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Welsh without contact with English. These are of two classes:
(1) French words which seem never to have been current in the English counties. For instance: cessail from goussel; neges from negoce; mud from muet; puttain from putain; bucletrian from un boucle d'argent; fourn from fourne.
(2) Words introduced into Welsh before 1547, without contact with English, and into English since 1547. For example: Fumer, a chimney, which after the introduction of tobacco came to be applied to a tobacco smoker. In Beanmont and Fletcher, the word is used to describe a perfumer; debursio (or disbursio) from debourse, which it would seem appeared in English for the first time in Shakspeare's Macbeth, Act 1, Scene 2, line 61; passport, which seems to occur for the first time in Hakluyt, Voyages, vol. 1, page 71, edition 1598; sequens, in King John, Act 2, Scene 1; and kaprwn from chaperon, (see Skeat.)
The civil wars accomplished the final destruction of the castles, and very nearly completed the overthrow of the English language in Wales. The results are very striking. I have shown that in the ninety-eight years between 1546 and 1642 the published Welsh works numbered forty-one. In the next seventy-eight years to 1720, the Welsh publications were over two hundred and eighty. In the first period there were fortyfour Latin, in the second some nine or ten only-and those by Welshmen mostly reprints. As a matter of fact there were only two Welsh Latin writers between 1642 and 1720-for the case of Dr. Bassett Jones, of Neath, is not worth serious consideration. The following table is interesting:-
* Mostly Pamphleta.
The figures are based on Rowlands' statements, and for present purposes may be taken as substantially accurate. In the first period to the reign of Edward VI. the language of culture was Latin. From Edward VI. to Cromwell, Latin and English fought for supremacy. After the wars Latin practically
disappeared, and then we seem to witness the triumph of the Welsh language. In the first period the published works were of high excellence."
Since 1642 there have appeared very few of high literary standing in Welsh, English, or Latin. From the first the Welsh language gave itself to religion.† The Welsh writers of those far off days moulded the character of the Welsh people. They laid a firm foundation for the religious revival in the eighteenth century, under the guidance of Griffith Jones, of Llanddowror, and Daniel Rowlands, of Llangeitho.
In my paper on Charles Edwards I have attempted to describe the causes which led to the decay of secular literature. The estates of the Welsh gentry to the number of some thousands passed into the hands of new possessors. The remainder were mortgaged up to the hilt to clear off liabilities incurred through
*The books included Salesbury's Dictionary; Thomas's History of Italy and his Italian Gramınar; Record's "Pathway of Knowledge," "Castle of Knowledge," "Whetstone of Wit and Ground of Arts;" Gunter's Mathematical Works; Humphrey Llwyd's "Breviary of Britain;" Sir John Price's "Historiæ Britanica Defensio," Lloyd and Powel's "History of Cambria;" the works of Geo. Herbert, Vicar Pritchard, Edmund Prys, Sir William Vaughan, Dr. John David Rhys. Dr. Rhossier Smith, Dr. Mathew Gwynne, Dr. Hanmer, Gabriel Powel, Dr. John Davies, Dr. Griffith Williams, Dr. Lewis Bayley, Dr. John (Archbishop) Williams, the translations of the New Testament by Salesbury, of the whole Bible by Dr. Morgan; the second edition of the Bible by Dr. Richard Parry; the Prayer Book by Salesbury; the" Book of Homilies," by Dr. James; Dr. Richard Davies's "Letter to the Welsh," and Morus Kyffin's translation of "Jewel's Apology;" Lloyd's "Consent of Time, and Dial of Dais;" Owen's Latin "Epigrams;" Mathew Griffiths's "Bethel," and the works of Griffith Roberts, James Howell, Gwillim, John Penry, Dr. Thomas Powel, Rowland Vaughan, the Rev. Hugh Holland, &c.
