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which delighted him very much, and caused him to have the greater affection and love to the almoner. Thus the almoner ruled all them that before ruled him; such was his policy and witt, and so he brought things to pass, that who was now in high favour, but Mr. Almoner? who had all the sute but Mr. Almoner? and who ruled all under the king, but Mr. Almoner'? Thus he persevered still in favour, untill at the last, in came presents, gifts, and rewardes so plentifully, that I dare say he lacked nothing that might either please his fantasy or enrich his coffers; fortune smiled so favourably upon him. But to what end she brought him, ye shall heare hereafter. Therefore let no man to whome fortune extendeth her grace, trust overmuch to her subtell favour and pleasant promises, under colour wherof she carrieth venemous galle. For when she seeth her servaunt in most high authority, and that he most assureth himselfe of her favour, then sodaynelye turneth she her visage and pleasaunt countenaunce unto a frowning cheere, and utterly forsaketh him: such assuraunce is in her inconstant favour and promise. Her deceipt hath not bine hid among the wise sorte of famous clerks, that have exclaimed and written vehemently against her dissimulation and feined favour, warninge all men thereby, the lesse to regarde her, and to have her in small estimation of any trust of faithfullnesse.

This almoner, clyming thus hastily upon fortunes wheeles, and so far mounting, that no man was of that estimation with the kinge, as he was, for his wisdome and other witty qualities, had a speciall gifte of naturall eloquence', and a filed tongue to

9 Mr. Almoner.] Even queen Katharine could prefer a suit to Henry through his means: "I pray you, Mr. Almoner, excuse me to the king for the taryeng of it soo long, for I coude have it noe sooner." See several letters from her to Wolsey, during Henry's absence in France in July and August, 1513, printed in Ellis's Original Letters, first ser. vol. i. p. 78-91.

1 Speciall gifte of naturall eloquence.] Sir Thomas More, in his Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, has drawn so lively and characteristic a picture, designed, no doubt, to represent the cardinal at the head of his own table, that, though the extract is long, the reader, I think, will not be displeased with its insertion. The title of the chapter is, of Flattery.

"Anthony. I praye you, cosyn, tell on. Vincent. Whan I was fyrste in Almaine, uncle, it happed me to be somewhat favoured with a great manne of the churche, and a great state, one of the greatest in all that country there. And in dede whosoever might spende as muche as hee mighte in one thinge and other, were a ryght great estate in anye countrey of Christendom. But glorious was hee verye farre above all measure, and that was great pitie, for

pronounce the same, that he was able with the same to persuade and allure all men to his purpose. Proceding thus in fortunes

it dyd harme, and made him abuse many great gyftes that God hadde geven him. Never was he saciate of hearinge his owne prayse.

“So happed it one daye, that he had in a great audience made an oracion in a certayne matter, wherein he liked himselfe so well, that at his diner he sat, him thought, on thornes, tyll he might here how they that sat with hym at his borde, woulde commend it. And when hee had sitte musing a while, devysing, as I thought after, uppon some pretty proper waye to bring it in withal, at the laste, for lacke of a better, lest he should have letted the matter too long, he brought it even blontly forth, and asked us al that satte at his bordes end (for at his owne messe in the middes there sat but himself alone) howe well we lyked his oracyon that he hadde made that daye.

But in fayth Uncle, whan that probleme was once proponed, till it was full answered, no manne (I wene) eate one morsell of meate more. Every manne was fallen in so depe a studye, for the fyndynge of some exquisite prayse. For he that shoulde have brought oute but a vulgare and a common commendacion, woulde have thoughte himself shamed for ever. Than sayde we our sentences by rowe as wee sat, from the lowest unto the hyghest in good order, as it had bene a great matter of the comon weale, in a right solemne counsayle. Whan it came to my parte, I wyll not saye it, Uncle, for no boaste, mee thoughte, by oure Ladye, for my parte, I quytte my selfe metelye wel. And I lyked my selfe the better beecause mee thoughte my wordes beeinge but a straungyer, wente yet with some grace in the almain tong wherein lettyng my latin alone me listed to shewe my cunnyng, and I hoped to be lyked the better, because I sawe that he that sate next mee, and should saie his sentence after mee, was an unlearned Prieste, for he could speake no latin at all. But whan he came furth for hys part with my Lordes commendation, the wyly Fox, hadde be so well accustomed in courte with the crafte of flattry that he went beyonde me to farre.

