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nected with the prosperity of manufactures; yet it does not appear that there is any violent or general alarm among landholders and farmers. The danger ot lofs and disadvantage to these, though as certain to them as to the manufacturers, is more distant and circuitous.

FORTIFICATIONS. In the midst of an affected æconomy, ministry, in order to humour the whim, and give employment to the plodding and restless genius of the Duke of Richmond, have resolved to lay our large, we had almost faid immense fums in fortifications. Forts are to be built on the banks of the lakes of Canada, for the protection of our trade with the Indians. This is to compensate for the easy and impolitic cession of the passes into Canada tožthe North Americans. The Irish nation, at a time when they did not carry their heads fo high as they now do, about half a century ago, built a magazine at Dublin. Dr. Swift, on that occalion, for the lait time, exercised his genius for fatyr.

" Behold a proof of Irish sense!

66 Here Irish fenfe is seen,
• When nought is left that's worth defence,

“ We build a magazine !" But the works at Plymouth and Portsmouth portend very serious evils to this country. At a moderate computation, they will require garrisons amounting to 40,000 men. Magazines must be erected and stored with 40,000 rations of provisions. This sacrifice is really too coftly a gratification to any peer of France, Scotland, or England.

Secondly, These works are by no means necessary for the defence of Britain, which consists in its navy, militia, and the native spirit of the people.

Thirdly, It is pernicious, .in as much as it tends to divert our force from the poits in which it may be most advantageously exerted, and to weaken the resources of the nation in case of invasion. As the great bulwark of Britain is her navy, and as that is supported by commerce, commerce should be the great object of our care and sedulous attention. If that is protected, new works at Plymouth and Portsmouth will be needless : if it is not, they will not avail. And, of the present administration, future political historians, perhaps, may affert, that it was a poor compensation for their commercial conceifions to Ireland, that they erected new fortifica. tions at our principal dock-yards. In general, the idea of taking shelter within walls and ditches, is new to the British nation, and if fostered, it will naturally diminish, in proportion to its growth, the bold confidence of the English militia, and British seamen.

Again. If our whole confidence be not, as heretofore, placed in the navy, and the spirit of the people, and we fhould begin to think of resisting an enemy within wails and trenches, fuc fortifications will become neceísary all over the island. For there are


many other places where an invading army might land, besides Plymouth and Portsmouth. Britain presents an extended coast, and France can pour

in upon us most numerous armies. If we do not oppose their entrance into the island, they might over-run, and, perhaps, finally subdue it. We have no frontier towns to protect us, no internal fortreiles to protract our fall and to keep our fate in fufpense : opposed like the Grecians to the innumerable armies of Perfia, we must fight the hereditary foes of our native land at the straits of Thermopylæ. The Thermopyla of England is the British Channel. This the grand buiwark which the hand of nature has formed for our protection!

CONTINENT OF EUROPE. Appearances still lead us to believe, that peace will be foon settled between the Dutch and the Emperor. The Names of war in Europe will, in all probability, first break out on the confines of Turkey and Russia. The Turks, like other conquerors, are more successful, it would seem, in offensive than in defensive war. The fury of enthusiasm, which gives ardour to a sudden attack, subsides under the fatigues of fieges and hostile invasion. The celerity with which, in the seventh and eighth centuries, they extended their power from the Perfian Gulph to the Straits of Gibraltar, was prodigious: but, in their turn, they have been at different times humbled, by the inroads of the Trırtars and Persians; and, about a century ago, their very existence as a nation was threatened with annihilation, by a small state, at present but little heard of in the world. In the year 1687, the Venetians, under the conduct of their captain general Morosini and the count Coningiec, reduced under their authority the city of (Corinth, and, foon after, the whole of the Morea. Hence they pussed into Scio, and alarmed Cyprus, Rhodes, and the rest f the inland s in the Ægean Sea. At last they threatened to break through the Dardanelles, and even to storm the seat of the Ottoman empire. And this they probably would have accomplished, if the Pope had encou raged their ardour by absolving, which was the condition they requi red, certain religious houses from their vows, and annexing them to the republic in favour of the common cause of Christianity. But this condition the pope, Innocent XI. who was a Milanese, and more ai tached to the natural enemy of Venice, the emperor, than to the republic, refused to grant ; and the Venetians, whose martial spirit was tempered, as might be expected in the conduct of noble merchants, with some regard to loss and gain, degíted from their enterprize. In the space of little more than twenty years after these transactions, the courage of the Turks was stimulated by the successes of their ally Lewis XIV. to carry the war into the seat of their enemies, and the Y made themselves masters of the island of Candia. So true it is of the Turks, what Livy, an historian not lefs profound than elegant, affirms of mankind in general, that there is naturally more energy ar d spirit in the affailants than in the defendants. Should the enthufi asm of the Turks be by any incident revived, it might make a successful fally at least upon the overbearing power of the Ruffans.

