebes. Its Egyptian name was On, and, to distinguish it from other places of the same name, it was called On of the South or On of the god Mont. The local deity was the hawk-headed god Mont (q.v.), and hence the city bore the sacred name of Per-Mont (house of Mont), of which the Greek Hermonthis is a corruption. It was a very ancient town, but was eclipsed by the rise of its neighbor Thebes. With the decline of Thebes On rose again in importance, and finally, as Hermonthis, became the capital of the district. According to Strabo, Apollo (i.e. Horus) and Zeus (i.e. Mont) were worshiped here, and a sacred bull, called by the Greeks Bacis, was also revered. Of the magnificent buildings which adorned the place in ancient times only scanty ruins now remain. The site is occupied by the modern town of Erment, which contains extensive sugar-refineries.

HERMOP'OLIS, or HERMUP'OLIS (Gk. 'Epubrous, city of Hermes). The capital of the Greek nomarchy of the Cyclades, situated on the eastern coast of the island of Syra (Map: Greece, F 4). It consists of the old medieval town and the newer portion constructed since the Revolution of 1821. The town is lighted by gas, and has a number of educational institutions, including two gymnasia and a theatre. The chief industry is ship-building. Commercially Hermopolis is one of the most important cities of Greece, being one of the chief centres in the trade with the Levant, although its commercial importance has somewhat decreased since the rise of Piraus. Hermopolis is the seat of a number of consular agents, of a Greek archbishop and a Roman Catholic bishop. Population, in 1896, 18,760.

HERMOPOLIS, or HERMUPOLIS MAG'NA. An ancient city of Middle Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, between the river and the Bahr-Yûsuf ('Joseph's Canal'), opposite Antinoë, not far south of the site of the modern Beni-Hassan (q.v.). The Copts called it Shmûn, and the hieroglyphics Khmunu. The village which is on its site bears the name of Ashmunein. The Greek name Hermopolis is derived from the ibis-formed or ibis-headed local god Thoth or Dhouti, who was identified with

the Greek Hermes. The city was once very important, but the only remarkable ruin, the portico of a beautiful temple, dating from Ptolemaic times, was destroyed in the middle of the last century. Recently another temple has been discovered there. Another Hermopolis, Hermopolis Parva, is the modern Damanhur in the Delta.

HERMOSILLO, ar’mô sẽ vô. Capital of the State of Sonora, Mexico, situated on the Rio de Sonora, in a fertile valley 90 miles by rail north from Guaymas (Map: Mexico, C 3). It has a cathedral, a library, and a mint, and is an important trading centre for agricultural products. Population, in 1900, 17,618.



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