“And that might I see by hym, what excellence a right meane witte may come to in one crafte, that in al his whole life studyeth and busyeth his witte about no mo but that one. But I made after a solempne vowe unto my selfe, that if ever he and I were matched together at that boarde agayne : whan we should fall to our flattrye, I would flatter in latin, that he should not contende with me no more. For though I could be contente to be out runne by an horse, yet would I no more abyde it to be out runne by an asse. But Uncle, here beganne nowe the game, he that sate hygheste, and was to speake, was a greate beneficed man, and not a Doctour onely, but also somewhat learned in dede in the lawes of the Churche. A worlde it was to see howe he marked every mannes worde that spake before him. And it semed that every worde the more proper it was, the worse he liked it, for the cumbrance that he had to study out a better to passe it. The manne even swette with the laboure, so that he was faine in the while now and than to wipe his face. Howbeit in conclusion whan it came to his course, we that had spoken before him, hadde so taken up al among us before, that we hadde not lefte hym one wyse worde to speake after.


blisfulnes, it chaunced the warres between the realmes of England and Fraunce to be open, but upon what ground or occasion I knowe not, insomuch as the kinge, being fully persuaded, and earnestly resolved, in his most royall person to invade his forreine enemies with a puissant army, to attempt their haughty bragges, whether they durst shewe their faces before him in their owne territory: wherefore it was thought very necessary, that his royall enterprize should be spedily provided and furnished in every degree of things apte and convenient for the same; for the expedition whereof the king thought no man's wit so meete, for policy and painfull travaille, as was his almoner's, to whome therefore he committed his whole affiance and trust therein. And he being nothing scrupulous in any thinge, that the kinge would commande him to doe, althoughe it seamed to other very diffycile, tooke upon him the whole charge of all the business, and proceeded so therein, that he brought all things to good passe in a decent order, as of all manner of victualls, provisions, and other necessaries, convenient for so noble a voiage and army.

All things being by him perfected, and brought to a good passe, the kinge, not intending to delay or neglect the time, but with most noble and valiant courage to avaunce to his royall

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'Anthony. Alas good manne! amonge so manye of you, some good felow shold have lente hym one. Vincent. It needed not as happe was Uncle. For he found out such a shift, that in his flatteryng he passed us all the mayny. Anthony. Why, what sayde he Cosyn? Vincent. By our Ladye Uncle not one worde. But lyke as I trow Plinius telleth, that whan Appelles the paynter in the table that he paynted of the sacryfyce and the death of Iphigenia, hadde in the makynge of the sorrowefull countenances of the other noble menne of Greece that beehelde it, spente out so much of his craft and hys cunnynge, that whan he came to make the countenance of King Agamemnon her father, whiche hee reserved for the laste, he could devise no maner of newe heavy chere and countenance-but to the intent that no man should see what maner countenance it was, that her father hadde, the paynter was fane to paynte hym, holdyng his face in his handkercher. The like pageant in a maner plaide us there this good aunciente honourable flatterer. For whan he sawe that he coulde fynde no woordes of prayse, that woulde pass al that hadde bene spoken before all readye, the wyly Fox woulde speake never a word, but as he that wer ravished unto heavenwarde with the wonder of the wisdom and eloquence that my Lordes Grace hadde uttered in that oracyon, he fetched a long syghe with an Oh! from the bottome of hys breste, and helde uppe both hys handes, and lyfte uppe his head, and caste up his eyen into the welken and wepte. Anthony. Forsooth Cosyn, he plaide his parte verye properlye. But was that great Prelates oracion, Cosyn, any thyng prayseworthye?" Sir Thomas More's Works, p. 1221, 2.


enterprise, passed the seas? between Dover and Calais, where he prosperously arrived ; and after some aboade made there by his grace, as well for the arrival of his puissant army, provision and munition, as for the consultation of his voiage and other weighty affaires, he marched forward, in good order of battaile, untill he came to the strong towne of Turwin. To the which he laid his siege, and assaulted it very strongly continually, with such vehement assaults, that within short space it was yielded unto his majesty. Unto which place the emperor Maximilian repaired unto the kinge, with a great army, like a mighty prince, taking of the kinge his grace's wages ; which is a rare thing and but seldom seene, an emperor to fight under a king's banner. Thus when the kinge had obtained this puissant forte, and taken the possession thereof, and set all things there in due order, for the defence and preservation thereof to his highness's use, he departed thence, and marched toward the city of Tournay, and there laid his siege in like manner; to the which he gave so fierce and sharp assaults, that they were constrained of fine force to render the town unto his victorious majesty. At which time the kinge gave to the almoner the bishopricke of the same see towards his pains and diligence sustained in that journey. And when the kinge had established (after possession taken there) all things agreeable to his princely will and pleasure, and furnished the same with noble captaines and men of warr, for the safeguarde of the towne, he returned againe into England, taking with him diverse noble personnages of Fraunce, being prisonners, as the duke Longeuville ', and viscount Clearemount,