Although GOVERNOR HASTINGS. Although no illuminations have exprefied the congratulations of his countrymen; this month is distinguished by the return of Mr. Hastings from India, who uniting the moit profound qolicy with the utmost vigour and proinptitude of action, and nobiy exceeding his delegated powers, as occation required, in the midit of Au&tuating councils and the civil convulsions of a dismembered empire, preserved to his country, as if in spite of herielf, the nobleit dependency any nation did or can poffeís. A celebrated orator, who in the ardour of emulation, propoled to himself as a subject of imiation the brightest example of Roman eloquence, looked about like the Roman patriot for some peculating pro-consul, on whom he might pour out the bitterett invective, and thought he had found one in Mr. Hastings. The governor general of Bengal returns to confront his precipitate accuser, and with an erect front, seems to reply to all the studied harangues of the orator, you are deuirous, Sir, of appearing a Cicero, but you have not found in me a VERRES'

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*** The conclusion of our account of Dr. Priestley's Letters to Dr. Horsley is unavoidably postponed to a future number.

+i+ Title, Contents, and Index, to Vol. V, of the English Review will be given in our next.

*** Communications for this Review are desired to be transmitted to Mr. MURRAY, Bookfeller, No. 32, Fleet-ftreet, London ; where Jubscribers are requested to give in their names,

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Winckelman, account of 49 BALFOUR, Dr. his

Treatise on the
Absorbent System, History of 251 Influence of the Moon in Fevers
Account of Rullian hospitality

of the celebrated Linnæus Bannister's Reports

338 Barker, William, his Treatise on Hair-
Addrefs to pregnant Ladies, and others, dressing
by Mrs. Lane

149' Battle of Marathon, Description of 94
Address to Bryan Edwards, Esq. 260 Beauties of Captain Cook's Voyages,
Adelaide a Novel

Adventures of a Petticoat Pensioner 231 Bellamy, G. A. Apology for the Life
Aerial Voyage, account of, by Vincent of
146 Belmont Grove, a Novel

Atrofiatic Globes, hints of uses from, Berkeley, Dr. his Danger of Innovations
146 in the State

Aerostatiun, History and Practice of by Billy Brass, a political Hudibraftic 308

366 Biographical Dictionary
Air Balloon, a Poem

366 Birth-day Conversation anticipated 389
American Cruelty displayed 272

Bishop of Landaff, his Collection of
Analomy, System of

Theological Tracts

Andrews, Dr. John, his Letters to a Blackstone, Judge, his Opinion of Juries
young Nobleman

Animal Oeconomy, Observations on by Bonds of Resignation, Thoughts on
Dr. Gardiner

Anna, a Novel

420 Boswell's Letter to the people of Scoto
Annual Register, new one
124 land

Answer to Defence of the Perthshire Boys, Mrs. the Coalition, a Novel by

Anti-Christ, History of

316. Brief Account of a Seminary at Mar-
Apology for che Life of G. A. Bellamy 81


Appendix 10 Thoughts on Executive British Coinage, remarks on


473 Bruce, Rev. Jean, his first Principles of
Archdeacon of St. Albans, his Letters Philosophy

in reply to Dr. Priestley

105 Bucbannan, George, becomes an enemy
Archimedes, saying of his

to Mary Queen of Scots

Asylum for fugitive Pièces in Prose and Buffon's natural History of Minerals

64, 289
Attempts to prove the Existence of a
Supreme Being


Atwood's Treatise on Rectilinear Mo-
96 CAMILLA, a Nove!