+ The following is a list of Welsh books published between 1546 and 1640-1546, Beibl, Gwyddor Cymraeg, Kalendar. Creed, Lord's Prayer, Commandments, &c. : London (a kind of Almanac by Sir John Price, of Brecon); 1547, Salesbury's Welsh and English Dictionary; 1550, Salesbury's Brief and Plain Introduction to the British Tongue, or Arweiniad hawdd ac eglur i'r iaeth Gymraeg, Salesbury's Dymchweliad Allor Uchel y Pab; 1551, Kinniver Lleth er Ban; 1564-5, Letanye in Welsh (?) Salesbury; 1567, Testament Newydd with R. Davies's Letter, Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin, Dosparth Byr ar y Rhan Gyntaf i Ramadeg Gr Roberts; 1578, Dean Nowell's Catechism in Welsh; 1584, Y Drych Christianogawl; 1586, Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin; 1588, Beibl; 1592, John D. Rhys's Grammar, Latinand Welsh ; 1593, Barddoniaeth Capten Wm. Middleton; 1594, Kyffin's Jewel's Apology ; 1595, Egluryn Ffraethineb W. Salesbury, by Perri, Perl mewn Adfyd-from the Dutch, by Hugh Lewis, thro' the English of Miles Coverdal; 1599, Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin; 1600, Darmerth neu Arlwy Gweddi Robert Holland; 1603, The Psalms by William Middleton, The Psalms by Thomas Salesbury; 1606, Homilies by Dr. Ed. James; 1607, Yr Athrawiaeth am Weddi (Prideaux's); 1609, Rhosier Smith (Roman Catholic) Crynhodeb o Addysg Cristionogawl; 1611, Catechism P. Canisius, by R. Smith (Roman Catholic); 1615, Theatre du Mond, R. Smith (Roman Catholic); 1616, Llythyr at Drigolion y Wlad ynghylch eu eneudiau; 1618, Eglurhad helaethlawr o'r Athrawiaeth Gristnogawl, V.R.; 1620, Beibl Parry; 1622, Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin; 1622, Catechism John Davies, Mallwyd; 1628, Psalmau; 1629, Pregeth ynghylch Edifeirwch (Dent by Lloyd); 1630, Vaughan's Practice of Piety; 1630, Beibl Bach Vicer Pritchard, Llwybr Hyffordd (Dent by Lloyd); 1631, Carwr y Cymru; 1632, Dr. Davies's Dictionary, Llyfr y Resolution (Dr. John Davies); 1633, Yr Hen Lyfr Plygain; 1634, Llyfr Gweddi; 1638, Psalmau Prys.
the rebellion. The clergy were ejected from their livings, and there is not sufficient ground for the belief that a single ordination was held in Wales between 1642 and 1660. The tradition of the ordination of Samuel, the son of Rhys Prichard, by Bishop Mainwaring in 1649, is obviously without foundation, for Samuel Prichard was drowned before the death of his father in 1644. The story of the ordination by the same bishop of John Evans, the father of the author of the sermons on the "Christian Temper," is equally untrustworthy. Through circumstances of poverty, Welsh youths were no longer sent in appreciable numbers to the English schools and universities. There was an arrest of culture, and as a perfectly natural consequence Welshmen were no longer preferred to high appointments in Church and State. The grammar schools crumbled to the dust. Their endowments were misappropriated or altogether lost. Ignorance swept over the country with the force of a spring tide. The intercourse between England and Wales was broken, and the Welsh were thrown back on their own resources. For fifteen years after the Restoration the only Welsh works of value issued from the press were Y Ffydd Ddiffuant, the poems of Vicar Prichard, and the translation of the Whole Duty of Man. When at last, about 1675, a change appeared, it came from across the English borders in the shape of the great religious and educational trust of the seventeenth century. The books published under the terms of this Trust were Welsh. The people, shut out from the schools and universities, turned to their Welsh Scriptures the editions of 1630, 1647, 1654, and Vicar Prichard's poems, of which parts appeared in 1659 and 1670, and the whole in one volume in 1672, all from the careful hands of Stephen Hughes, of Swansea. From that time the Welsh language became what it had not been for centuries previously, the soul of Welsh nationality expressed in two mottoes, Oes y Byd i'r laith Gymraeg, and Tra Mor Tra Brython. The causes which appear to have resulted in the revival of Welsh resulted also, shall I say, in the expulsion of the English language? In the absence of strong evidence to the contrary it is hard to avoid the conclusion that we owe the very preservation of the Welsh language to the Reformation and the Great Rebellion. Whether the language would have survived but for the devastating and withering influences of the civil wars is a question which I will not now attempt definitely to
A LIST OF WORDS FROM FOREIGN SOURCES (MOSTLY ENGLISH) TAKEN INTO THE WELSH, AND INCLUDED IN SALESBURY'S DICTIONARY, 1547.