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? Passed the seas.] 30th June, 1513.
3 Yielded.] Terouenne surrendered on the 22nd August.

Of fine force.] “ Now this contention is easily borne ; for the one part, of fine force, must give place.” Sir Thomas Smith in Strype's Life of Sir T. S. Appendix, p. 90, edit. 1698. “ Heaven and happiness eternal is to Entov jevov that which is joined in issue, to which we are intituled, for which we plead, to which we have right; from whence by injury and treachery we have been ejected, and from whence by fine force we are kept out: for this we do clamare, by the Clergy, our Counsel, in the view of God and Angels.” Montague's Diatribe upon Selden's History of Tithes, p. 130. 5 Returned.] Henry arrived at Richmond, 24th October.

Longeuville.] Louis d'Orléans, duke of Longueville, whose captivity was more useful to his country than his arms would have been if successful, for he procured peace by negociating the marriage of Louis XII. with Mary, Henry's sister.


with other, which were taken there in a skirmish', like a most

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victorious prince and conqueror. After whose retourne imediatly, the see of Lincolne fell voide by the deathe of doctor Smith late bishop there, the which benefice his grace gave to his almoner, late bishop elect of Tournay, who was not negligent to take possession thereof, and made all the speede he could for his consecration; the solemnization whereof ended, he found the means, that he gat the possession of all his predecessours goods, into his handes, whereof I have diverse times seen some parte that furnished his house. It was not long after that doctor Bambridge, archbishop of York, died at Rome', being there the king's ambassador, unto the which sea, the kinge immediately presented his late new bishop of Lincolne; so that he had three bishopricks in his handes, in one yeare geven him3.


7 Clearemount, with other.] Antoine, Vicomte de Clermont, who afterwards married Anne de Poitiers, the sister of the notorious Duchess of Valentinois. Among the "other" were Bayard, Bussy d'Amboise, La Fayette, &c.

8 Skirmish.] This skirmish was the famous battle of Guinegaste, fought on the 6th of June; called the "Battle of Spurs" by the French them good” allusion to the rapid flight of their cavalry, who deserted their ownme, but Gave to his almoner.] He was consecrated bishop of Lincoln his royall A.D. 1514. Le Neve's Fasti, p. 141.

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1 Died at Rome.] 14th July, 1514; poisoned, as it was instigation of Sylvester de Giglis, bishop of Worcester. Three incle. For Le good felow on the subject of cardinal Bambrigge's death, written by Richard Pany. William Burbank, the cardinal's secretaries, to Henry VIII., are Sir Henry Ellis' Original Letters, first series, vol. i. p. 108—12. 2 So that he had three bishopricks.] Dr. Robert Barnes preached a Se of on the 24th of December 1525, at St. Edward's Church in Cambridge, which Sermon certain Articles were drawn out, upon which he was soon after called to make answer before the Cardinal. Barnes has left behind him a description of this examination. The sixth of the Articles was as follows. "I wyll never beleeve that one man may be, by the lawe of God, a Byshop of two or three cities, yea of an whole countrey, for it is contrarye to St. Paule, which sayth, I have left thee behynde, to set in every citye a Byshop.”

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"I was brought afore my Lorde Cardinall into his Galary," (continues Dr. Barnes) "and there hee reade all myne articles, tyll hee came to this, and there he stopped, and sayd, that this touched hym, and therefore hee asked me, if I thought it wronge, that one byshop shoulde have so many cityes underneath hym; unto whom I answered, that I could no farther go, than to St. Paules texte, whych sat in every cytye a byshop. Then asked hee mee, if I thought it now unright (seeing the ordinaunce of the Church) that one byshop should have so many cities. I aunswered that I knew none ordinaunce of the Church, as concerning this thinge, but St. Paules saying onelye. Nevertheles I did see a contrarye custom and practise in the world, but I


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