Axthentic Letter from a disconfolate Carmelite, a Tragedy by Cumberland
Member of Parliament to his Son 72

Exo. REV. Vol. V.



Case of the Rev. Dr. Harwood 148 Rufia, 205; of the Confruction of
Casket, a Novel,

74 Roads in ditto, 205; of a Ruflian
Cavallo's History of Aeroftation

Village, 206; of the Castle and
Charafters, of our Saviour and Maho- Palace of Cronberg, 340 ; of the

med contrasted, 9; and Office of Parting of the Queen of Denmark
Judges explained, 38; of Mary Q. and her Child

of Scots,

213 Dialogues, between a Juftice and a Far-
Charge to the Grand Jury at Calcutta 38 mer, 146; between Dr. Johnson and
Children's Friend, from the French Dr. Goldsmith in the Shades, 199;
129 concerning the Ladies

Children, Treatise on the Diseases of Dialogue between the Earl of C-

148 and Mr. Garrick in the Elysian
Chirurgical and Medical Fragments, by Shades

Sir Willian Fordyce

454 Digby, Lord, excellent character of
Coalition, a Nove!, by Mrs. Boys 473


Colleftion of Theological Tracts, by the Discourse, by Sir William Jones, on in
Bishop of Landaif

32 ftituting the Afiatic Society at Cala
Collins's Peerage, Supplement to 40 cuita, 37; by Sir Jothua Reynolds to
Commerce of France, more advantageous the Students of the Royal Academy,
to Englad than any other

Commercial Regulation with Ireland ex- Discourses, three, addressed to the Con-
469 gregation at Maze Pond

Committee of Tea Dealers, iheir Nar- Disease Epidemie, of 1775, account of 35

228 Disney, Dr. his Memoirs of Dr. Sykes,
Communications, Medical

Comparison of the Beginnings of Maho. Dispute between Great-Britain and Ire-
metan and Chriftian Religions 8 land, Reflections on

Complete Constable

230 Difentions in Royal Society, narrative
Considerations on National Debt and Re. of

venue, 74; Sur L'Ouverture de L'El. Doxirine of a Providence, a Sermon by
caut, by Linguet

462 the Rev. George Walker, F. R. S.
Contests in Royal Society, Observations

43 Draining Peat Bogs, Essay on 73
Cook, Captain, Voyages, Beauties of 150 Dramatic History of Mafter Edward,
Coxe's Travels into Poland, Russia, Swe- Miss Anne, &c.

der, and Denmark


Du Mitand, Mr, his new French Spel-
Crashaw, Richard, his Poety 315

ling Book

Crauford, George, Esq. his Eflay on the
Finances of Great Britain


Creation, a Poem, by the Rev. Samuel

196 EDWARD, Bryan, Efq. Address to
Criticisms on the Rolliad, a Poem

Cronberg, Description of the Castle and Efficacy of Opium in Venereal Come
Palace of


Cullen, Die William, his Inftitution of Effects of the Plague on Birds and in.


Cumberland, Mr. his Tragedy of the Eironiclastes, or a Cloud of Facts againit
Carmelite, 14; his Comedy of the a Gleam of Comfort

Natural Son

277 Elegy to the Memory of Capt. James


to the Memory of Dr. Johnson

DANGER of violent Innovations Elements of Nature, 230; of Medicine,
in the State

Debate in the House of Commons on Emigrant, a Poem

parliamentary Reform

471 Emperor's claim for navigating the
Defence of Opposition, 394 ; of the An- Scheldt

swer to the Perthshire Resolutions 340 England, Remarks on the landed and
Deformity of the Doctrine of Libels and commercial Policy of

Informations ex officio

230 England's Alarm on the Doctrine of
Demoniad, a poetic Epiftle 388 Libels, as laid dowa by Lord Mans-
Description of a Russian Entertainment, : field

21; of the mode of travelling in



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