Abledd, absen, absennwr, abyl, acken, acolit, acolidieth, act, addfowsonar (advowson), agnws dei (agnus dei), alatastyr, alban, alch gridyll (grydiron), alei (alley), almari (almery), aliwn, aliwns, alym (alum), ambassador, ambyr (amber), amen, amerawdwr, amerodress, amerodreth, amhossibyl (an-possible), amrel (admiral), ammur (impure) amlwc (un-luck), amner-pwrs (purse), angel, angenffordd, anffortune, anffortunus, angor (anchor), angred, angredy, angrist, angristion, anhap, anhappus, anobaith (hope), anobaithiaw (mistrust), anobeithol (desperate), anras (ungrace), anrasol, ansuriaeth, ansiriol (uncheerful), antem (ant(h)em), arch-angel, archddiacon, archddiaconddot, archesgob, archesgcopot, argumenu (argument), antur (venture), anturio, anufydd (unobedient), anufyddhau, anufyddot, arch kist (ark-chest), ar-dymer (temperate), ar-dymery (temper), antur, anturio, arithmetic, asur (azure), asseth (enough assets), astronomi, astronomiwr, (arte kelfyddyt) (art), assen (ass), awgrym (augrym), awyr (air), awr (hour), awditor, awdwr (auctor), awdurdot, awduredic.
Baban (babe), backwn, baeds (badge), balk (baulk), baner (banner), bar, barbio, barbwr, bargen, barwn (baron), barwniaeth, bastio (baste), barwnes, batio (bate), barwnaeth, battel (battle), bayt (bait), bayli (bailiff), bicar, bicariaeth, bickre (bicker), biff (beef), byll (bill), bil (of paper), bilio, bir (beer), blotio, bobyn (bobhin), bollt (bolt), bord, bordyr (border), bottwn (button), boss, bost (boast), bostic, bostiwr, bowling, bowl, brack (brake), brackes, brec (break), breib, bribio, bribiwr, bribri, bric, brodrer (brodrar), brodrio (brauder), brigawns (brigands), brik (brick), broitsio (broach), bruwer (brewer), brwes (brews), brwylio (broil), brwis (brush), bwi (buoy), bwng (bung), bwngler (bungler), bwckler (buckler), bwcklet, bwcket (bucket), bwckyl (buckle), bwsmant (bushement), bwlas (bolas), burdris (burgess), bwt (but), bystwn, bwtler (butler), bwtri (buttery), bwtiasen (boot), bwtti (booty), bwytkin (bodkin), bwytsiet (bougette), bwysiel (bushel).
Caban (cabin), cantor (singer), casul (chasuble), cimb (cymbal), cnaf (knave), cnafeidd, cnafeiddrwydd, colombin (columbyne) crws (cross), cufydd (cubit), cred (creed), cwl (cull), cwlio, chwarel (quarry), chwarfan (wharf), chwart (quart), chwarter (quarter), cwhittic (quit), chwit (quite), chwitans (acquitance), chwip (whip), chwipio.
Dagyr (dagger), dam (n), deveys (device), defeisio (devise), dant, dager, dart, debiti (deputy), dean, deaniaeth, declario, defys (devise), defosiwn (devotion), deffyciol (defective), delifro, demtio, destrywio, destrywiat, debursio (disburse)— debursio (rhoddi arian allan o bwrs), diacon-dot, diacon, dilyu (delay) dimei, dinewerth, disieu (dice), discen (descend), distyl (distill), distylio, doctor, dockio (dock), dol styck (bow, stick), dotiedi (doting), dotio, down, downsiwr (dancer), dowkio (dowk), dowt (doubt), dowtus, dragwn, (dragon), draenet (draw-net), draeneta, dragio (rent, rend), draic wybrol (drake), dropsi, duc (duke), dul, dw bio (daub), dwbiwr, dwbing, dwbyl (double), dwl (dull), dyblic, dybligy.
Evangelwr, evangel, evidens (evident), evident, egyr (aegre), egry (to eygre), eklypsys (eclipse), emyn (hymn), emendau (amend), endentur (indenture), enifail brut (brute beast), enkwest (inquest), entri (entry), entrio, entent (intent), epystyl (epistle), esiampl (example), escusot (excuse), escusotol, esgyn (ascend), esecusiwn esecutor, estraun (estranger), estronol, espi (spy), espio (to espy), estorsiwn.
Fayl (fail), faylio, fayliedic, fals, falster, falsedd, fagot, fafyr (favour) fafrio, fardial (fardel), fair (fair), far (fare), farsiwn (farsion), fawt (fault), fayntio, fayntiedic, feigyssen, feigys (fig), feffment (ffeofment), ferm (farm), fermy (faming), fermwr, ferry, fest (fast, quick), fest (feast), fet (feat), fens (fence), fente (vent), fel (fell), felni (felony), feloniaythus, fidyl (fiddle), figys (figs) filet (fillet), filoc (fyloch), fin (fine), finio, firet (feret), fis (fees), fisoedd, fioleit (dishful), fioi (vial), fladyr (flatter) flawn (flaune), fleitsier (fletcher), flamm (flame), flamio
fluwet (flute), flwiss (flush), fog, fol (fool), fold, folder, folineb (foolishness), foon (fawn), forch (fork), forchoc, fos, foss (ditch) fosswr (ditcher), fowset (faucet), fowtws (faulty), fortun (e), fortunus, frae (fray), frael (frayle), fraeo, frentic (frantic), fridwm (freedom), frio (fry), frith (of river), freiss (fresh), freissder, fretio, (fret), fretiedic, frind, friendship, frock, frontlet, fruter (frutar), frwyth (fruit), frwythlawn (fruitful), fumer simnai (fume), fumer simnai (smoling chimney), fustion (fustian), fusto (fisticuff), fwl (fool), furmente (furment), fulbert (fulmard), fwr (fur), fwrneis (furness) fylbert (fulbert).
Gabyl (gable), galawnt (gallant), galingal llyseuun (galingale), galw (call), galwyn (gallon), galwynaid, garlant (garland), gard, garllec (garlick), garsiwn (garrison), gartys (garter), gelding, ge'dingwr, geldingo, gem, geometri, gild, gildio taly siot (pay the shotte), glaif (a glaive-sword), globun (globe), gobeith (hope), gobeithio, godart (a godart), absolusiwn, gradell (gridiron), glwfer (glover) glwferieth, gold-mair (marygold), gosip, gosipieth, goun (gown), gouni, gowt (gout), grabys (grapes), graen (grain), graynio, grafel, grafailio, grifio (grave), grammatic (grammar), gramatecwr, grawn (grain) grayns (grains), gratur (grater), gratio (grate), gwatio (wait), gwal (wall), gwalche (walk), gwalab (gallop), gwalet (wallet), gwalt (welt), gwaltio (to welt), gwarant, gwaranty yn da (uphold), gwast (gard ward), gwast siacket (waste jacket), gwast maen (small waist), gweddw (widow) gweddwtot (widowhood), gwers (verse), gwersic (versicle), gwest, gwestfa, gwestae, gwestwr (guest), gwinegar (vinegar), gwindas (windace), gwindio (to blow), gwylltio (wild), gwylltineb, gwin (wine), gwm (gum), gwinllan (vineyard), gwinwydden (vine), gwylltio (wax wild), gwylltiotarfy, gwylltineb (wildness), gwylto (to quilt), gard, gwymlet (gymlet), gwynt (wind), gwyntoc.
Hacknei (hackney), hafyn (haven), haern (iron), hair (hair), hayre (heir), haits (hatch), haitsiet (hatchet), hackio briwo (to hack), hap, hapio, hapus, harneisiol (to harness), hawnt (haunt), hemm, hemmio, hespen (hasp), het (hat), het gwlan (felt), het wellt, hob (hope), hobi (hobby), hobi-hors(e), hobely (hoble), hocked, hockedy (hucke), hogsed, honsel (ansel), hoppys (hops), hopian, hopperan, hossan (hose), hulio (hyll), huling (hyllyng), huloc (hillock), human, hurt (dull), hust (hush), husting, hustingwr. hwr, hwrswn, hwsmon (husband), hwswif(e), hws wiaet (wifery).
Iarll (earl), iailles, iarlleth, ieustus (justice), imp-au (imp), ink, inkwm (income), isop (isop), iwmon (yeoman).
Kaits (cage), kaken (cake), kalen (calend), kalkio (caulke), kalm (calm), kamel (camel), kamoc (camock), kamp (camp), kambren (gam-brell), kankyr (canke ), kanel (kennel), cantor (a singer), cloch (clock), kanwyll (candle), kandell (candle), kantel (kantell), kanol (channel), kap (cap), kapau (bonnet), kapio, kapel (capel), kapten, kard (card), kardllen (cardllen), card i chwareu (playing), card i gribo (card), karl (carl), karlaidd, karol (carol) karpet (carpet), kario (carry), karias (carriage), kariwr, kascet (casket), kastell (kastle, or as spelt in those days, castell), kastelly (castellate), kattle (cattle), kattelus (cattle-led), kegin (kitchen), kegindderw, kikiyssen (kicio), ker (gear), kerfer (carver), kersi (kersey), kist, coffyr (a chest, a coffer), kert (cart), klaer (clear), clariwn, klap (clap), klap melin (clapper), klaret (claret), klaim (claim), klaspyssen (clasp), klaspys, kleidir (clay land), kleio (clay), kleimio (claim), kleinsio (clench) kle klera kler klersiach, klersio, klerwr (clericus), klir (clear) kleppiedic (clypped), klock (clock), kloc (clog), klos (close), klwt (clout), klwtio hen gadach (patch), klwtio escid (clout a shoe), klosset (closet), knaf (knave), knafadd, knafeiddrwydd, knockio, knap (knoppe), kob (cob hors...) kobler (co ler), koblyn (goblin), koc (cook), kodpis (codpece), koob (cub), kommandi, kommyns (commons), konveio (convey), konstrio (construe), konsurio (conjure), koprys (copras), kop (cope), kopyr (copper), kord (cor), kork (cork), coron, kost (cost), kostio, kostus, kottum (cotton), koytio (to quoit), koyten (quoit), coyth (coy), kraff (craft), krafter, kracknel (cracknel), kred (creed), kredo, krededyn, kreddyf, kreddfus, kreddfwr, kreddyf wraig, krefft (craft), krefftus, krefftwr, krefftaidd, krest (crest), krestenny, kri (cry), krickiad (cricket), crwper pistolwyn (crupper), krio (cry), criwr, kristion, kruwet (crnet), krwper (crupper), krypyl (cripple), kuddiaw (hide), kuddiedic (hidden), kuddfa, kur (cure), kurat, kus, kusan (kiss), kusany, kusical siambyr (chamber), kaul (rennet), kweryl (quarrel), kwestiwn, kwmpas, kwmpassy, kwest (quest), kwmbrio (cumber), kwmbrans (cumbrance), kwmpeini (company), kwmpeinus, kwndit (conduit), kwnic (coney), kwnkwest (conquest), kwnqwerio, kwngyr (conger), kwnffurth (comfort). kwnffwrdio (comfort), kwntyr (counter), kwntyrfetio (counterfeit), kwnstabyl, kwnstablaeth, cwppan (cup), cwpbwrdd (cupboard), cwpyl (couple), cwplys, cwplysy, kwr (cur), kwrs (course),